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Immigrants Needed to Sustain the Workforce

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					                          IMPORTANCE OF INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

International experience is an asset because many people living in Canada are from other countries.
This means that companies can tap into different cultural groups, understand cultural differences
better and employ people who can communicate effectively with diverse groups of people and with
foreign companies. You can bring new and innovative ideas to the table – things that worked in your
country. Also, international experience gives companies a competitive edge on the global market.

So, when you are asked if you have Canadian experience – how do you answer that question? Do you
simply say ‘no’ and believe that all employers are looking for is Canadian experience? Or do you tell
employers how your international experience can benefit their company? Researching companies and
looking at their websites will give you an idea about how your experience can benefit the organization.

A survival job is one that you can take to pay the bills but is not in your field of interest. It is all right
to take a survival job, but make sure you do not get too comfortable in that position. An interesting
fact is that if you stay in your survival job for over two years, you will probably never leave. Do not
stop job searching and trying to find a job that will make you happy. Coming to a new country might
be difficult and you may have to do jobs that you do not want to. However, when you finally do get a
job in your field, everything that you experienced will be worthwhile.

Some occupations in Ontario require you to have a license in order to practice your profession. For
example, engineering is a regulated profession and you need a license. However, did you know that
you can still work in an engineering related position, as long as you work under a licensed engineer?
The first step is to find out if your field is regulated. If so, what steps do you need to take to work in
your profession? There is a great website that will give you all this information:
www.equalopportunity.on.ca/eng_g/apt/index.asp.

It is also important to have your education assessed in Canada to see if it matches the Canadian
standards. Employers are sometimes not sure of the quality of education people received abroad. So if
you write on your resume that your education equals a Masters degree in Canada, employers will be
more willing to call you for an interview. To get your education assessed you can go to: www.wes.org.


CANADIAN BUSINESS CULTURE

It is important that you familiarize yourself with the basics of Canadian etiquette. Treat all persons
with courtesy and respect, especially people with authority. However, you should not act too humble.

Meeting and Greeting

       A firm handshake is the usual contact when first meeting a business associate. Both men and
        women greet with a handshake, although women may acknowledge you with a nod of the
        head rather than a handshake.

       Shaking hands is also common for first meetings in social situations. Men and women often
        embrace and kiss lightly on the cheek when meeting if they are related or good friends. Men
        may formally embrace old friends or family.

       In Quebec, friends or acquaintances will kiss on both cheeks when meeting and leaving. This
        happens between female friends and between men and women, but not between male friends.


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      In informal settings, such as a party or bar, most young people will simply exchange greetings
       such as "Hi!" or "How are you?"

Introductions

      Introduce people in business based on rank not gender.

      In Canada, a person's authority is related to his or her position and responsibility. Women
       occupy the same range of positions as men and have the same kinds of authority.

More Tips

Behaviour to consider for business transactions and life in general:

      Eye contact is important when conducting business and should be held while speaking to
       someone, but be careful not to stare. Lack of direct eye contact signifies boredom, disinterest
       or shyness.

      There is little casual touching during conversation and most people will stand approximately
       half a meter apart when speaking.

      People stand in line when waiting for the bus, to buy tickets, at the store or bank. It is
       considered very rude to jump the line or go ahead of someone who was there before you.

      Smoking is not allowed in offices, most restaurants, and even bars (with the exception of
       Quebec). When you are out in a public space, ask your companion before lighting up. If visiting
       people in their homes, always ask for permission to smoke.

      Be on time. Canadians will not wait more than 10 to 15 minutes for someone who has
       arranged to meet them for business. Your supervisors and co-workers will be angry if you are
       always late for work. For social invitations, people expect that you will arrive within
       approximately half an hour of the stated time. If you are going to be late, phone and advise
       the person expecting you.

      People usually set up meetings or arrange visits. It is not common to just arrive without an
       invitation.

      Be approachable and accessible. Return phone calls and be polite and friendly in hallways.

      Honour commitments. Do what you say you will do.

Customs and Protocol

Canadian businesspeople are conservative in manner, speech, and dress. Excessive body contact,
gestures in greeting, or loud conversation generally are not acceptable.

To ease the way into Canadian favour, always be punctual for meetings and appointments; use titles
in all correspondence; and take letters of introduction when meeting someone for the first time.

For Women in Business


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In many countries, women in business situations are the exception. Add to that your foreign
nationality and you may encounter some difficulties in dealing with businessmen. You may have to
work a little harder than your male colleagues to establish a level of comfort and trust, and your
behavior and business style may be more open to scrutiny. Deal with any unwanted sexual overtures
firmly and clearly - be in control, but be polite.

Women have earned high regard in business and government in Canada. While some sexism and
subtle barriers still exist, women are found in powerful positions in all walks of life.

Visiting female executives can expect to be taken seriously. Likewise, Canadian women receive respect
from their Canadian male colleagues, and will expect the same from foreigners.


                 JOBS ADVERTISED IN THE NEWSPAPER OR ON THE INTERNET

Two usual places where you can find advertised jobs are newspaper classifieds and job postings on
the Internet. These can be important in your job search. However, since less than 20 per cent of jobs
are actually advertised, it is important that you also use other job search methods.

Because it does not take a lot of work to access advertised positions, it is not only less work for you
but also for your competitors. Competition for these few advertised positions is greater than for jobs
you can find in the hidden job market.

Classified advertisements

Non-creative job search means reading the classified sections of newspapers. Although they can be a
valuable source in your job search, they also have disadvantages. Many times these ads leave out
valuable information, such as the name of the employer and the location of the job.

Here are some points that can help you evaluate and respond to newspaper ads.

1.      Avoid delays. Read the newspaper every day first thing in the morning.
2.      Read every job posting. New postings are printed daily. Some may even be placed in the
        wrong section, so read all the help wanted ads.
3.      Write down ads that interest you.
4.      Do not downplay your qualifications. Employers are looking for the ideal candidate. At
        the same time, job seekers can learn new skills or improve existing ones through on-the-job
        training or experience. If you think you would like the job, consider if you could handle this job
        with a few weeks of experience or if you have done something similar in the past.
5.      Do not skip over the advertisements that seem to have little information. When you
        are looking for a job, you should give a chance to every listing and follow up, even if the ad
        does not gives you a lot of information. For example, employers often leave out information
        about salary, hours of work and duties, because these are negotiable.
6.      Beware of ads that appear too good to be true. They probably are.
7.      Tailor your resumé and cover letter. List your specific skills that relate to the
        announcement.

     Do not include references but take your references list with you for your interview. HOW TO
                             MARKET YOURSELF TO EMPLOYERS



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Qualify yourself
Write down on a piece of paper two important things: 1. what you want and need from a job; 2. what
you have to offer an employer. Clarifying for yourself what you have to offer to an employer is an
important step in your job search.

Analyze the points of why an employer should hire you
Many job seekers do not inform potential employers of important facts about themselves, only
because they are not properly aware of their own strengths and skills. You can ask friends and
coworkers about what they see as your strengths. Collect these reasons to prove why an employer
should hire you. This will help you improve your chances of being hired.

Prepare a resume that will get you interviews
The role of your resume is not to get you a job but to get you                           interviews.
Make sure your resume effectively summarizes your key                         strengths that you
identify.

Define and apply an employment strategy
Many people market themselves only using their resumes and through networking. However, it is
better to use several different ways to help you obtain interviews. Create a list of every method you
can think of that could generate leads, and then follow up every lead until you get either the interview
or another lead. Here are some suggestions:

 Call people and companies you have always wanted to work for.                        One
employer says that whenever she receives a call from someone who says,              "I want to
work for you," she almost always invites the caller for an interview.         If you show
people that you truly want to work with them, you will often get a     positive reaction.

Tell everyone you know that you are looking for a job. This is not that easy if you are
employed and looking for a different job. However, if you are unemployed and looking, people who
could help you cannot do it if they do not know that you are in the market. Let it be known that you
are searching. You can also easily weave it into small talk you have with everyone you meet, even the
cashier at the grocery store.

