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					Number       Word       Upriver Halkomelem                                              Upriver Halkomelem #
         0                                                                         20           0
         1   all                                                                                1
         2   ashes      šxʷ=yoƚ-təl {shxwyélhtel ~ shxwiyélhtel}                                1
         3   bark       pʼɛl-y-íːws ~ pʼəl-y-íws {p'alyíːws~ p'alyíws~ p'elyíws}                1
         4   belly                                                                              1
         5   big        híkʼʷ {híkw}                                                            1
         6   bird       maːqʷ {mó:qw}                                                           1
         7   bite       qʼiːkʼʷ {q'i:kw' ~ q'éykw'}                                             1
      8      black       qʼíxʸ {q'éyx}                                                         1
      9      blood                                                                             1
     10      bone        s=θʼáːm {sth'ó:m}                                                     1
     11      breast (chest)                                                                    1
     12      burn tr.    yəqʷ-t {yéqwt}                                                        1
     13      claw (nail)                                                                       1
     14      cloud                                                                             1
     15      cold        xʸíːƛʼ {xí:tl' ~ xéytl}                                               1
     16      come                                                                              1
     17      die         qʼáːy ~ qʼáy {q'ó:y ~ q'óy}                                           1
     18      dog                                                                               1
     19      drink       qáː-qə- {qó:qe}                                                       1
     20      dry                                                                               1
     21      ear         qʼʷóːl {qw'ô:l}                                                       1
     22      earth                                                                             1
     23      eat         ləpʼ-əxʸ {lep'ex}                                                     1
     24      egg                                                                               1
     25      eye                                                                               1
     26      fat n.     s=láːs ~ s=lás {sló:s ~ slós}                                          1
     27      feather                                                                           1
     28      fire                                                                              1
     29      fish       s=θáːqʷi {sth'ó:qwi ~ sth'óqwi}                                        1
     30      fly v.     ɬáːkʼʷ ~ ɬákʼʷ {lhó:kw' ~ lhókw'}                                      1
     31      foot                                                                              1
     32      full       sə=ləc' ~ s=ləc' {selíts' ~ slíts'}                                    1
     33      give                                                                              1
     34      good                                                                              1
     35      green                                                                             1
     36      hair                                                                              1
     37      hand                                                                              1
     38      head                                                                              1
     39      hear       cʼɬɛ-əm ~ c'ɛɬ-əm ~ cʼɬ-ɛːm {ts'lhà:m}                                 1
     40 heart                                                                                  1
     41      horn       θʼís-təl {th'istel}                                                    1
     42      I1         cəl {-tsel}                                                            1
     42      I2         tɛ=ʔɛlθɛ                                                               2
     43      kill       qʼáːy-t ~ qʼáy-t {q'ó:yt ~ q'óyt}                                      1
     44      knee       s=qəpʼ-áːlθəl-təl {sqep'ó:lthetel}                                     1
     45 know            tál {tól}                                                              1
     46 leaf            s=cʼaːɬɛ ~ s=cʼaɬɛ {sts'o:lha ~ sts'olha}                              1
