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Motivation and Student-Centered Learning

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					           Making Connections:
Brain-Based Learning and the Art of Teaching

    You have brains in your head
    You have feet in your shoes
    You can steer yourself any
    direction you choose!
                      Dr. Suess




    Lori Walker                    Rick Stepp-Bolling
    The Developmental Education
    Faculty Certification Program

   Three Modules
   Eight Weeks each
   16 Hours of In-Class Time and 32 Hours of
    Outside Class Time
   Each Module=2 Units of Crossover Credit
    Module One: Philosophy and
    Definitions of Developmental
              Education

   Brain-Compatible Learning
   Student-Center Learning
   Multiple Intelligences
   Emotional Intelligences
   Learning Styles
    Module Two: Facilitating a
    Developmental Education
  Approach within the Classroom

 Problem-Based   Learning
 Project-Based Learning
 Infusion of Study Skills into the Content
  Areas
 Classroom Assessment Techniques
Module Three: Introduction to Learning
Communities and Developing a Holistic
   Developmental Approach to the
            Classroom

 Introduction to Learning Communities
 Creation of a Learning Community Using
  DE Principles
Brain Basics 101
           Today’s Outcomes
 Understandthe Research Foundation for
 Brain-based/Student-Centered Learning

 Learn,Understand and Apply Effective
 Brain-based Practices Used in the
 Classroom Setting
Check-In
       Brain-based/
 Student-Centered Learning

How do YOU currently define:

   developmental education?

  developmental   learners?
 Defining our perspective...
Developmental education is a field of practice
and research within higher education with a
theoretical foundation in developmental
psychology and learning theory. It promotes the
cognitive and affective growth of all
postsecondary learners, at all levels of the
learning continuum. Developmental education is
sensitive and responsive to the individual
differences and special needs among learners.
         -Adopted from NADE (National Association of Developmental Educators)
Remedial vs. Developmental
    Remedial Perspective                  Developmental Perspective
   Focuses on the skills that need to       Focuses on how the learner
    be learned                                learns
   Assumes that students lack certain       Assumes students are at a
    skills, and are at one particular         variety of levels simultaneously
    level
   Considers only the cognitive             Considers the cognitive and
    dynamic of learning                       affective dynamics of learning
   Includes outside services designed       Includes outside services
    to meet only the cognitive needs of       designed to meet the cognitive
    students                                  and affective needs of students
   Focuses on learning strategies           Focuses on the development of a
    related to the specific skills that       variety of learning strategies
    need to be learned
   Helps students master specific           Helps students master their
    academic skills                           educational/life goals and
                                              objectives
Developmental Student Profile
Based on the DE Definition, developmental
education at Mt. San Antonio College empowers
students to become independent learners by:
    1. Controlling their own learning
       • Students can explain how they learn (metacognition)
       • Students take responsibility for their own learning
       • Students possess effective learning tools (e.g. self-
         assessment)

    2. Persisting in achieving their educational and life
goals
       • Students clarify their own academic/learning/life objectives
       • Students arrive at realistic goals
Developmental Student Profile,
          Cont.
 3. Gaining academic skills
     • Students possess skills in reading, writing, math, speaking
       and study skills
     • Students are technologically proficient in basic software use

 4. Achieving affective awareness and growth
     • Students understand/tolerate diverse academic cultures and
       systems
     • Students possess improved academic self-confidence
     • Students are intrinsically motivated to learn
The Reptilian Brain: the "Preverbal" Brain




 The oldest and smallest region in the evolving human brain.

 Controls life itself, such as autonomic brain and heart actions.
 Impulses are deeply instinctual and ritualistic.
 Concerned with basic survival needs, e.g., temperature,
  nourishment, sleep, and etc.
  _________________________________________________

     Oxygen to the brain and body is the primary function
                    of the reptilian system.
  The Limbic Brain: the "Emotional" Brain




 Common to all mammals, it developed about 60 million years ago.
 Acts as the brain's emotion factory.
 Activated by music and colors.
 Stores all memory information.


The Reticular Activating System (RAS) will require its needs to be met
 before the rest of the brain is “available” for higher order functions.
  Retention of information can be significantly increased when it's
             presented in an emotionally charged context!
The Neocortex Brain: the "Thinking" Brain




  Constitutes five-sixths of the total brain mass, which has
   evolved over the last million years, to produce the human brain.

  Controls such high-level processes as logic, creative thought,
   language, and the integration of sensory information.

  The Neocortex is divided into the left and right cerebral
   hemispheres, described in Left/Right Brain Theory.


                  This is the “motherlode”!
So…




...who

 cares?
      Brain-based Learning and Education

                      Traditional education was designed for
                      neocortex functions. However, this misses a
                      basic brain fact: the reptilian brain is an
                      interconnected pathway to the limbic brain
                      which is an interconnected pathway to the
                      neocortex -- you can’t skip a brain
                      function!
Brain-based learning experiences pay attention to the power of
the whole brain by simultaneously:
• Responding to the learner's physical and sensory needs
• Creating activities that link emotions to the acquisition of new
  information
• Designing curriculum that requires students to form their own
  knowledge/meaning
“You can either have your learner’s
attention, or they can be making
meaning -- but never both at the
same time.”
                   Jensen (1998)
How can you create a truly brain-based/
student-centered learning environment?

   CreateClass/Team Norms BEFORE
    any work is introduced
             Class Norms
   Use our names when we speak and introduce
    ourselves -- nametags at first until we know
    one another
   Have one person each week share a great
    moment in her/his week
   Snacks/beverages permitted – optional to
    bring some to share 
   Be respectful, prepared and ready to
    participate
   Change seats on a regular basis
   One make-up assignment
   Cell phones on silent
How can you create a truly brain-based/
student-centered learning environment?