Ask for informational interviews. Call companies and ask somebody there for an
"informational interview" to obtain information about the position or field you are interested in, the
company itself and also the industry. Do not forget that an informational interview is just a meeting of
one person speaking to another. Nevertheless, it has the potential to generate additional leads for
you.

Ask for other names. When someone turns you down for an interview, you can ask the person
for ideas or the names of other people who may grant you and interview.

Join a job-seeking networking group, if there are any in the area you live in. There are
free networking groups that offer support and supply leads. If you do not have one in your area, you
can start one yourself.

Post your resume on the Internet. Many recruiters go online to find suitable candidates to
interview. This service is often free for the job seeker. Consider                posting your
resume on different internet recruiting sites or your               industry's trade association
site.

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Secure interviews
When you target a person or a company, make sure you call before you send your resume. Follow
up later and when your resume is received by them, you can request an interview. If your request is
denied, do not give up, you can still ask: Do you know someone who is hiring? Will you keep my
resume on file for future reference?

Make your job hunt a daily routine. Do not go to bed until               you have taken some action
toward getting an interview.

The combination of fully recognizing why someone should hire you and implementing a diversified
marketing approach does not only give you confidence but it may also be as important in your job
search as your skills, education and experience.




IMPORTANT CANADIAN INTERVIEW TIPS

It is important that you make a good impression in an employment interview. Here are some tips to
help you on how you can convince a prospective employer that you are a good candidate for the
position.

 Make sure that you thoroughly research the job and the company. Try to know as much about their
product(s) and services as you can. If you prepare, you will feel confident and you will not be as
nervous if you are asked specific company-related questions.

 Be prepared to describe your strengths and weaknesses.

 Maintain eye contact. It shows that you are focused and confident.

 Demonstrate interest and enthusiasm about the company and the job you are applying for.

 Dress professionally. Professional can be interpreted in many ways. Whether the company's style is
wearing a suit or is casual, you should make an effort to look presentable. It makes a big difference.

 Try to respond to the interviewer’s questions within 60 seconds. Try not to give very short answers;
however, lengthy responses are also not advisable. They will make the employer lose interest and you
also might lose focus.

 Listen to questions and respond to them directly. If you are not clear about a question, ask for
clarification.

 Be prepared to discuss how things you have done in the past will affect your performance in your
future position. Give positive examples.

 Ask questions. Intelligent questions show that you are proactive and that you want to be certain
that this company is the right place for you.

 Bring extra copies of your resume.

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 Know how to answer salary questions.

 Send a thank you note within two days of the interview. Express your interest in the position and
thank the interviewer for his or her time.

                           Established immigrants in the labour force

Experiences of established immigrants similar to that of Canadian born

On the whole, those immigrants who had landed in Canada prior to 1996 (referred to as ‘established
immigrants’) had similar labour market outcomes to the Canadian-born population in 2006. The
employment rate for established immigrants in the core working-age group was 82.1%, and not
significantly different from the employment rate of the Canadian born. Unemployment rates between
these two groups were also not significantly different; 4.9% among the Canadian born and 5.0%
among established immigrants.

Labour market indicators from the Labour Force Survey

The LFS produces a number of indicators that are used to monitor the labour market in Canada. Below
are the definitions for indicators that are frequently referred to in this report.

Employment: Employed persons are those who, during the reference week, did any work for pay or
profit, or had a job and were absent from work.

Unemployment: Unemployed persons are those who, during the reference week, were available for
work and were either on temporary layoff, had looked for work in the past four weeks or had a job to
start within the next four weeks.

Labour force: Civilian non-institutional population 15 years of age and over who, during the survey
reference week, were employed or unemployed.

Unemployment rate: The unemployment rate for a particular group is the number of unemployed in
that group expressed as a percentage of the labour force for that group.

Employment rate: The employment rate for a particular group is the number of employed in that
group expressed as a percentage of the population for that group.

Participation rate: The participation rate for a particular group is the labour force in that group
expressed as a percentage of the population in that group.

The same was true of most provinces, with the employment and unemployment rates of established
immigrants differing very little, if at all, from those of the Canadian born. There were two notable
exceptions. In 2006, established core working-age immigrants in Quebec had an unemployment rate
significantly higher than their Canadian-born counterparts (9.2% vs. 6.3%). On the other hand,
established core working-age immigrants living in Atlantic Canada actually had substantially lower
unemployment rates than their Canadian-born counterparts. In 2006, the unemployment rate among
established immigrants was 4.1%, much lower than that of Canadian born in Atlantic Canada, at
8.9%.

Established immigrant men had comparable labour market experiences to Canadian-born men. Among
the women, while 79.6% of Canadian-born core working-age women were employed, the rate was
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slightly lower for established immigrant women (76.4%). However, the unemployment rates for
Canadian born and established immigrant women were similar (4.6% vs. 5.3%, respectively).

In 2006, unemployment and employment rates differed little between established immigrants and
Canadian born with high school diplomas or some post-secondary education. However, core working-
age established immigrants with university degrees had a slightly lower employment rate compared
with the Canadian born rate (87.3% vs. 90.5%) and a slightly higher unemployment rate (3.6% vs.
2.8%). The reverse was true among those without a high school diploma: 69.0% employment rate for
established immigrants vs. 64.3% for Canadian born, and a 7.8% unemployment rate for established
immigrants vs. 10.2% for Canadian born.

Labour market outcomes for established immigrant youths (aged 15 to 24) were only slightly different
from those of Canadian-born youths. The unemployment rates for both youth groups were not
significantly different (12.8% vs. 11.2%). The employment rate for established immigrant youths was
55.0%, compared with 60.8% for Canadian-born youths. However, established immigrant youths were
much more likely to be attending school, with 65% attending school in 2006 compared to 55% of
Canadian-born youths.

In most instances, established immigrants and Canadian born had similar proportions of employment
by industry and occupation type. Some exceptions included higher proportions of established
immigrants employed in manufacturing compared to Canadian born, while lower proportions were
employed in public administration, trade and natural resources.

Because many of the labour market characteristics for the Canadian born and established immigrants
were similar, which is likely a reflection of their integration into the Canadian labour market over time,
the majority of the following analysis in this report is focused on comparing more recent immigrants
with the Canadian born.

                                                  Table 2
           Selected labour force characteristics, ages 25 to 54, established immigrants, 2006
LFS Characteristics               Established immigrants, 10 years and over              Born in Canada
Unemployment rate                                                                5.0                   4.9
Participation rate                                                            86.41                   87.4
                                                                                     1
Employment rate                                                               82.1                    83.1
1. Significantly different from the respective Canadian-born value (p<.05).
Data source: Labour Force Survey, 2006
Table source: Statistics Canada, 2007, "The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market in 2006: First
Results from Canada’s Labour Force Survey." The Immigrant Labour Force Analysis Series, Volume 1,
Number 1, catalogue number 71-606-XWE.

                            DEFINITIONS IN APPLICATION FORMS

  Here are the definitions of some words and phrases that appear on application forms:

        Surname:               What is your last name?

  Permanent address:           Where do you live?

  Position applied for:        What job are you applying for? (for example, sales clerk, shipper)
                                                                                                         7
     Salary or wages           How much do you want to be paid? If you are not sure, just write
        expected:              “Open”.

                               When can you start work? If you can start right away, write
     Date available:
                               “Immediately”.

    Will you relocate:         Would you move to another city if asked?

Duties/responsibilities:       What did you do at your last job? (for example, assisted, assembled)

                               Bondable simply means that you can be trusted to work with cash
   Are you bondable?
                               money and not take it. If you are such a person, answer “YES”.
           Skill:              The ability to do something.



  A question that is often hard to answer is “Why did you leave your last job?” Here are some
  examples you can use as reasons. You can choose whichever applies to you:

       Returned to school
       Looking for more challenge
       Looking for better position
       Job completed
       Health reasons
       Maternity leave
       Relocated
       Business closed
       Temporary work
       Laid off



Immigrant labour market outcomes, Census Metropolitan Areas

The vast majority of immigrants settle in urban areas, particularly in Canada’s largest cities (Toronto,
Vancouver and Montréal, also known as the “Big Three”). Since most of Canada’s population lives in
urban areas, CMA labour market outcomes tend to have the same pattern as their respective
provincial outcomes.