47   lie        kʼʷɛq {kw'aq}                                       1
48   liver      s=cəlːəm {stsél:ém}                                 1
49   long                                                           1
50   louse                                                          1
51   man        s=wíːq-ə {swí:qe}                                   1
52   many                                                           1
53   meat       s=mɛyəθ {sméyeth}                                   1
54   moon       s=kʼʷəxʸ-áːs ~ s=kʼʷxʸ-áːs {skw'exó:s ~ skw'xó:s}   1
55   mountain                                                       1
56   mouth      θáːθəl ~ θáθəl {thó:thel ~ thóthel}                 1
57   name       s=kʷíːxʸ ~ s= kʷíxʸ {skwí:x – skwíx}                1
58   neck                                                           1
59   new                                                            1
60   night                                                          1
61   nose                                                           1
62   not        ôwé {owe}                                           1
63   one                                                            1
64   person     məstíyəxʷ {mestíyexw}                               1
65   rain       s=ɬəm-əxʷ {lhéméxw}                                 1
66   red        c=kʷíːm {tskwí:m}                                   1
67   road                                                           1
68   root       kʷəmləxʷ {kwémléxw}                                 1
69   round      xʸəlákʼʷ ~ xʸəláːkʼʷ {xelókw'~ xeló:kw'}            1
70   sand       s=yíːcʼ-əm {syí:ts'em}                              1
71   say                                                            1
72   see                                                            1
73   seed                                                           1
74   sit                                                            1
75   skin                                                           1
76   sleep      ʔítət {ítet}                                        1
77   small      ʔexʷíl {axwíl}                                      1
78   smoke      s=pʼáːƛ-əm ~ s=pʼáƛ-əm {sp'ó:tl'em ~ sp'ótl'em}     1
79   stand                                                          1
80   star       kʷásəl {kwósel}                                     1
81   stone                                                          1
82   sun                                                            1
83   swim       tʼíc-əm {t'ítsem}                                   1
84   tail                                                           1
85 that                                                             1
85   that       ƛʼá ~ ƛʼa {tl'ò ~ tl'o)                             3
86   this       təi ~ təʔi {tei ~ te'i}                             1
87   thou                                                           1
88   tongue     təxʷθəɬ {téxwthelh}                                 1
89   tooth      yəlːəs {yél:és}                                     1
90   tree                                                           1
91   two                                                            1
92   walk (go) ʔim-əx {imex}                                        1
93   warm (hot) qəw {qew}                                           1
94   water      qaː {qo:}                                           1
95   we         tɛ=ɬlíməɬ {talhlímelh}                              1
 96   what                                                                           1
 97   white                                                                          1
 98   who                                                                            1
 99   woman                                                                          1
100   yellow                                                                         1
101   far      čáːkʷ ~ čákʷ {chó:kw ~ chókw}\Xc                                      1
102   heavy                                                                          1
103   near     s=tə=təs {stetis}                                                     1
104   salt                                                                           1
105   short    c'íːƛ ~ c'íƛ {ts'í:tl' ~ ts'ítl'}                                     1
106   snake                                                                          1
107   thin1    θʼəθʼəm-íːl {th'eth'emí:l}                                            1
107   thin2    qʷəʔiqʷ {qwe'íqw}                                                     1
108   wind                                                                           1
