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Objectives • To be able to properly deploy radon and radon decay product measurement devices. • To be able to interpret the results of radon and radon decay product measurement devices in determining the need for mitigation. • To be able to assess the quality and confidence of radon measurements. • A mitigator must be able to determine if the initial radon measurement were conducted in accordance with IDNS Measurement Protocols. They are required by law to report any possible “non-compliance” issues to the IDNS. MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS IDNS • Measurement location: • Short Term or long-term measurement shall be made in EACH lowest structural area suitable for occupancy.(Example: split-level building with basement, slab-on-grade room and a room over a crawl space shall have measurements made in all of the above. MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS IDNS • Measurements SHALL be made in rooms that are regularly used, such as family rooms, living rooms, dens, playrooms and bedrooms. • Charcoal canisters of any type SHALL not be placed in bathrooms, kitchens, laundry rooms, spa rooms or other areas of high humidity. • Radon in air measurements SHALL be made concurrently with or prior to any diagnostic radon in water measurements. MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS IDNS • MEASUREMENT DEVICES SHALL BE: • Undisturbed during the test period • At least three feet from doors, windows to the outside, or ventilation ducts, and out of the direct flow of air from ventilation ducts. • At least one foot from exterior walls. • At least 20 inches to six feet from the floor. Some devices can be suspended from the ceiling. MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS IDNS • Four inches away from other objects horizontally or vertically above the detector; • Four feet from heat, fireplaces and furnaces, out of direct sunlight; • Measurement devices may be suspended in the general breathing zone and, and if suspended, shall be at least 20 inches to six feet above the floor. Some devices can be suspended from the ceiling. INITIAL MEASUREMENTS • THE INITIAL MEASUREMENT SHALL BE A SHORT TERM MEASUREMENT THAT MAY RANGE IN DURATION FROM 48 HOURS TO 90 DAYS, DEPENDING ON THE MEASUREMENT DEVICE USED. • Short term measurements SHALL be made under closed-building conditions beginning 12 hours prior to the start of the test. • Definition: Closed Building Conditions-Refer to Illinois Adopted Rule 32, Illinois Administrative Code, Part 422, Section 422.130b) A & B Bedroom Nightstands or Tables Make Good Locations • ADD GRAPHIC #8? Weather Concerns for Short-Term Tests • Tests lasting less than 96 hours shall not be conducted during unusually severe storms or high winds. • The National Weather Service defines a severe storm as a storm that generates winds of 58 mph, and or 3/4 inch diameter hail and that may produce tornadoes -- not necessarily in that order. Measurement Protocols & Interpretation Depend On Purpose • Home Environment Testing (IDNS) • Real Testing Guidelines for Real Estate transaction (Rev. 4 (3667) • Post-mitigation measurements (IDNS) • Diagnostic measurements (IDNS) • Schools and large buildings • Device protocols dictate SOPs • Home Environment Test refers to a homeowner initiated test that is not involved in a Real Estate Transaction IDNS ADOPTED RULE • Short Term or long-term measurement shall be made in EACH lowest structural area suitable for occupancy.(Example: split-level building with basement, slab-on-grade room and a room over a crawl space shall have measurements made in all of the above. • Not a closet, bathroom, kitchen, furnace room, storeroom, garage, crawl space, attic. • Bedrooms, family rooms, living rooms, dining rooms are ideal, provided they are on the lowest lived-in level. What room is tested? • Bedrooms, family rooms, living rooms, dining rooms are ideal, provided they are on the lowest lived-in level. Follow-Up Measurements • In same location as the initial test. • Closed house conditions if follow-up test is short-term (i.e..., if initial result is > 10 pCi/L). • Normal lived-in conditions if follow-up test is a long-term test (i.e..., if initial test was between 4 and 10 pCi/L). Interpretation of Results HOME ENVIRONMENT FACTS • If the initial measurement result is less than 4.0 pCi/L, follow-up measurements are probably not needed. • Homeowner should test again sometime in the future if: • living patterns change and a lower level becomes occupied, lower level should be tested. • if renovations are made in or near the building Interpretation of Results: HOME ENVIRONMENT • If long-term follow-up result is between 4 pCi/L and 9.9 pCi/l follow up with a long-term test. • If short-term test if 10pCi/l or greater, follow up with another short term test. If second result is confirmatory, IDNS recommends mitigation. • Homes tested using this protocol should never be mitigated on the basis of a single short-term test. – As a Mitigator it is your responsibility to inform homeowner that a confirmation test should be conducted if only a single measurement has been made. Real Estate Testing - Option 1: Sequential Testing • Insert slide # 16 graphic Interpreting Results of Sequential Method for Real Estate • Initial and secondary test placed in same location. • No requirement that the results of each of the 2 measurements be the same. • In fact, some difference is expected because of normal variation of radon (diurnal, barometric