This section presents data on 11 selected CMAs; the “Big Three” as well as eight mid-sized cities
across Canada.

Toronto immigrants had highest employment rates of “Big Three” CMA’s

Core working-age immigrants living in Toronto and Vancouver areas had slightly better labour market
outcomes in 2006 than immigrants living in the Montréal area, with higher employment rates (Chart 4)
                                                                                                           8
and lower unemployment rates (Chart 5). However, the Canadian born living in Toronto and
Vancouver also had higher employment rates and lower unemployment rates than did the Canadian
born living in Montréal, suggesting a stronger job market in 2006 in Toronto and Vancouver.

Very recent immigrants living in Toronto were the most likely to be employed of the three large CMAs
with an employment rate of 67.5%. In Vancouver, the employment rate was 63.6%, while Montréal’s
rate was 59.1%. Very recent and recent immigrants in Toronto had the smallest gaps in the shares of
their core working-age populations who were employed compared to the Canadian born in the city. In
Vancouver, this gap was slightly larger than in Toronto, while it was even larger still in Montréal.

Core working-age immigrants living in Montréal had much higher unemployment rates than their
Canadian-born counterparts in Montréal. While Canadian-born Montréalers had an unemployment rate
of 5.9%, very recent immigrants had an unemployment rate more than three times as high at 18.1%
(Chart 5). Similarly, very recent immigrants in Toronto and Vancouver also faced unemployment rates
that were close to three times the rates experienced by the Canadian born in their cities. Again, these
higher unemployment rates could be a reflection of the difficulties encountered by very recent
immigrants in the initial phases of their settlement in Canada.

Chart 4 Employment rates, by immigrant type population aged 25 to 54, Big Three CMAs,
2006




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Chart 5 Unemployment rates, by immigrant type, population aged 25 to 54, Big Three
CMAs, 2006




Calgary’s employment rate for non-immigrants and immigrants comparable

(Note that for the following mid-sized CMAs, the sample size of the unemployed in most of these cities
was too small, to be statistically reliable. As a result, we were unable to discuss these rates.)

Calgary’s hot labour market benefited immigrants and Canadian born alike in 2006. Canadian-born
core working-age Algerians had the highest employment rate (89.3%) of all the eight selected mid-
sized CMAs (Chart 6). The strong demand for labour in 2006 was particularly visible among the city’s
very recent immigrants, who demonstrated a large degree of success in finding employment. These
immigrants, like Canadian-born Calgarians, had a very high employment rate (73.6%) compared with
the seven other mid-sized CMAs.

Hamilton’s very recent immigrant employment rate lowest among eight mid-sized cities

Very recent immigrants who settled in Hamilton had the lowest employment rate (58.3%) among the
group of eight mid-sized cities in 2006 (Chart 6). Even core working-age immigrants in Hamilton who
landed 5 to 10 years before were not faring as well in the labour market as recent immigrants in some
other mid-sized CMAs.




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Chart 6 Employment rates, ages 25 to 54, selected Census Metropolitan Areas, 2006




Employment rates strong for Halifax, Winnipeg recent immigrants

Halifax is home to the lion’s share of Atlantic Canada’s immigrants. Core working-age recent
immigrants (those who landed between 5 and 10 years prior to 2006) in the Halifax area fared very
well in the labour market, with 88.9% of them employed, higher than that of Canadian-born
Haligonians (84.7%). Their employment rate ranked among the highest of the 11 CMAs in this
analysis.

Recent immigrants living in Winnipeg also had a very high employment rate (83.1%), ranking among
the highest of the 11 CMAs in this analysis. Furthermore, of these eight mid-sized cities, the gap
between the employment rate for very recent immigrants in Winnipeg and that of fellow Canadian-
born city dwellers was the narrowest of all mid-sized CMAs, at just 12.7 percentage points.




Regulated Professions


The following professions are regulated in Ontario. To work in a regulated profession, you must be
registered by the appropriate regulatory body. You may be able to work in a related field without a
license, but you should first check with the regulatory body to understand what restrictions exist. It is
illegal to use the job title restricted to regulated professions without a license or certificate from the
appropriate regulatory body.


Regulated Non-Health Professions
Agrology
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Architecture
Certified Engineering Technicians and Technology
Certified General Accounting
Certified Management Accounting
Chartered Accounting
Forestry
Geoscience
Insurance Broker
Land Surveying
Law
Professional Engineering
Real Estate Agent
Social Work and Social Service Work
Teaching
Veterinary Medicine


Global Experience Ontario (GEO) helps internationally trained and educated individuals in
regulated non-health professions find out how to qualify for professional practice in Ontario.




Regulated Health Professions
Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology
Chiropody and Podiatry
Chiropractic
Dental Hygiene
Dentistry
Dental Technology
Denturist
Dietetics
Massage Therapy
Medical Laboratory Technology
Medical Radiation Technology
Medicine - Physician or Surgeon
Midwifery
Naturopathy
Nursing
Occupational Therapy
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Optician
Optometry
Pharmacy
Physiotherapy
Psychology
Respiratory Therapy


HealthForceOntario offers a number of services to health professionals, including a recruitment
centre and jobs listing service.



                                            Cover Letter

If you think that you do not need a cover letter to send along with your resume, then you are
mistaken.

A cover letter is a business letter directed to a prospective employer. This letter expresses your
interest in a position with their company and should always accompany your resume. It should be an
introduction of you and the resume itself. Employers rarely read resumes that are not accompanied by
a cover letter. If you do not have it, the employer may think that you are not familiar with proper
business etiquette. Therefore, you should think of your resume and your cover letter as a team.

The cover letter is a very important element in your job search in connecting with job agencies and
future employers. Most job agencies are busy receiving many resumes, so it is a good idea for you to
find a way to make your cover letter such that it makes them interested in you. Your cover letter
should be a brief summary of your education, skills and experience. Its purpose is to help you grab
recruiters’ attention so they will be interested enough to read your resume. Cover letters should be
one page in length.

Here are some examples:

Dear Madam/Sir,

As requested in our telephone conversation, I am sending you a copy of my resume. As I briefly
mentioned over the telephone, I have many years of experience in several areas of sales and
promotion that could be useful for your organization.

I would like to meet with you to discuss present or future positions in person. Please, contact me by
telephone at 416-733-5698 or by writing to me at the above address.

Sincerely,
George Costi
----------------------

Dear Madam/Sir

I am writing to apply for the Network Administrator position advertised in the Kitchener-Waterloo
Record on Monday, September 26th, 2007.
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Among my qualifications for this position is three years experience as a Network Administrator for a 32
station Novel network. I recently completed the CNE designation and am currently completing a
Microsoft certification. On a personal level, I am hard working and extremely conscientious as
demonstrated by my willingness to work long hours on-call and weekends. My previous employers
have appreciated my dedication to never missing deadlines.

An opportunity to meet with you and learn more about your network and the Administrator’s position
would be appreciated. I will call you in a few days to arrange for an interview. Should you wish
additional information, I am available at 905-888-9811 from 4-8p.m. daily. Thank you for accepting
the attached resume.

Best Regards,
John Wayne


      MYTH: PEOPLE WHO DO NOT SUCCEED IN THEIR JOB CANNOT DO THEIR WORK



"Corporate Culture" Shock

The main reason a person does not succeed in a job is not because of lack of ability. The most
frequent reason for it is that they do not fit into the corporate culture. In order to avoid this,
organizations want answers to three important questions when deciding about hiring a person:

    CAN you do the job? Do you have the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities?
    WILL you do the job? Do you have the right work ethic and attitude?
    Do you FIT into our corporate culture? Do your values match the values of our organization?

        COMPANIES WILL DO ANYTHING TO DUPLICATE THEIR BEST PERFORMERS!