   Create Class/Team Norms BEFORE
    any work is introduced
   Get them up and moving every 12-15
    minutes
     Now It’s Your Time to
       Make Meaning!

 Drawa picture of what Brain-Based
 Learning looks like to you!
         Now It’s Your Time to
           Make Meaning!


 Finda partner who is currently the
 FARTHEST AWAY from you in the
 room and tell your partner two things
 you have learned thus far that you didn’t
 already know.
How can you create a truly brain-based/
student-centered learning environment?

  Create Class/Team Norms BEFORE any
   work is introduced
  Get them up and moving every 12-15
   minutes
  Create environments where they can
   teach one another, i.e., the jigsaw
   classroom
         The Jigsaw Classroom
   Students form Expert Groups, each of whom has
    been given the same assigned topic to study.
   Together, expert partners study their topic and plan
    effective ways to teach important information to
    their peers.
   Participants in the Expert Groups go out and form
    new, Cooperative Groups.
   Each expert takes responsibility for sharing their
    expertise with the others in the Cooperative Group.
How can you create a truly brain-based/
student-centered learning environment?
   Create Class/Team Norms BEFORE any
    work is introduced
   Get them up and moving every 12-15
    minutes
   Create environments where they can
    teach one another, i.e., the jigsaw
    classroom
   Allow time for silence (individual
    reflection)
               Learning =
        Conscious + Unconscious
The Learning Pyramid = Levels of Conscious Processing
Silence/Reflection/Meditation = Unconscious Processing


Fact: Meditation/Reflection substantially increases brain activity and
reduces stress levels (cortisol) in the body.
Fact: NASA Astronauts were instructed to daydream 20 minutes twice
a day. Research showed that it increased their ability to create new
solutions and anticipate unexpected situations by more than 40%!
Fact: After doing PET scans of more than 500 common activities,
meditation was found to produce the MOST active brain waves!
         Reflection Questions

When you begin a session, ask:
 What do you already know about this
  topic?
 What do you want to know about this
  topic?

And the reflection…
 What have you learned about this topic?
How can you create a truly brain-based/
student-centered learning environment?
     Create Class/Team Norms BEFORE any
      work is introduced
     Get them up and moving every 12-15
      minutes
     Create environments where they can teach
      one another, i.e., the jigsaw classroom
     Allow time for silence (individual
      reflection)
     Create the structure, release the process
       Worksheet #1: Team Contact List

         Team Member Contact List



Name         Telephone Number (s)   E-Mail Address
                               Worksheet #2: Team Member Grading Criteria
The grade you receive on this project will significantly affect your overall grade in this class. You have all completed a group project, so you all know
how important it is to have clear expectations of one another from the beginning. What are your expectations of one another? What is MOST important?
What percentage of the grade you give one another will each criteria represent? And most importantly, how much will you grade one another if the
criteria is not met? In other words, if someone is absent once, how much will you “dock” from their total 100 points? Tardy? Absent twice? And what
if they don’t do a homework assignment the team has assigned? What if they say they will call (i.e., communicate) and just don’t? What if they say they
will be somewhere, and simply don’t show up? What if they are late with doing their share of the work? Be as SPECIFIC as possible. (NOTE: Choose
a MAXIMUM of five criteria.)

                                                   Team Member Grading Criteria

                            CRITERIA                                       % OF                RESULT OF NOT MEETING CRITERIA
                                                                          GRADE




        As team members, we understand and agree to fulfill the expectations of our fellow team members. We also understand that our grade will be
        reflected in how well we uphold these expectations.
        ___________________________________                                                               ______________________________
        ___________________________________                                                               ______________________________
      Worksheet #3: Team Backwards Planning Timeline

    Step by Step Things to Do   Date you will finish this step

       Turn in Assignment           (Write down date for them)



       Releasing the Process:
     Implications for Educators

“You can either have your learner’s attention,
 or they can be making meaning -- but never
 both at the same time.” Jensen (1998)

 Brain-centered  = student-centered = less
  educator control
 Self-awareness: how much control do you
  need?
 Walking the talk
       Now It’s Your Turn…
 Choose   two things you have learned today
  that you will commit to applying in your
  classroom
 Share your commitments with those at
  your table
       Traditional Paradigm               Emerging
       Paradigm
1. Motivators are external      1. Motivators are internal
2. Aging lowers ability         2. Use it or lose it!
3. IQ is a single-faceted,      3. IQ is a multifaceted, street-
   academic concept                smart concept
4. There are no sex             4. The sexes are wired
   differences                     differently
5. Nurture is the main factor   5. Nature is the main factor
6. Germs cause disease          6. The mind controls disease
7. Diet is unrelated to the     7. Diet influences mental
   brain                           function
8. The brain is seen as a       8. The brain is seen as a
   computer                        pharmacy
9. Memory is retrieval of       9. Memory is construction of
   complete episodes               episodes from pieces of
              Want to Know More?

The Owner's Manual for the Brain: Everyday Applications from Mind-Brain
Research
                                      - Pierce J. Howard, Ph. D.

Active Learning: 101 Strategies to Teach Any Subject
                                      -Mel Silberman
www.jigsaw.org
                                      -The Jigsaw Classroom
The Colour of Happiness
New Scientist Vol 178 Issue 2396 - 24 May 2003, page 44.

Brain Rules
                                      -John Medina

How The Brain Learns
                                      -David A. Sousa
           Where is Rick?

Rick Stepp-Bolling
 Mt San Antonio College
 Learning Assistance Center, 6-150
 Telephone: (909) 594-5611, ext.
  4303
 E-Mail: EStepp-
  Bolling@MtSAC.edu
Thank you.

				
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