109 worm       s=θʼək'ʷ {sth'ékw'}                                                   1
110 year       s=yílál-əm ~ s=iláːl-əm ~ s=ilál-əm {syílòlèm ~ siló:lém ~ sílòlèm}   1
          Island Halkomelem
Upriver Halkomelem notes                                                Island Halkomelem notes
                                                           Island Halkomelem #
                                                        20
Compiled and annotated by E. Barreiro. {Sources: Galloway 2009.} 0 Compiled and annotated by E. Barreiro. {Sources: Gerdts 199
                                                                     1 Gerdts 1997:
Galloway 2009: 312. Free root. Polysemy: 'all / every'. Adjective / adjectival verb. 28.
                                                                     2 / cinders (heavy Secondary embersʼ.
Galloway 2009: 1050. Resultative stem. Polysemy: 'ashes (cinder-like)Gerdts 1997: 40. and dirty) / synonym:Secondary synonym:
          yəqʷmín                                                                                                           [Gerdts 1997
          pʼəliʔ                                                     1 Gerdts 1997: two
Galloway 2009: 402. Derived form. Meaning glossed as 'bark (of any tree)'. The last52. morphemes should probably be analyzed as
          kʼʷəle                                                     1 Gerdts
Galloway 2009: 182. Probably a nominal root. Polysemy: 'belly / stomach'. 1997: 13. Polysemy: 'belly / stomach'.
          θi                                                          (of floodwater)'.
Galloway 2009:101. Free root. Polysemy: 'be big / be large / be high2 Gerdts 1997: 24.
Galloway 2009: 340. Free root. Meaning glossed as 'larger bird (any2 Gerdts 1997: waterfowl, the collective plural: sqʼʷəl-qʼʷəl-eš . G
          s=qʼʷəleš                                                   kind, generic), 5. Cf. also duck'. Noun.
                                                                     2 Gerdts 1997: smth., smbd.'. Synonym:
Galloway 2009: 485. Root. Transitive verb qʼiːk'ʷ-ət {q'i:kw'et~q'éykw'et} 'bite into 88. Meaning glossed as 'bite it' (transitive verb; -
          qʼʷət                                                                                                                  ~
          c=qʼíxw
Galloway 2009: 484. Bound root. Derived forms of the root are used1as a modifier for other color terms. Cf. the verbal stem: c=qʼixʸ
                                                                        Gerdts 1997: 111.
Galloway 2009: 746. Probably a nominal bound root or stem. Morphological analysis: s= is a nominalizer; [-θə-] is a resultative or c
          θəyʼθiʔənʼ                                                  1 Gerdts 1997: 13.
Galloway 2009: 633. Nominal root. Root θʼáːm is not attested as free form; s= is a 13.
          s=θʼamʼ                                                     1 Gerdts 1997: nominalizer [Galloway 2009: 797].
          s=ʔ=inəs                                                    1 Gerdts 1997: thorax)'; s= on nominalizer; -iːləs '(on the mo
Galloway 2009: 117. Derived nominal. Meaning glossed as 'chest (human or animal 13. See notesis a Upriver Halkomelem forthe) ch
Galloway 2009: 1032. Transitive verb, formed from the correspondingGerdts 1997:yəqʷ Meaning glossed asof the intransitive verb is
          yəqʷ-t                                                      1 intransitive 89. {yéqw }. Meaning 'to burn it, to light a fire,
Galloway 2009: 538. Derived form. Polysemy: 'fingernail /claw'. Morphological analysis acc. to Galloway: possibly from the root qʼʷ
                                                                      1 Gerdts 1997: 14. See notes on Upriver Halkomelem for possib
                                                                      1 Gerdts for going
Galloway 2009: 745. Derived nominal; literal meaning is probably 'something1997: 40. dark' or 'something to become getting darkʼ.
          šxʷʔeθət-ən
                                                                      1 food, 1997: 24.
Galloway 2009: 996. Free root. Meaning glossed as 'Be cold (of water,Gerdts weather, ground, etc.)'. Adjective / adjectival verb.
          mí                                                          1 Gerdts p.c.
Galloway 2009: 331-332. Polysemy: 'come / begin'. Preposition / prepositional verb.
          qʼay                                                        1 Gerdts 1997: 102.
Galloway 2009: 494. Free root. Polysemy: 'die, be dead / be paralyzed'. Intransitive verb.
          s=qʷəm-ey                                                     Gerdts 1997: qʷəm
Galloway 2009: 517. Derived stem; according to Galloway, contains1the bound root 149. - 'soft'.