Behavioural Profiling

Organizations put a lot of effort into getting the answers to the above questions. They use different
skills and behavioural assessment systems to get results.

They feel that the best predictor of future job performance is a candidate’s past behaviour in
similar situations. Behavioural profile systems give them insight into a person’s behaviour
and motivations so that they know everything they possibly can before they make the job
offer. Behavioural-based profiling systems combine psychology and statistical analysis for
measurement. It allows managers to select the best applicant for the job.


  MYTH: THE INTERVIEWER NEEDS 20 TO 30 MINUTES TO DECIDE IF I WILL BE HIRED



When you meet a new person, it generally takes them 30 seconds to form a lasting impression of you.
Therefore, these first few seconds are very important even in a job interview. You never get a second

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chance to make a first impression, whether you meet a new person, the representative of a search
firm or a prospective employer. First impressions are lasting.

In a face-to-face interaction, 55 % of the other person's impression of you comes from your body
language, 38% from the tone of your voice and only 7% from your words. A personal employment
interview is the place in your job search where you can make the greatest influence. However, you
have to be prepared.

Very few people are hired without having been seen in person. The potential employer wants to see
you and your skills to determine if you will fit within the team of his/her organization.


                      REASONS WHY PEOPLE DO NOT LIKE TO NETWORK

      They are afraid to be rejected - It is not very likely that you will be rejected if you are using
       correct networks and techniques. If someone refuses to meet or speak with you, you can just
       move on to someone else. Never give up too quickly.

      They are afraid to fail – Keep in mind that your goal in networking is not to find a job, but to
       make contacts and to get information.

      They are afraid they will sound or appear "not smart" -                                     If you
       are prepared by knowing yourself, knowing about the                      industry you want to
       work in and asking intelligent questions,                     you will be effective in talking
       about your goals. As a result, you will leave each networking meeting with information and
       new contacts.

      They are afraid of bothering someone or taking up their time - Your contact would not
       agree to meet with you if he or she would not want to help you. If that contact person comes
       to you for help the future, you could       undoubtedly return the favor!

      They are afraid to make a negative impression – This is not very likely if you prepare for
       the meeting well. Nevertheless, just like at an employment interview, you might not connect
       with the interviewer. Focus on the positives and on the goals you have set for the meeting.

      They are afraid of being asked questions – Chances are that you will be asked questions
       about yourself and your career goals. Answer         sincerely.

      They are afraid to overstep boundaries – If you go to                                  an
       informational interview, think of it as a way to gather             information. Prepare
       questions that engage your contact and that result in better mutual understanding. Here are
       some questions you should stay away from: personal salary inquiries and requests for specific
       job help. Everything else that helps your understanding of someone’s career, current position,
       company or field is fine.

      They are afraid that an informational interview or networking is a barrier to a "real
       job" or that it does not count! Informational interviews and networking are the best means
       to learn about careers, jobs, companies, trends, and more for new Canadians. It is also a very
       important step towards making connections that may be beneficial in the immediate or far
       future.


                                                                                                       15
              WHERE TO LOOK FOR WORK: TOP EMPLOYERS IN KITCHENER-WATERLOO

EMPLOYER                                                   NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES

Waterloo Region District School Board                                                     5000

University of Waterloo                                                                    3500

Sun Life Financial/Clarica Life Insurance Co                                              3248

Grand River Hospital                                                                      2600

Waterloo Catholic District School Board                                                   2500

Waterloo Regional Municipality                                                            2340

Manulife Financial, Canadian Operations                                                   1900

Schneider Foods Inc.
                                                                                          1688
City of Kitchener                                                                         1600

RIM - Research in Motion                                                                  1500

St. Mary's General Hospital                                                               1498

Kitchener Frame Ltd                                                                       1100

Wilfrid Laurier University                                                                1080

Arvato Services Inc.                                                                       900

City of Waterloo                                                                           700

Lear Canada                                                                                700




                              MYTH: ALL AVAILABLE JOBS ARE ADVERTISED

    Most people start their job search by looking at the newspaper or exploring a job search site on the
    Internet. But only 5% of available jobs are advertised in newspapers or on the Internet while 5% are
    obtained through direct mail and 10% are filled through a search firm or recruitment agency. Almost
    80% of job vacancies are in the hidden job market.
                                                                                                      16
Here is a comparison of different methods used for job search:

Advertisements – most job seekers look at these. If that is the only method                  you use, you
have a LOT of competition.

Direct Mail - mass mailing resumes or cover letters is not effective if you do not follow up. Just
think about yourself: do you like reading unsolicited mail? Employers receive hundreds of e-mails and
letters from job seekers every day. They usually make three piles out of them: 1. must read 2. should
or want to read, or 3. store it in the round file (or file it under G – g for garbage, that is, throw it in
the garbage bin.)

Search Firms or Placement Agencies are a good place to look for a job, but you cannot depend
on them alone. They work for their clients (the employers that hire them) and not for the candidate
(you, the job seeker). Their clients pay them and not you. Note: if an employment agency asks you to
pay them to find you a job, it is best not deal with them.

If the placement agency finds a match between the needs of the employer and what you have to offer
in your resume, and if they know about you, they are likely to call you. But do not rely on these search
firms alone because sometimes you could wait forever. Often, they place ads in the newspaper or on
the Internet on behalf of the employer so that they can receive your resume first to screen you before
they send it on to the employer.

                                                  

Make sure that your resume does not have any errors. Typing mistakes and poor English can reflect
negatively on you. Your resume can be thrown out because of mistakes; your resume serves as your
calling card or marketing piece. If it is well organized and letter perfect, you yourself are looked at as
organized. If it is sloppy, you will be considered sloppy, too.

                THERE IS A MASSIVE JOB MARKET JUST BELOW THE SURFACE:

THE HIDDEN JOB MARKET – it contains jobs that are not advertised in newspapers or on the Web.

   SO HOW DO YOU TAP INTO THIS HIDDEN JOB MARKET? … THROUGH NETWORKING




HOW TO USE EMAIL AS A POWERFUL COMMUNICATION TOOL

There are some rules you can apply to make sure that your emails are not only read but are also
useful to the recipient.



E-mail subject lines should be like newspaper headlines


                                                                                                         17
The headline in newspapers has two functions. First, it grabs your attention; second, it informs you
what the article is about so you can decide whether you want to read it. Email subject lines should
have the same purpose. Therefore, you should tell the reader in your subject line what the topic of
your email is.



Address different topics in separate emails
If you need to discuss several items with someone, write a separate email on each topic. If you do
this, your correspondent can reply to each e-mail / topic separately while deciding which one is more
urgent and which one is less. While one subject could require a short reply that can be completed
right away, another topic might require some thought and research. By writing separate emails, the
answers you get will also be clearer.

Just like a traditional business letter, your email should be clear and concise, with its purpose
explained in your first paragraph. You should keep your sentences short and to the point. The body of
the email should contain all important information.

Specify the response you expect
Make sure you specify the action you expect, such as a phone call or a follow-up appointment. You
should also include your contact information, your name, title, and phone number(s).

Be a good correspondent
If you regularly communicate through email, clean out your inbox once a day by answering all the mail
in it. This is an act of courtesy while it also encourages the recipients to answer you quicker.

If a longer response is needed to one of the emails you receive but you do not have the time to get all
the information, send a reply telling the other person that you have received their message and
indicate when you will send a complete response.



Inter-office email
You should check your internal email regularly during the day and reply reasonably quickly since it
might involve projects, updates, meeting notes, and the like. Internal emails, just like other emails,
should not be informal. Remember, these are written forms of communication that can be printed out
and viewed by others than the recipient. Always use the spell checker, and avoid slang.