pressure, rain, etc.). • Report each result and average of the two for each individual level tested. Basement 4.1 and 4.3 = 4.2, Room above crawl 2.4 and 2.6 report as 2.3 Real Estate Testing - Option 2: 2 Simultaneous Tests • Insert slide # 18 graphic Simultaneous Test • Two tests, 48 hours or longer, performed at the same time. • Two Detectors, four inches apart, in each level of the home in contact with the soil. Evaluating Simultaneous Tests • Calculating the Relative Percent Difference provides a measure of confidence: • Average = Result 1 + Result 2 • 2 • RPD = (Result 1 - Result 2) x 100 • Average of both results • Should be within expected limits for type of device used. Interpreting Simultaneous Real Estate Tests: 1 Above and 1 Below • If one test result is above 4.0 pCi/L and the other is below 4.0 pCi/L, and higher one is less than twice the lower one, use results. • Report individual readings and average. • Examples: – Results of 3 pCi/L and 5 pCi/L are “OK” – Results of 3 pCi/L and 7 pCi/L are not OK” • Report that test results are outside the acceptable range and recommend retest. Interpreting Simultaneous Real Estate Test: Both Are Above 4.0 • If both tests are above 4.0 pCi/L, a 36% relative percent difference is expected. Results used regardless of agreement. • Report results and their average. • Examples: – Results of 7 pCi/L and 8 pCi/L are “OK” – Results of 17 pCi/L and 36 pCi/L are a concern • Report test results are outside the acceptable range, recommend retest. Interpreting Simultaneous Real Estate Tests: Both Below 4.0 • If both tests are below 4.0 pCi/L, 67% relative percent difference (RPD) or better is expected. Results are used regardless of RPD. • Report results and their average. • Examples: – Results of 2 pCi/L and 3 pCi/L are “OK” – Results of 1 pCi/L and 3.5 pCi/L are a concern. • Report test results are outside acceptable range, recommend retest. Real Estate Testing - Option 3: A Single Continuous Monitor • Insert slide #24 graphic Requirements for Use of Single Continuous Monitor for Real Estate • Single CR, or CW must integrate and record hourly or more frequently. • Monitors that do not record at least hourly must be used with another passive or active device using either the sequential or simultaneous method. • First four hours of test may be disregarded, but 44 contiguous hours required for average. Monitor for Real Estate • Single CR, or CW must integrate and record hourly or more frequently. • Monitors that do not record at least hourly must be used with another passive or active device using either the sequential of simultaneous method. • First four hours of test may be disregarded, but 44 contiguous hours required for average. Ways to Prevent or Detect Tampering • A print-out of continuous monitor helps detect unusual measurement swings. • Motion detectors can determine if device is moved. • Record barometric and weather conditions. • Record room temperatures to assess the opening of windows. • Specialty tapes on exterior doors and windows can be used to detect their being opened. • Place device in a particular position that handling would be difficult or detectable. • Don’t use devices that provide a read-out to occupant. • Homeowner agreement with cost consequences. Ethics • In most states radon measurements represent confidential information between tester and client. • Incorrect protocols Shall be brought to attention of ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF NUCLEAR SAFETY by filing a non-conformance report. • Homeowners and clients are not bound to perform follow- up measurements, etc. but tester is to advise and recommend to client. Typical Seller’s Property Disclosure Form » Insert slide #30 graphic Post-Mitigation Measurements Assess Success of Mitigation • Perform between 24 hours and 30 days after mitigation. Follow same protocols as original test. • Perform in same location as pre-mitigation tests. • A minimum short-term test is to be conducted with an IDNS “licensed LAB” . • Long-term testing, and re-testing once every 2 years to be recommended. Diagnostic Measurements Aid the Design of a Mitigation System • Can be continuous monitors to determine unusual entry patterns. • Can be sniffing measurements taken at suspected entry points. • Are interpreted as relative indicators. • No protocols for interpretation other than those associated with the device itself. School Testing Protocols - Defacto Protocols for Adopted Rule Part 422.130 f. 7) Large Buildings Adopted Rule Part 422.130.f.7 • Caution: The following information is not a complete guide to perform School of Large Building testing. IDNS has additional resources available. • Slab on grade Design. Measure all frequently-occupied rooms in contact with the ground. • Open-plan or Pod design. If sections of a pod have moveable walls that can physically separate them from other sections, measure each section separately. If moveable walls are absent or inoperable, measure the pod as one room placing detectors every 2000 square feet. Or as directed by device manufacturer. School Testing Protocols - Defacto Protocols for Large Buildings • Crawlspace Design. Measure all rooms directly above an enclosed crawlspace. • Basement Design. In addition to measuring all frequently- occupied basement rooms, measure all rooms above the basement that have at least one wall with substantial contact with the ground. • Do test: offices, classrooms, gyms, cafeterias, etc. • Follow all other protocols for specific placement of device.
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