Galloway 2009: 454. Free root qaː 'water'; -qə- is a derivational infix.Gerdts 1997:verb.
          qaʔ-qaʔ                                                     1 Intransitive 75.
                                                                      1 Gerdts 1997: 75
Galloway 2009: 57. Free root. Meaning glossed as 'be dry, get dry, to dry'. Intransitive verb.
          qʼʷuːnʼ
Galloway 2009: 546. Free root.                                        1 Gerdts 1997: 13. Alternate variant: qʼʷənənʼ [Gerdts 1997: 13
                                                                      1
Galloway 2009: 681. Polysemy: 'earth / ground / land / world'. Noun. Gerdts 1997: 38. Polysemy: 'land / earth / world'.
Galloway 2009: 220. Transitive verb (-əxʸ is a purposeful control transitivizer). The stem
                                                                      2 Gerdts p.c.                - is transitive; ʔəɬtən is the intransi
          tʼɵ
Galloway 2009: 318. Derived stem. Meaning glossed as 'egg (of bird, fowl)', literally 'many young childrenʼ. Free root
                                                                     2 Gerdts 1997: 26.                                             'child (
          qələmʼ                                                     animal, fish, etc.)'.
Galloway 2009: 436. Free root. Meaning glossed as 'eye (of human, 1 Gerdts 1997: 13. Noun.
                                                                     1 Gerdts 1997: ~ lás
Galloway 2009: 243. Derived nominal. Polysemy: 'fat / greese / lard'. Free root láːs 26. 'be fat'.
          s=nas
          s=ƛqeːn                                                    2 Gerdts 1997: 'something to rotate around in circles'; s= is a n
Galloway 2009: 641. Derived stem. Meaning glossed as 'feather (any kind)', literally14.
          həyqʷ
Galloway 2009: 1032. Polysemy: 'fire / flame'. Free root        'burned, to burn, scorch'.
                                                                     1 Gerdts 1997: 40.
          scəɬtən                                                    2 Gerdts p.c. Generic name for all kinds of salmon.
Galloway 2009: 799. Derived form. Meaning glossed as 'fish (any kind), salmon (any kind), not trout or sturgeon'.
          ɬákʼʷ
Galloway 2009: 286. Free root. Intransitive verb.                    1 Gerdts 1997: 75.
Galloway 2009: 967. Derived nominal. Polysemy: 'leg / foot'; contains Gerdts 1997: 14.s= , the root is probably xʸəl- 'move, move aro
                                                                     1 the nominalizer
Galloway 2009: 225. Meaning glossed as 'be full'. Adjective / adjectival verb. 1997:root: ləcʼ 'fill (of container)' [Gallowayget full224
          ləcʼ                                                       1 Gerdts Free 103. Meaning glossed as 'to be full, to 2009: (o
          ʔam-əst                                                    1 Gerdts p.c. (exact meaning: 'to give it to him/herʼ).
Galloway 2009:11. Free root. Polysemy: 'give / bring'. Intransitive verb.
          ʔəyʼ                                                        fine, better, better (ought to), it would be good if, may it be good
Galloway 2009: 83. Free root. Meaning glossed as 'good, well, nice, 1 Gerdts 1997: 110.
          c=qʷay                                                     1 Gerdts c=qʷ ːy
Galloway 2009: 510. Bound root. Meaning glossed as 'yellow with green' (cf. 1997: 24. 'be yellow, be green' [Galloway 2009: 510]).
          šeʔitən                                                     the head)'; literally 'comes off on the head'.
Galloway 2009: 304. Derived nominal. Meaning glossed as 'hair (of 2 Gerdts 1997: 155.
          celəs
Galloway 2009: 31. Derived nominal.                                  1 Gerdts 1997: 14.
                                                                     1 Gerdts 1997: Morphological analysis acc. to Galloway: s= is
Galloway 2009: 981. Derived form. Meaning glossed as 'head (of any living thing)'. 14.
          cʼeɬəmʼ                                                    1 contains a derivational metathesis. Intransitive verb.
Galloway 2009: 870. Derived form. Root meaning unknown; possibly Gerdts 1997: 99.
              θ
          tʼ eleʔ
Galloway 2009: 765. Morphological analysis: the root is possibly θʼ 1(meaning unknown), the lexical affix -a:la could mean 'contain
                                                                      Gerdts 1997: 14.
          tʼθəys-tən                                                an animal'; literally Polysemy: 'antler / horn'.
Galloway 2009: 790. Derived nominal. Meaning glossed as 'horn of 1 Gerdts 1997: 170.could, perhaps, signify 'something to tack / to
Galloway 2009: 839. Pronoun. Non-subordinate subject. Phonologically this is a suffix, except whereindependentthe verb inCf. cən -