                                 THE HIGHEST PAYING CAREER$

The wealthiest people in Canada are generally those who own their businesses and have become very
successful with it through hard work and good management. However, starting your own business is
not a guarantee that you will be wealthy, but it gives you an opportunity. If taking big chances is not
something you feel comfortable with and salary is more attractive to you, here are some of the highest
paying jobs in Canada (where you work for someone else):
                                                                                                       18
Specialist Physicians (in hospitals)

                                                          General Practice Doctors



Judges




Managers in Finance and Business Services




Managers in Utilities, Transportation and Production

Managers in Broadcasting



                                           Engineers

Lawyers



                             Dentists




THE IMPORTANCE OF A THANK-YOU NOTE

When a friend was hired for her first job after graduating from university, she was remembered and
appreciated by her new supervisor for one small thing she did during the interviewing process: she
was the only applicant who had sent a thank-you note after her interview.
A simple thank-you note after a job interview can have a lot of power and influence: it might just
decide that you will be the one hired. The reasons:

By sending a thank-you note, you show courtesy and respect:                         Unfortunately, in
our busy and often impolite world, we simply do not           acknowledge each other's time, efforts
and commitments. By sending a                thank-you note, you tell your interviewer that you
appreciate the time and consideration he/she has given you.

                                                                                                     19
Not many applicants send thank-you notes. If you do, you always stand out: The majority
of job applicants DO NOT send thank-you notes after their interviews. Therefore, just by sending this
note, you stand out for making this effort.

A thank-you note gives you the opportunity to reemphasize important points you made
during your interview: You probably have left interviews thinking you should have more strongly
emphasized certain skills or experiences that would be beneficial for the position. A thank-you note
gives you the chance to correct this. After the first paragraph of your thank-you note, you can use a
short second paragraph to mention again important points you made in your interview or points you
might have forgotten. You can also use this strategy to correct any interview rough spots you might
have had, such as clarifying some of your responses that might have been weak.

A thank-you note lets you make points you forgot to make in your interview: Sometimes
after an interview you might say to yourself, "Why didn't I talk about [this or that]?" But you can also
take care of this problem in your thank-you note. Maybe in the second paragraph you can say
something like: "After our discussion, it                     occurred to me that I forgot to tell you
about [this or that].”

A thank-you note illustrates your written communication                                 skills: Your
interviewer will see how you handle yourself on paper                     when reading your thank-
you note. You will be using your written            communication skills daily in your job, so the
interviewer will be able to see that you have no problems in that area.

Writing thank-you notes is not difficult or time-consuming at all. Be sure to send it the day of your
interview, if possible. It can make a big difference - maybe even the difference between you being
hired or not.

                              ASSESSMENT OF YOUR CREDENTIALS

Your education and professional experience were probably assessed as part of the immigration
process before you came to Canada. You were probably told that your skills match what is needed
here. Nevertheless, this assessment process is not the same as that of your professional regulatory
body’s. Regulatory bodies carry out evaluations in Ontario in order to grant you a license or certificate
so you can practice here.

It is easy to get disappointed by this two-tiered process. While immigration officials in your home
country might have you told that you will likely be able to practice in Ontario, the professional
regulatory body has different standards. It is possible that they will ask you to complete courses or
even reject your application.

If you would like to have more information on credential assessments, you can visit the Canadian
Information Centre for International Credentials web site: http://www.cicic.ca/en/index.aspx.

For Labour Market Information in Canada, you can consult the following site:
http://www.settlement.org/downloads/CdnLabourMarketOnline.pdf


The following are credential assessment services in Ontario:

World Education Services-Canada (WES Canada)

                                                                                                        20
       45 Charles Street East, Suite 700
       Toronto, Ontario M4Y 1S2 Canada
       Tel.: +1 416 972-0070
       Fax: +1 416 972-9004
       Toll-free: +1 866 343-0070
       E-mail: ontario@wes.org
       Web site: http://www.wes.org/ca/


Comparative Education Service (CES)
     University of Toronto
     315 Bloor Street West
     Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A3
     Tel.: +1 416 978-2190
     Fax: +1 416 978-7022
     Web site: http://www.adm.utoronto.ca/ces/


International Credential Assessment Service of Canada (ICAS)
      Ontario AgriCentre
      100 Stone Road West, Suite 303
      Guelph, Ontario N1G 5L3
      Tel.: +1 519 763-7282
      Toll-free: +1 800 321-6021
      Fax: +1 519 763-6964
      E-mail: info@icascanada.ca
      Web site: http://www.icascanada.ca/




                                      JOB SEARCH IN CANADA

Moving to a new country and starting a new life shows courage. It is not easy and there are several
issues that a person has to deal with in this situation, such as learning a new language for the
majority of immigrants, understanding a different culture, and finding work.

As far as employers are concerned, it is important for them to ensure that the company operates
smoothly. Because of this, they have to consider a number of issues when hiring, such as how a new
Canadian will fit into their organization; if there will be any communication difficulties with an
employee whose first language is not English; is it going to be easy for a newcomer to adapt to the
company culture; is their foreign training comparable to the Canadian one; whether work
environments and practices from abroad are similar to                 that of Canada?

These few points might help you:

 If your English skills need improving, take a                "Business English" course.

 Even if your English language skills are good, it still does not hurt to polish them. Proper business
communication, that not only involves language, is important at the work place and you can polish
those skills.

                                                                                                      21
 Find some expert support. In most Canadian cities there are societies and agencies that serve new
Canadians. They can be helpful when adjusting to a new environment and a new culture.

 Emphasize your skills. Research the companies that you are applying to and find out what skills
they need. You can write a 'functional' resume instead of a 'chronological' one -
www.nextsteps.org/resume/resform.html

 Highlight your abilities in your cover letter - www.nextsteps.org/resume/coverlet.html

To convince a potential employer, it is important to stress that you have the skills needed to serve the
company. Do not count too much on the prestige of former positions or education that might not be
recognized by a Canadian employer.




                            JOB SEARCH ON THE INTERNET – PART 2.

 It is safe to put your Social Insurance Number and date of birth on your resume.
Not true. This information is enough for someone to steal your identity. NEVER give out that
information to other people!

 It is all right for a website to request that you provide your Social Insurance Number
with your resume.
This is NOT all right at all, for the same reason as above. It is very important to keep this information
private. When you have a job offer from an employer, that is when they can ask for your SIN.

 Your current employer will never find your resume online. If they do, they will not be
upset.
Not true. Employers are always worried about employees leaving and taking clients, business, and
confidential information with them to another company. Now with the Internet, it is much easier for an
employer to discover your job search and take action.

 If you submit your resume on an employer’s web site, only that employer will see it.
This should be true, but it is not. Sometimes employers "outsource" the careers/employment section
of their website, and a resume submitted on their site may end up in a much larger resume database.
This database can be searched by all of the client firms of the company that provides the outsourcing.
Also, some sites do sell resumes to other sites.

 If you send an e-mail message to someone, they always receive it; and if someone
sends an e-mail to you, you always receive it.
This is not true. With all the unsolicited commercial e-mail (spam) being sent, most people are now
protected by spam filters, or software which identifies possible spam messages. These messages are
deleted or dumped into junk mail folders. So a message you sent may not be received and you will not

                                                                                                       22
even receive an error message. Even messages sent TO you may be redirected by your spam filter
into your junk mail folder.

 The address in the “From:” field of an e-mail message is the person and /or
organization which sent it.
Unfortunately, this is not true. With some e-mail software, it is very easy to forge the “From:” address
in an e-mail and copy a real organization's logo and other identifying information. So, message
arriving "from" Monster.com, Job-Hunt.org, PayPal, or your bank might have been sent by someone
else. They want you to click on a link in the message to go to their website where they can collect
information from you. The message and the website may look legitimate, but often they are not. Call
the sending organization to verify that they actually sent the message before you respond.

Job seekers can minimize many of the risks associated with online job search by being less trusting
and using an identity-suppressed resume.




       PROTECT YOUR PRIVACY AND IDENTITY WHEN APPLYING FOR JOBS ON-LINE

Did you know that your current employer may see your résumé if you apply for a job on-line? Also,
certain programs called spiders can access personal information in your resume to steal your identity.
Using the e-mail address on your posted resume, job scam operators can make you a fraudulent job
offer in order to get your personal information.

