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Measurement

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 35

									                Objectives
• To be able to properly deploy radon and
  radon decay product measurement devices.
• To be able to interpret the results of radon
  and radon decay product measurement
  devices in determining the need for
  mitigation.
• To be able to assess the quality and
  confidence of radon measurements.
• A mitigator must be able to determine if the
  initial radon measurement were conducted
  in accordance with IDNS Measurement
  Protocols. They are required by law to
  report any possible “non-compliance”
  issues to the IDNS.
         MEASUREMENT
        PROTOCOLS IDNS
• Measurement location:
• Short Term or long-term measurement shall
  be made in EACH lowest structural area
  suitable for occupancy.(Example: split-level
  building with basement, slab-on-grade room
  and a room over a crawl space shall have
  measurements made in all of the above.
  MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS
          IDNS
• Measurements SHALL be made in rooms that
  are regularly used, such as family rooms, living
  rooms, dens, playrooms and bedrooms.
• Charcoal canisters of any type SHALL not be
  placed in bathrooms, kitchens, laundry rooms, spa
  rooms or other areas of high humidity.
• Radon in air measurements SHALL be made
  concurrently with or prior to any diagnostic radon
  in water measurements.
  MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS
          IDNS
• MEASUREMENT DEVICES SHALL BE:
• Undisturbed during the test period
• At least three feet from doors, windows to the
  outside, or ventilation ducts, and out of the direct
  flow of air from ventilation ducts.
• At least one foot from exterior walls.
• At least 20 inches to six feet from the floor. Some
  devices can be suspended from the ceiling.
  MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS
          IDNS
• Four inches away from other objects horizontally
  or vertically above the detector;
• Four feet from heat, fireplaces and furnaces, out of
  direct sunlight;
• Measurement devices may be suspended in the
  general breathing zone and, and if suspended,
  shall be at least 20 inches to six feet above the
  floor. Some devices can be suspended from the
  ceiling.
     INITIAL MEASUREMENTS
• THE INITIAL MEASUREMENT SHALL BE A
  SHORT TERM MEASUREMENT THAT MAY
  RANGE IN DURATION FROM 48 HOURS TO
  90 DAYS, DEPENDING ON THE
  MEASUREMENT DEVICE USED.
• Short term measurements SHALL be made under
  closed-building conditions beginning 12 hours
  prior to the start of the test.
•   Definition: Closed Building Conditions-Refer to Illinois Adopted Rule 32, Illinois Administrative Code, Part 422,
    Section 422.130b) A & B
 Bedroom Nightstands or Tables
     Make Good Locations
• ADD GRAPHIC #8?
        Weather Concerns for
         Short-Term Tests
• Tests lasting less than 96 hours shall not be
  conducted during unusually severe storms
  or high winds.
• The National Weather Service defines a
  severe storm as a storm that generates
  winds of 58 mph, and or 3/4 inch diameter
  hail and that may produce tornadoes -- not
  necessarily in that order.
      Measurement Protocols
& Interpretation Depend On Purpose
• Home Environment Testing (IDNS)
• Real Testing Guidelines for Real Estate
  transaction (Rev. 4 (3667)
• Post-mitigation measurements (IDNS)
• Diagnostic measurements (IDNS)
• Schools and large buildings
• Device protocols dictate SOPs
• Home Environment Test refers to a
  homeowner initiated test that is not involved
  in a Real Estate Transaction
         IDNS ADOPTED RULE
• Short Term or long-term measurement shall be made in
  EACH lowest structural area suitable for
  occupancy.(Example: split-level building with basement,
  slab-on-grade room and a room over a crawl space shall
  have measurements made in all of the above.
• Not a closet, bathroom, kitchen, furnace room, storeroom,
  garage, crawl space, attic.
• Bedrooms, family rooms, living rooms, dining rooms are
  ideal, provided they are on the lowest lived-in level.
        What room is tested?
• Bedrooms, family rooms, living rooms,
  dining rooms are ideal, provided they are on
  the lowest lived-in level.
     Follow-Up Measurements
• In same location as the initial test.
• Closed house conditions if follow-up test is
  short-term (i.e..., if initial result is > 10
  pCi/L).
• Normal lived-in conditions if follow-up test
  is a long-term test (i.e..., if initial test was
  between 4 and 10 pCi/L).
Interpretation of Results
     HOME ENVIRONMENT FACTS

• If the initial measurement result is less than 4.0
  pCi/L, follow-up measurements are probably not
  needed.
• Homeowner should test again sometime in the
  future if:
• living patterns change and a lower level becomes
  occupied, lower level should be tested.
• if renovations are made in or near the building
      Interpretation of Results: HOME
              ENVIRONMENT
• If long-term follow-up result is between 4 pCi/L and 9.9
  pCi/l follow up with a long-term test.
• If short-term test if 10pCi/l or greater, follow up with
  another short term test. If second result is confirmatory,
  IDNS recommends mitigation.
• Homes tested using this protocol should never be mitigated
  on the basis of a single short-term test.
   – As a Mitigator it is your responsibility to inform
      homeowner that a confirmation test should be
      conducted if only a single measurement has been made.
 Real Estate Testing - Option 1:
       Sequential Testing
• Insert slide # 16 graphic
      Interpreting Results of Sequential
           Method for Real Estate
• Initial and secondary test placed in same location.
• No requirement that the results of each of the 2
  measurements be the same.
• In fact, some difference is expected because of normal
  variation of radon (diurnal, barometric pressure, rain, etc.).
• Report each result and average of the two for each
  individual level tested. Basement 4.1 and 4.3 = 4.2, Room
  above crawl 2.4 and 2.6 report as 2.3
 Real Estate Testing - Option 2:
     2 Simultaneous Tests
• Insert slide # 18 graphic
          Simultaneous Test
• Two tests, 48 hours or longer, performed at
  the same time.
• Two Detectors, four inches apart, in each
  level of the home in contact with the soil.
     Evaluating Simultaneous Tests
• Calculating the Relative Percent Difference
  provides a measure of confidence:
• Average = Result 1 + Result 2
•            2
• RPD = (Result 1 - Result 2) x 100
•           Average of both results