          ʔeɲθə                                                     2 Gerdts p.c. 1st person singular it precedes pronoun. the amb
Galloway 2009: 673. Derived stem. Free root: ʔɛlθɛ ~ ʔɛlθə 'it's me,3 Gerdts 1997: 28. (tɛ is the demonstrative article) [Galloway
          θamʼš                                                     that's me, I do, I am'
Galloway 2009: 494. Purposeful control stem. Meaning glossed as 'killGerdts / smbd. (purposely)'. Transitive verb. Free/root:/ qʼáːy ~
          qʼay-t                                                    1 smth. 1997: 89. Meaning glossed as 'to kill him her it'.
Galloway 2009: 441. Derived nominal. Bound root: qəpʼ 'to cover, to close', s= is the prefix of inalienable possession.
          s=qʼewəm                                                  1 Gerdts 1997: 14.
                   w
          təlʼnəx
Galloway 2009: 698. Bound root. Polysemy: 'know / learn'.          1 Gerdts 1997: 99. Polysemy: 'know / learn'.
          s=cʼaɬaʔ                                                 1 Gerdts 1997: 56.
Galloway 2009: 59. The word is also used as a colour term to specify shades of green. Nominal.
          ɬaqʼəθət
Galloway 2009: 171. Bound root. Meaning glossed as 'lie on one's back'. 2 Gerdts 1997: 81. Meaning glossed as 'to lie down'.
          s=cələm                                                       1 s= ; root meaning
Galloway 2009: 839. Derived form. Possibly contains the nominalizer Gerdts 1997: 14. unknown.
          ƛeqt                                                          1 Gerdts Adjective
Galloway 2009: 809. Free root. Polysemy: '(be) long / tall (of tree, anything)'. 1997: 24. / adjectival verb.
          məšcʼən                                                       1 Gerdts 1997: 35. Meaning glossed as 'head and lice louseʼ.
Galloway 2009: 329. Possibly an unsegmentable root. Meaning glossed as 'human louse: head louse (unclear if animalbodyare includ
                                                                        1 (15 years and up),
Galloway 2009: 640. Derived nominal form. Meaning glossed as 'man Gerdts 1997: 48. male (creature), male ( plants)ʼ. Morpholog
          s=wəyq-eʔ
                                                                        1 of, lots of, much'. Meaning / adjectival verb.
Galloway 2009: 447. Free root. Meaning glossed as 'be many, be a lot Gerdts 1997: 136. Adjective glossed as 'to be lots, many, a lot'.
          s=məyəθ
Galloway 2009: 331. Derived form. Probably bound nominal stem. Root meaning unknown; s= is probably the nominalizer. Polysem
                                                                        1 Gerdts 1997: 1. Polysemy: 'meat / deer'.
          ɬqelʼcʼ
Galloway 2009: 178. Derived nominal. Polysemy: 'moon / month'. 2 Gerdts 1997: 41.
          s=meːnt                                                       1 Gerdts mountain'; s= is the nominalizer, bound root mɛːlt (m
Galloway 2009: 302. Bound nominal root. Polysemy: 'stone / rock (any size) /1997: 41. Polysemy: 'mountain / rock'. Same word as 's
          θaθən
Galloway 2009: 762. Possibly an unsegmentable root.                     1 Gerdts 1997: 167.
                                                                        1 Gerdts 1997: 22. kʷ íːxʸ ~ kʷ íxʸ 'name'.
Galloway 2009: 161. Derived nominal. Meaning glossed as 'personal name'. Bound root(Nanaimo area). Synonym: sne (Chemainus,
          s=kʷíš
Galloway 2009: 664. Unsegmentable root or stem. Meaning glossed 1 Gerdts 1997:of head and back of neck'. Synonym: s=qʷəl-ɬəɬ o
                                                                         as 'neck, back 15.
                                                                        1 Gerdts verb.
Galloway 2009: 960. Free root. Polysemy: 'new / fresh'. Adjective / adjectival 1997: 24.
                                                                        1 root        ~
Galloway 2009: 209. Derived nominal. Formed probably from the freeGerdts 1997: 68. 'to get dark' (s= is the nominalizer).
          s=net
          məqsən                                                        is possibly an "empty" root or a nominalizer +
Galloway 2009: 322. Morphological analysis acc. to Galloway: m= 1 Gerdts 1997: 15.                                           'on the nos
          ʔəwə
Galloway 2009: 286.                                                     1 Gerdts 1997: 28.
          nəcʼaʔ
Galloway 2009: 225. Free root. Numeral.                                 1 Gerdts 1997: 44.
          məstíməxʷ
Galloway 2009: 324. Derived form. Root meaning unknown.                 1 Gerdts 1997: 48.
Galloway 2009: 260. Derived nominal. Literally 'raining' (s= is the nominalizer). Bound root: ɬəm 'drops of liquid, moisture' [Gallow