However, it is best not to let these possible pitfalls stop you from using the Internet in your works
search. Instead, protect yourself to maintain your confidentiality and avoid on-line identity theft.

Keep your résumé information confidential

Your current employer can view the résumés you post at job search websites. Use the following
suggestions to ensure that your work search stays confidential:

 Stay away from using your computer at work to look for another job.

 Instead of posting your résumé on a job search website, e-mail it directly to a potential employer or
apply through the employer’s website.

 If you do post your résumé on-line, use a general description of your skills in     your e-mail
address instead of your name and other identifiers. For              example, if you are a Civil
Engineer with 10 Years’ Experience, you can              create a work-search e-mail address that
reflects your experience,               instead of using your name. For example:
10yr.civileng@gmail.com.

 Some job search websites offer a service that allows you to block access to your résumé from
specific visitors, such as your current employer. However, this service is not foolproof. Sending your
résumé directly to potential employers’ websites is a better idea.

                                                                                                         23
 If an employer you do not recognize approaches you for a job, check it out        before you
respond. Enter the employer’s name in a search engine, visit their   website, call or go online to
the Better Business Bureau, or consult a business directory.

 It is a good idea to block a potential employer’s access to your personal networking website, blog or
any other aspect of your online profile that is not professional. Better yet, change or delete anything
unprofessional in your online profile.

The Internet does not replace other kinds of job search methods, but it can be a valuable part of your
work search plan. With a little practice and a few precautions, you can use the Internet effectively and
securely to increase your chances of finding a job.



                                   JOB PROSPECTS IN ONTARIO

Canada is the second largest country in the world. Therefore, when you are thinking about what kind
of work you want to do, you also have to think about where you will be able to find that work.

It is important for you to know that an occupation that has good opportunities in one part of the
province may not have them in another part. Try to consult different sources for information.
Chambers of Commerce may have lists that will give you useful information about opportunities in an
area where you want to work. Do not forget to think about your own skills, interests and aptitudes.
You will want to find a job that you enjoy and that gives you opportunities that are both personally
and professionally rewarding.

To help you make decisions, here is a look at some promising opportunities in Ontario. These are
occupations for which there is an above-average chance of finding employment. The occupations
below are not in any order.



Bakers                        Computer engineers, analysts and programmers

       Early childhood educators and assistants



Electrical and electronics engineers, engineering technologists and technicians

Electricians



                  Graphic designers and illustrating artists

Industrial designers

                                             Insurance agents and brokers



                                                                                                     24
         Pharmacists        `

         Technical sales specialists, wholesale trade




         Telecommunications installation and repair workers




                         SOME OF THE TOP COMPANIES / EMPLOYERS IN CANADA

        COMPANY NAME                                        WEB SITE
American Express Canada               http://www10.americanexpress.com/sif/cda/page/0,1
                                      641,13555,00.asp
AstraZeneca Canada Inc                http://www.astrazeneca.ca/
Sanofi-Aventis Canada                 http://www.sanofi-aventis.ca/index.html
BC Biomedical Laboratories            http://www.bcbio.com/
Ceridian Canada                       http://www.ceridian.ca/en/careers/careers.html
Chevron Canada Limited                http://www.chevron.ca/Career/Default.htm
Chubb Insurance Company of            http://www.chubb.com/international/canada/englishn
Canada                                f/careers/body.html
Deloitte & Touche                     http://www.deloitte.com/dtt/home/0%2C1044%2Csi
                                      d%25253D1000%2C00.html
Delta Hotels                          http://www.deltahotels.com/about/careerIndex.jsp
Eli Lilly Canada, Inc.                http://www.lilly.ca/searchable/careers/
Ericsson Canada                       http://www.ericsson.com/ca/
FedEx Canada                          http://www.fedex.com/ca_english/careers/?link=1
Flight Centre                         http://www.careers.flightcentrelimited.ca/home.asp?st
                                      p=
Fluor Canada Ltd                      http://www.fluor.com/canada/about.asp
GlaxoSmithKline Inc.                  http://www.gsk.ca/en/careers/
Golder Associates                     http://www.golder.com/default.asp?PID=49&LID=26&
                                      VID=126
GM Canada                             http://www.gmcanada.com/inm/gmcanada/english/ab
                                      out/Careers/careers.html
HP Canada                             http://h10055.www1.hp.com/jobsathp/content/home/
                                      home.asp
Hudson's Bay Company                  http://www.hbc.com/hbcf/careers/
IMS HEALTH Canada                     http://www.imshealthcanada.com/htmen/7_0.htm
INTRIA Items Inc.                     http://www.intriaitemsinc.com/careers.htm
Intuit Canada                         http://www.intuit.ca/store/en/intuit/careers_index.js
                                      p
JT International                      http://www.jt-
                                                                                              25
                                        int.com/english/careers/working_at_jti.aspx
Kellogg Canada                          http://www.kelloggs.ca/career/
Maritime Life                           http://www.manulife.com/corporate/corporate2.nsf/P
                                        ublic/CurrentOpportunities.html
McDonalds Canada                        http://www.mcdonalds.ca/en/careers/index.aspx
Mercedes-Benz Canada                    http://www.mercedes-benz.ca/index.cfm?id=3506
Merck Frosst Canada Ltd.                http://www.merckfrosst.ca/e/careers/
Microsoft Canada                        http://www.microsoft.com/canada/employment/defau
                                        lt.mspx
Nexen Inc.                              http://www.nexeninc.com/Careers/landing.asp
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Canada         http://www.novartis.ca/careers/en/index.shtml
Inc.
QLT Inc.                                http://www.qltinc.com/Qltinc/main/maincenters.cfm?I
                                        nternetCenterID=12
Royal Bank of Canada                    http://www.rbc.com/uniquecareers/index.html
Sierra Systems Group Inc.               http://www.sierrasystems.com/SSG/Careers/
Surrey Metro Savings                    http://www.coastcapitalsavings.com/menuId/70951
TELUS Corp.                             http://about.telus.com/careers/




                                            10 SECRETS TO SUCCESS

        Most people have 10 traits that, when combined, can turn dreams into reality. These can easily be
        used during your job search to enhance your success.


    1
         HOW YOU THINK IS EVERYTHING:                       Always be positive. Think success, not
         failure. Beware of a negative             environment.

    2
         DECIDE UPON YOUR TRUE                            DREAMS AND GOALS: Write down your
         specific goals and develop a plan to reach them.

    3
         TAKE ACTION: Goals are nothing without action. Don’t be afraid to get started. Just do it.

    4
         NEVER STOP LEARNING: Go back to school or read books. Get training and acquire skills.

    5
         BE PERSISTENT AND WORK HARD:                             Success is a marathon, not a sprint.
         Never give up.

    6
         LEARN TO ANALYZE DETAILS: Get all the facts, all the input. Learn from your mistakes.


                                                                                                            26
7
      FOCUS YOUR TIME AND MONEY: Don’t let other people or things distract you.

8
      DON’T BE AFRAID TO INNOVATE; BE DIFFERENT:                                 Following the herd is a
      sure way to mediocrity.

9
      DEAL AND COMMUNICATE WITH PEOPLE EFFECTIVELY: No person is an island. Learn to
      understand and motivate others.

10
      BE HONEST AND DEPENDABLE; TAKE RESPONSIBILITY: otherwise, Numbers 1-9 won’t
      matter.




                    WHAT IS A REGULATED AND A NON-REGULATED OCCUPATION?

     Although Canada has shortages in many professional occupations, it can be very difficult to become
     qualified to practice here. In Canadian provinces, many professions are "regulated". This means that
     the provincial government has created laws that limit who can practice the profession and what
     qualifications they must have. Each profession has an Occupational Regulatory Body, which is
     responsible for determining who is qualified to practice here.

     A "regulated" occupation is controlled by provincial and territorial (and sometimes federal) law. It
     is also governed by a professional organization or regulatory body. The regulatory body that
     governs the profession or trade has the authority to set entry requirements and standards of
     practice, to assess applicants' qualifications and credentials, to certify, register, or license qualified
     applicants, and to discipline members of the profession or trade.