• Should be within expected limits for type of device
  used.
   Interpreting Simultaneous Real Estate
        Tests: 1 Above and 1 Below
• If one test result is above 4.0 pCi/L and the other is below 4.0 pCi/L,
  and higher one is less than twice the lower one, use results.
• Report individual readings and average.
• Examples:
   – Results of 3 pCi/L and 5 pCi/L are “OK”
   – Results of 3 pCi/L and 7 pCi/L are not OK”
        • Report that test results are outside the acceptable range and
           recommend retest.
   Interpreting Simultaneous Real
   Estate Test: Both Are Above 4.0
• If both tests are above 4.0 pCi/L, a 36% relative percent
  difference is expected. Results used regardless of
  agreement.
• Report results and their average.
• Examples:
   – Results of 7 pCi/L and 8 pCi/L are “OK”
   – Results of 17 pCi/L and 36 pCi/L are a concern
       • Report test results are outside the acceptable range,
         recommend retest.
  Interpreting Simultaneous Real Estate
          Tests: Both Below 4.0
• If both tests are below 4.0 pCi/L, 67% relative percent
  difference (RPD) or better is expected. Results are used
  regardless of RPD.
• Report results and their average.
• Examples:
   – Results of 2 pCi/L and 3 pCi/L are “OK”
   – Results of 1 pCi/L and 3.5 pCi/L are a concern.
       • Report test results are outside acceptable range,
         recommend retest.
 Real Estate Testing - Option 3:
 A Single Continuous Monitor
• Insert slide #24 graphic
    Requirements for Use of Single
   Continuous Monitor for Real Estate
• Single CR, or CW must integrate and record
  hourly or more frequently.
• Monitors that do not record at least hourly must be
  used with another passive or active device using
  either the sequential or simultaneous method.
• First four hours of test may be disregarded, but 44
  contiguous hours required for average.
                Monitor for Real Estate


• Single CR, or CW must integrate and record hourly or more
  frequently.
• Monitors that do not record at least hourly must be used with
  another passive or active device using either the sequential of
  simultaneous method.
• First four hours of test may be disregarded, but 44 contiguous
  hours required for average.
     Ways to Prevent or Detect Tampering
• A print-out of continuous monitor helps detect unusual measurement
  swings.
• Motion detectors can determine if device is moved.
• Record barometric and weather conditions.
• Record room temperatures to assess the opening of windows.
• Specialty tapes on exterior doors and windows can be used to detect
  their being opened.
• Place device in a particular position that handling would be difficult or
  detectable.
• Don’t use devices that provide a read-out to occupant.
• Homeowner agreement with cost consequences.
                       Ethics
• In most states radon measurements represent confidential
  information between tester and client.
• Incorrect protocols Shall be brought to attention of
  ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF NUCLEAR SAFETY
  by filing a non-conformance report.
• Homeowners and clients are not bound to perform follow-
  up measurements, etc. but tester is to advise and
  recommend to client.
Typical Seller’s Property
   Disclosure Form
   » Insert slide #30 graphic
      Post-Mitigation Measurements
       Assess Success of Mitigation
• Perform between 24 hours and 30 days after
  mitigation. Follow same protocols as original test.
• Perform in same location as pre-mitigation tests.
• A minimum short-term test is to be conducted
  with an IDNS “licensed LAB” .
• Long-term testing, and re-testing once every 2
  years to be recommended.
  Diagnostic Measurements Aid the
   Design of a Mitigation System
• Can be continuous monitors to determine
  unusual entry patterns.
• Can be sniffing measurements taken at
  suspected entry points.
• Are interpreted as relative indicators.
• No protocols for interpretation other than
  those associated with the device itself.
    School Testing Protocols - Defacto Protocols for Adopted
            Rule Part 422.130 f. 7) Large Buildings
                 Adopted Rule Part 422.130.f.7
•    Caution: The following information is not a complete guide to perform School
     of Large Building testing. IDNS has additional resources available.
• Slab on grade Design. Measure all frequently-occupied
  rooms in contact with the ground.
• Open-plan or Pod design. If sections of a pod have
  moveable walls that can physically separate them from
  other sections, measure each section separately. If
  moveable walls are absent or inoperable, measure the pod
  as one room placing detectors every 2000 square feet. Or
  as directed by device manufacturer.
    School Testing Protocols - Defacto
      Protocols for Large Buildings
• Crawlspace Design. Measure all rooms directly above an
  enclosed crawlspace.
• Basement Design. In addition to measuring all frequently-
  occupied basement rooms, measure all rooms above the
  basement that have at least one wall with substantial
  contact with the ground.
• Do test: offices, classrooms, gyms, cafeterias, etc.
• Follow all other protocols for specific placement of
  device.

								
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