          s=ɬəm-əxʷ                                                     1 Gerdts 1997: 41.
          c=kʷím                                                        1 Gerdts 1997: reddish-brown, copper-colored'.
Galloway 2009: 159. Stative intransitive verb stem. Meaning glossed as 'be red, red,111.
          šeɬ
Galloway 2009: 899. Free root. Polysemy: 'road / door'.                 1 Gerdts1997: 17. Polysemy: 'road / door / roadway / foot path'.
          kʷəmləxʷ                                                      1 Gerdts kʷəm 57.
Galloway 2009: 154. According to Galloway, could possibly contain the root 1997: 'round'. Nominal.
Galloway 2009: 905. Meaning glossed as 'round, full (of the moon)ʼ. Adjective / adjectival verb. Possibly contains the bound root xʸ
          šəlák'ʷ                                                       1 Gerdts 1997: 25.
          pqʷicən ~ Derived
Galloway 2009: 1045.pqʷəcən nominal form. Root meaning unknown; s= is 1997: 42.
                                                                        2 Gerdts the nominalizer ('something to / that').
Galloway 2009: 977. Continuative stem. Meaning glossed as 'be saying, say, said'. Secondary synonym: qʷɛːl {qwá:l}. Free root. Me
          θət                                                           2 Gerdts 1997: 86.
          ləmnəxʷ
Galloway 2009: 174. Bound root.                                         2 Gerdts 1997: 100. Meaning glossed as 'to see him / her / it'.
          s=pənʼəm
Galloway 2009: 611. Derived nominal. Meaning glossed as 'the planting, seeds to plant, what is planted (sown), garden'. Bound root
                                                                        1 Gerdts 1997: 58.
          ʔəmət                                                         1 Gerdts 1997: 95. Meaning glossed as 'to sit down, to get up (f
Galloway 2009: 351. Probably an unsegmentable root. Meaning glossed as 'sit, sit down, sit up, arise (from lying or sitting),get out of
          kʼʷələwʼ                                                      1 Gerdts 1997: 121.
Galloway 2009: 183. Probably an unsegmentable root. Meaning glossed as 'skin, hide (with / without hair or fur), pelt, sinew'.
          ʔítət                                                         1 asleep'. Intransitive verb.
Galloway 2009: 124. Free root. Meaning glossed as 'sleep, go to sleep,Gerdts 1997: 81.
          ʔəxʷínʼ                                                          Gerdts -il could be
Galloway 2009: 20. Meaning glossed as 'small, little, a little bit'. The1element 1997: 110. an inceptive affix (with the meaning 'go, co
          s=pʼáƛəm
Galloway 2009: 417. Derived nominal; contains the nominalizer s= .1 Gerdts 1997: 42. Polysemy: 'smoke / pipe / cigarette / tobacco'
Galloway 2009: 271. Inceptive stem. Meaning glossed as 'stand up', 1 Gerdts'stiff-get / become-upright'. Morphological analysis: ɬəx
          ɬ -íl-əš                                                      literally 1997: 96.
          kʷasən
Galloway 2009: 164. Unanalyzable stem. Noun, nominal.                   1 Gerdts 1997: 42.
Galloway 2009: 302. Bound nominal root. Polysemy: 'stone / rock (any size) /1997: 41. s= is the nominalizer, bound root mɛːlt, m
          s=meːnt                                                       1 Gerdts mountain';
Galloway 2009: 1036. Derived nominal. The root is yəqʷ {yéqw} 'burn' q.v. [Galloway 2009: 63]; s= is the nominalizer ('something
          səmʼšáθət                                                     2 Gerdts 1997: 42.
Galloway 2009: 736. Middle voice stem. Meaning glossed as 'swim (of a person), swim (with crawl strokes, etc.)'. The affix -əm - is
          tʼíc-əm                                                       1 Gerdts 1997: 96.
Galloway 2009: 819. Meaning glossed as 'tail (of animal, bird)'. The1 Gerdts 1997: 15.Galloway, is possibly ƛəp {tlʼep} 'deep, low,
          š=ƛəpʼ-isnəc                                                   root, according to
          kwθeyʼ
Galloway 2009: 673. Demonstrative pronoun; tə- is the nominalizer 2 Gerdts 1997: 29. 'That (out of sight)'. Used with plain nouns (t
                                                                  (from the demonstrative article).
                  θ
Galloway 2009: 831. Free root or stem. Meaning glossed as 'that's (an animate1997: 29. 'That (in sight)'. Used with plain possibly ƛʼ-
          tey ~ t ey                                                 4 Gerdts being), it's (usually animate)'. The root is nouns (that
          tiʔí
Galloway 2009: 110. Demonstrative pronoun. 'This (speaker is not holding it but is close enough to touch it)'. Synonym (suffixal exte
                                                                     1 Gerdts 1997: 28.