     Requirements for entry may be different from one province to another. These requirements
     usually consist of examinations, a specified period of supervised work experience, language
     competency, etc. If you want to work in a regulated occupation and use a regulated title, you MUST
     have a license or certificate or be registered with the regulatory body for your occupation. Some
     occupations are regulated in certain provinces and territories and are not regulated in others.


     A "non-regulated" occupation is a profession or trade for which there is no legal requirement
     or restriction on practice as far as licenses, certificates, or registration are concerned. The vast
     majority of occupations in Canada fall into this category. For some non-regulated occupations,
     certification or registration with a professional body is available to applicants on a voluntary basis. For
     other non-regulated occupations there is no certification or registration available at all.


     In general, applicants for non-regulated occupations will have to demonstrate to their potential
     employers that they possess the experience and training required for the job. Even when an
                                                                                                             27
occupation is not regulated, employers can still require that an applicant for a job be registered,
licensed, or certified with the relevant professional association.

Here is a list of some of the regulated professions:

Agrologist                 Architect                  Audiologist and Speech     Certified General
                                                      Pathologist                Accountant
Certified Management       Chartered Accountant       Chiropodist                Chiropractor
Accountant
Dental Hygienist           Dental Surgeon             Dental Technologist        Denturist
Dietician                  Engineer                   Engineering Technician     Forester
                                                      or Technologist
Funeral Director           Insurance Broker           Land Surveyor              Lawyer
Massage Therapist          Medical Laboratory         Medical Radiation          Midwife
                           Technologist               Technology
Nurse and Practical        Occupational Therapist     Optician                   Optometrist
Nurse
Physiotherapist            Pharmacist                 Physician or Surgeon       Psychologist
Respiratory Therapist      Teacher                    Veterinarian



Starting a New Job – Employers’ Expectations

The following lists contain responses to a survey from employers in the trades, government, service
sector, and office environments. Consider each response carefully. How can these help you keep your
job?

First Day

      punctual
      follow dress code
      open to learn
      enthusiastic
      energetic
      prepared to complete paperwork
      ask questions
      take initiative
      show interest
      pay attention
      know where to go the next day

First Month

      responsible
      you know what you are talking about
      willing to admit mistakes, and what you do and do not know
      willing to learn from others; ask questions
      have an understanding of the company
      know how different people like to work
      meet standards for performance goals
                                                                                                      28
      show incentive
      show commitment to the workplace
      excited about working for the company

Showing Your Stuff

      if experienced, new ideas are welcome immediately, if inexperienced, wait a month or two and
       present ideas in appropriate manner
      wait until the second month until you know the work environment




Dressing For Success at Your Job Interview

Stay Away From Scents: Some offices have a scent-free policy that does not allow workers wearing
perfumes, colognes, and strongly smelling deodorants. You should also stay away from wearing scents
when interviewing. This goes for men and women. Many people are irritated by odours. Others might
have mental associations with certain scents. A perfume can quickly remind them of someone they
dislike and you do not want to be the one reminding them.

Dress Comfortably: You do not want to look uncomfortable in the clothes you are wearing.
However, you should have a polished professional look. Dress for the job you want to do. If you are
applying for work as a construction worker, leave home the suit and tie. If you are looking for an
office job, do not wear jeans. Dress conservatively: perfect grooming, clean shoes, no run in your
nylons, clean nails, hair out of the face.

You should dress a touch better than the job that you want. A good standard for a management job
interview is a traditional dark suit, with a clean, ironed shirt and matching tie. Remember to wear
comfortable dress shoes with dark dress socks.



                                                                                                      29
For women, the same standard applies. Remember that you want to project a professional image. A
good standard to use is a nice fitted suit jacket in a neutral color like navy with either matching pants
or skirt with a neutral blouse. Your shoes should be classic and just blend into your outfit. Do not
forget plain pantyhose. Feeling comfortable helps you look confident and successful.

Do Not Stick Out: It is important to use the basics and to be professional. The purpose of the
interview is to get across how qualified you are and how your skills will be a great fit for the company.
Do not give them anything else to remember you by other than your words.

When interviewing, wear clothes that are or look new. Women should not wear clothes that show
cleavage, skirts that are too short, see-through tops, or very high-heeled shoes. Coordinate your
colours. Women, refrain from wearing loud makeup. Choose transparent colours for your nails and
soft colours for your lips. Men, choose a coat that blends and fits in with your suit if seeking an office
related position.

Hygiene: Remember to look and smell nice to be around.

Before Your Interview:
 Try on your clothes a few days before to make sure everything fits as it should. Snip off any stray
threads from your clothes and fix any loose buttons. You do not want something coming apart
unexpectedly.
The night before, iron everything that needs ironing. Do not wait until the day of the interview, in
case your iron does not work properly. Take an extra few minutes to quickly polish your shoes.
Take any fuzz or stray hair off of your outfit, especially if you have pets in your home.
Keep jewellery to a minimum - a ring, and a subtle watch, and plain earrings for women.
Women, bring an extra pair of pantyhose with you.
If you have any doubts about wearing a certain outfit, piece of clothing, or item of jewellery at an
interview, leave it at home.

Following these simple steps should help you feel confident, prepared, and polished for your interview.

                                              GOOD LUCK!




                                        The Value of a Mentor
What is a Mentor?

                                                                                                        30
A Mentor is a person who can guide you, help you and nurture your career quest. He or she is the one
that you want to model after.
 Why do you need a mentor?
If you are working, a mentor can coach you to pursue your career goal; if you are a new immigrant
who is looking for work, a mentor can help you understand Canadian workplace culture, identify skills
needed and explore opportunities in your professional field.
How to find a Mentor?
You can find a mentor on your own. Identify someone in your field that you admire and respect. Test
water by asking advice. If you feel the rapport is right for mentoring relationship after a few meetings,
you can either ask the person to be your mentor directly or tell him or her how much you have
benefited from his or her advice and hope he or she will continue to offer guidance.
Another way to find a mentor is through Mentorship programs, one of which is offered by Kitchener-
Waterloo YMCA.
How to nurture the relationship?
Talk with your mentor about your mutual expectation for the mentoring relationship. Always think
about what you can do for a mentor besides what your mentor can do for you. A reciprocal
relationship will be a lasting one.
Be sure not to burden your mentor by demanding too much of their time and attention. A lot of
mentors are volunteers and the time they spend for you should be respected.
Although the feeling of being needed and making a difference in somebody’s life is rewarding, a token
of gratitude for your mentor will be appreciated.
What is required from a Mentee?
You, a mentee, need to be open and honest with your mentor. You also need to have realistic
expectations. If you are looking for a job, it is not always realistic to expect your mentor find you a
job. However, a mentor can help assess your strength and weaknesses, show you where and how to
gain the skills needed in your professional field and most important of all, help you get networking
contacts, which will be crucial in your job search.

                                               WHMIS

WHMIS stands for Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. It refers to safety labels and
symbols found on dangerous materials in the workplace and it gives you the information that you need
to be safe when you work with them. Failing to take necessary precautions can cause death,
permanent disability, slight injury, temporary discomfort or no apparent immediate problem. Some
health effects are the result of years of exposure.

Class A - Compressed Gases: Contents under high pressure. Cylinder may explode or burst when
heated, dropped or damaged.




Class B - Flammable and Combustible Materials: May catch fire when exposed to heat, spark or
flame. It may burst into flames.




                                                                                                      31
Division 1              Flammable Gas
Division 2              Flammable Liquid
Division 3              Combustible Liquid
Division 4              Flammable Solid
Division 5              Flammable Aerosol
Division 6              Reactive Flammable Material

Class C - Oxidizing Materials: May cause fire or explosion when in contact with wood, fuels or
other combustible material.




Class D - Poisonous and Infectious Materials




Division 1: Poisonous substance. A single exposure may be fatal or cause serious or
permanent damage to health.

Materials Causing Immediate and Serious Toxic Effects
Subdivision A - Very Toxic Materials
Subdivision B - Toxic Materials

Division 2: Poisonous substance. It may cause irritation. Repeated exposure may cause cancer, birth
defects, or other permanent damage.