                                                                     1 Gerdts p.c. The form nəwə emphasis/'); tɛ= singular independ
Galloway 2009: 229. Derived stem. The free root is ləwə ('it's you, you are the one, you /focus onis the 2nd person is the nominalizer
          nəwə
Galloway 2009: 690. Derived nominal. The root is possibly t- (meaning unknown) or təxʷ ; the lexical affix could be either -éxwthelh
          təxʷθəɬ                                                    1 Gerdts 1997: 15.
Galloway 2009: 1028. Noun. According to Galloway, possibly contains the lexical affix -ələs 'of the tooth'; ə -Ablaut on the affix co
          yənəs                                                      1 Gerdts 1997: 15.
          θqet                                                       1 Gerdts
Galloway 2009: 749. Free nominal root (may mean something like 'upright'). 1997: 59.
          yəselʼə
Galloway 2009: 121. Free root. Numeral, adjective / adjectival verb.1 Gerdts 1997: 44.
                                                                     1 Gerdts -əx
Galloway 2009: 118. Continuative stem. Bound root ʔim 'step' + lexical affix p.c. 'upright'. Intransitive verb.
          ʔim-əš
                                                                       Gerdts smth. / smbd.'.
Galloway 2009: 444. Bound root. Found in the verb qəw-ət {qewèt}1'to warm1997: 25. Polysemy: 'warm / lukewarm / tepid'. Cf. the
          s=tatəm
          qaʔ
Galloway 2009: 454. Free root. Noun.                                 1 Gerdts 1997: 42.
                                                                     1 Gerdts 1997: 30. The form ɬniməɬ is the 'it person plural inde
Galloway 2009: 286. Derived stem. The prefix tɛ= is the nominalizer (from the demonstrative article); ɬlíməɬ =1st is us, we are the o
          ɬniməɬ
                                                                  1 Gerdts 1997: 150. This word s= + bound root tɛm
Galloway 2009: 623. Meaning glossed as 'what is it?, be what?'. Mophological analysis: nominalizerintroduces a question. 'what?' [G
          s=tem
          pʼəqʼ
Galloway 2009: 407. Free root. Meaning glossed as 'be white'.     1 Gerdts 1997: 25.
          ɬwet
Galloway 2009: 880. Free root. Interrogative verb.                1 Gerdts 1997: 30. This word introduces a question (Chemainus
          s=ɬeniʔ                                                 1 Gerdts 1997: or
Galloway 2009: 275. Derived nominal. Polysemy: 'woman (post-adolescent, 15 yrs. 49.older) / female', literally could perhaps be 'som
Galloway 2009: 510. Bound root. 'Yellow with green' (c= qʷɛːy 'be yellow, be green' [Galloway 2009: 510]). 'dull Oregon-grape'.
          lələcʼ                                                  2 Gerdts 1997: 122. The name comes from
                w
          caːk                                                      far off, way in 93. Meaning glossed adverbial verb.
Galloway 2009: 44. Free root. Meaning glossed as 'far, be far away, 1 Gerdts 1997:the distance'. Adverb /as 'to be far'.
          xʷətəs
Galloway 2009: 931. Free root. Adjective / adjectival verb.         1 Gerdts 1997: 24.
          s=tə=tes                                                    Gerdts be beside, be next glossed as from the free root təs 'a
Galloway 2009: 686. Durative stem. Meaning glossed as 'be near, be1close to, 1997: 95. Meaningto'. Formed 'to be close / to be near'.
          ƛʼeɬəm
Galloway 2009: 808. Derived nominal.                                1 Gerdts 1997: 27.
          ƛeƛíːcʼ
Galloway 2009: 56. Bound root.                                      1 Gerdts p.c.
Galloway 2009: 9. According to Galloway, the root is possibly ʔɛɬqəy ~ ʔɛɬqɛy or, perhaps, ɬɛq 'whisper, hiss' (then -ɛy is possibly
          ʔəɬqiʔ                                                    1 Gerdts 1997: 36.
          cʼəm-íːlʼ                                                 1 Gerdts p.c.
Galloway 2009: 774. Derived form. Meaning glossed as 'thin (of material)' (i.e. 1D).
Galloway 2009: 522. Bound root. Derived form qʷəʔiqʷ-(ə)s 'thin (of tree or pole)' (i.e. 2D).
                                                                    0
          s=pəh-els
Galloway 2009: 372. Derived nominal.                                1 Gerdts p.c.
               θ    w
          s=tʼ 773.
Galloway 2009: əkʼ Derived nominal stem. Polysemy: 'worm / bug'. Probably bound root =θʼəkʼʷ , meaning unknown; s= is the no
                                                                   1 Gerdts 1997: 151.
Galloway 2009: 1029. Derived nominal. The root is possibly yíl 'turn';Gerdts 1977: 69.the intransitivizer ('have, get').
          s=ilʼánəm                                                1 -əm is possibly
annotated by E. Barreiro. {Sources: Gerdts 1997.}

0. Secondary synonym:                 [Gerdts 1997: 40].

3. Polysemy: 'belly / stomach'.

. Cf. also the collective plural: sqʼʷəl-qʼʷəl-eš . Gerdts: "There is no generic word for bird... sqʼʷəleš is sometimes used to mean 'bird' in general, but it spe
8. Meaning glossed as 'bite it' (transitive verb; -ət - is a transitivizer). Secondary synonyms: ɬišət 'to bite it off'; cʼ mət 'to put it in the mouth' [Gerdts 199




3. See notes on Upriver Halkomelem for the morphological structure.
9. Meaning glossed as 'to burn it, to light a fire, to turn it on'.
4. See notes on Upriver Halkomelem for possible morphological structure.




 3. Alternate variant: qʼʷənənʼ [Gerdts 1997: 13].
 8. Polysemy: 'land / earth / world'.
e stem        - is transitive; ʔəɬtən is the intransitive counterpart.




neric name for all kinds of salmon.


03. Meaning glossed as 'to be full, to get full (of container)ʼ.
act meaning: 'to give it to him/herʼ).




70. Polysemy: 'antler / horn'.
person singular independent pronoun. Cf. cən - subject clitic.

9. Meaning glossed as 'to kill him / her / it'.

9. Polysemy: 'know / learn'.
1. Meaning glossed as 'to lie down'.


5. Meaning glossed as 'head and body louseʼ.

36. Meaning glossed as 'to be lots, many, a lot'.
. Polysemy: 'meat / deer'.

1. Polysemy: 'mountain / rock'. Same word as 'stone' q.v.

2. (Nanaimo area). Synonym: sne (Chemainus, Nanoose).




7. Polysemy: 'road / door / roadway / foot path'.




00. Meaning glossed as 'to see him / her / it'.

5. Meaning glossed as 'to sit down, to get out of bed'. Synonym: xʷcʼenʼəcəm 'to sit down' [Gerdts 1997: 95].




2. Polysemy: 'smoke / pipe / cigarette / tobacco' [Gerdts 1997: 148].




9. 'That (out of sight)'. Used with plain nouns (that is, nouns that are not feminine singular nouns). Synonym: ɬeyʼ (used with feminine singular nouns).
9. 'That (in sight)'. Used with plain nouns (that is, nouns that are not feminine singular nouns). Synonym: θeyʼ (used with feminine singular nouns).

e form nəwə is the 2nd person singular independent pronoun; č is the subject clitic.




5. Polysemy: 'warm / lukewarm / tepid'. Cf. the verb qəw 'to be warmed, to be heated' [Gerdts 1997: 104].

0. The form ɬniməɬ is the 1st person plural independent pronoun; ct - is the clitical 1st person plural subject pronoun.
50. This word introduces a question.

0. This word introduces a question (Chemainus, Nanoose). The Nanaimo equivalent is wet [Gerdts 1997: 30].

22. The name comes from 'dull Oregon-grape'.
3. Meaning glossed as 'to be far'.

5. Meaning glossed as 'to be close / to be near'.
metimes used to mean 'bird' in general, but it specifically means only the smaller birds such as songbirds'. The equivalent for 'big bird' is θiθiws ~ θiθəws
off'; cʼ mət 'to put it in the mouth' [Gerdts 1997: 88].
m: ɬeyʼ (used with feminine singular nouns).
eyʼ (used with feminine singular nouns).
he equivalent for 'big bird' is θiθiws ~ θiθəws [ibid.].

				
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