Materials Causing Other Toxic Effects
Subdivision A - Very Toxic Materials
Subdivision B - Toxic Materials




                                                                                                 32
Division 3: May cause disease or serious illness. Drastic exposures may result in death.

Biohazardous Infectious Materials




Class E - Corrosive Materials: Can cause burns to eyes, skin or respiratory system.




Class F - Dangerously Reactive Materials: May react violently causing explosion, fire or release of
toxic gases, when exposed to light, heat, vibration or extreme temperatures.




Note: If you decide to sign up with an employment agency, such as Prior Resource Group, you might want to read
through this material before registering. A number of these agencies will show you a video on WHMIS, and then ask
you to write a short test on it before they can place you with an employer.



INFORMATIONAL INTERVIEWS
Informational interviews have the potential to give you an enormous amount of information while it
offers you direct look at people doing the job you would like to do and it lets you explore a career
further.

What is an informational interview? An informational interview gives you the chance to find out
more about a career or job you are interested in, or about a company you would like to work for. If you
are interested in becoming a mechanic for example, talking to someone who is working in that field is

                                                                                                                33
an excellent way to find out details about that job and to see if this is really what you would like to do.
Remember though that you are not looking for a position at this time. You are simply looking for
information that can help you make a career decision.

Why should I do an informational interview?

      To get information on the career(s) you are interested in.
      To do a reality check on what you have read, heard, and thought of a specific career.
      To gather information that is:
          o up to date;
          o specific and related to wherever you live;
          o personal and subjective;
          o reflective of the work atmosphere.
      To gain self-confidence and learn to be comfortable in interview settings.
      To enlarge your circle of contacts, to get more referrals and to network.
      To establish links to your job targets.

Remember however that this is not a job interview and you are not talking to these people to get a job.
If the other person realizes that you are using the opportunity to get work and not just to find out about
the job, they will feel deceived and will not be happy. Your reason to be there is to listen to the other
person describe their job and not to market yourself.

Where do I find people to interview?

      Ask friends, family, neighbours, work colleagues and anyone else you                     know.
       They might know somebody who would be interested in helping                          you with
       information.
      Call community service agencies and trade organizations, such as                   professional
       organizations and the Chamber of Commerce
      Explore business directories and Yellow Pages.

Remember that people are interested in talking about what they do and how they do it. They are also
interested in helping others. However, you have to make sure that you are prepared when you go
meet them.

Being prepared means knowing what kind of information you want. Try not to ask something general
that you could have easily found somewhere else. Therefore, it is important to check out materials at a
career centre or library first and also to know your own interests, skills, and values, and how they
relate to the person you are interviewing.



How do I arrange an interview?

      Personal referral is the most effective. Have a mutual acquaintance be the connection to your
       contact.
      Walking-in or telephoning are the next best ways if you have no personal referral.
      Letters are not very useful.

If someone agrees to an interview, arrange a time and place that is convenient for both of you. Make
sure that you arrive on time and do not stay longer than the agreed-upon time unless the other person


                                                                                                          34
suggests it. If someone you are approaching is not available for an informational interview, ask if he or
she knows someone else that could help you.

What should I ask? You should ask them about things that you would like to find out about the job
or the company. Other than that, allow the conversation to flow naturally while making sure you get
the information you are looking for.

Here are examples of some questions you could ask:

      How did you decide you want to be in this field of work?
      How did you actually get into this field of work?
      What do you like best about your work?
      What do you like the least?
      What is a typical day or week like for someone in your occupation?
      What kind of skills, education, and/or training would I need to get                 into this
       area?
      What personal qualities are necessary for someone in this occupation?
      What is a typical entry-level salary? (DO NOT ASK what the person you are interviewing
       makes!)
      Whom else do you know that I could talk to about this job / company?
      May I leave my resume so you can critique it for me?

What should I do when I am done? It is a good idea to send a thank-you note after your
interview. In it you can mention the information given that you found particularly interesting or helpful.
Let them know that you appreciate their effort and time and that the information they gave is important
to you. If they agreed to look at your resume, follow up within a week and ask them for their feedback.
It never hurts to have a resume tailor-made exactly the way the employer wants it after they gave you
suggestions on it.

Note: Informational interviews are especially important if you are new to Canada or new to a city or
town. People who grew up here, have their natural network of acquaintances they knew all their lives,
went to school with or lived nearby for many years. If you are new to the area, you do not have that
network because you left it at the place where you come from. Therefore, informational interviews are
a valuable tool of building up a network you lack and need at your new place of residence.




                                                                                                        35
INTERVIEW TIPS
It is important that you go for a job interview prepared. This entails:

 Learning about the organization (you can use the Internet or pamphlets the organization
    publishes about its function).
 Have a specific job in mind that you applied for; do not be vague and general when it
    comes to working for a certain company.
 Review the requirements for the job.
 Review your qualifications for the job and compare how your experience relates to their
    requirements so that you can talk about it.
   Prepare answers to questions about yourself, your skills, your education and experience.
   Review your résumé and know exactly what is on it.
   Practice an interview with a friend, relative or a support group of other job seekers.
   Arrive before the scheduled time of your interview.

Personal appearance is very important. You never get a second chance to
make a first impression:

 Be well groomed; dress appropriately; do not chew gum and do not smoke.

During the interview:

 Try your best to relax and answer each question concisely.
 Respond promptly but if you need a few seconds to think about your answer, take those
    few seconds.
   Use good manners.                                                              [Type a quote
   Learn the name of your interviewer(s) and shake hands as you meet.             from the
   Use proper English avoiding slang (such as gonna, wanna, etc.)                 document or
   Be cooperative and enthusiastic.                                               the summary of
   Ask questions about the position and the organization.                         an interesting
   Thank the interviewer(s) when you leave and do not forget to send a thank you note.
                                                                                   point. You can
                                                                                   position the text
If the employer gives you a test:                                                  box anywhere
                                                                                   in the
 Listen closely to the instructions or if they are written, read each question carefully.
                                                                                   document. Use
 Write legibly and clearly.                                                       the Text Box
 Use your time wisely and do not spend too much time on one question.             Tools tab to
                                                                                   change the
Information to bring to an interview:                                              formatting of
                                                                                   the pull quote
 Social Insurance card.                                                           text box.]
 Several copies of your résumé.
 Your list of references. Employers typically
    require three references. Try to avoid using relatives. Get permission before using
    anyone as a reference and make sure they are people who will give a good
    opinion about you.




                                                                                                       36
How To Handle a Phone Interview

Phone interviews are a common technique used determine which candidates will move
forward in the interview process. They can also replace an actual in-person interview
and so they are critical in determining whether or not you will be hired. Here are some
important tips for phone interviews.

Be Available:

Be there when you say you will be. Recruiters and employers are often very busy calling
other candidates and you don't want to give them the impression that you don't value
their time. If you make an appointment to receive their call, be prepared to give them
your full attention.

Have a quiet space where you won't be interrupted by kids, pets, or household chores
your spouse or housemates might be doing, like running the dishwasher or vacuuming.
Also ensure that there isn't any loud music or other distractions. Let others know that you
are setting this time aside for an interview so that they won't be barging in.

Be Prepared:

Re-read your resume and know all your skills and strengths, just as you would for a
regular interview. Just because you can have all your information in front of you and the
interviewer can't see you looking at your resume, you still need to be prepared so that
you'll sound polished and confident.

Be Professional:

Just as you would a regular interview, ensure you appear professional. Practice talking
on the phone with a friend, simulating a phone interview. Keep an eye on your speech
patterns and don't talk excessively or mumble. Be attentive to the interviewer. Because
the interviewer can't see you, they can't see your body language or how you act when
you respond to questions. All your feedback is coming to them through the phone, so it's
critical that your phone skills be excellent.

Also, ensure that you aren't chewing gum, that you sit straight, you smile, and that you
dress the part. No one will see how you are dressed but it will change your attitude. By
thinking and acting like this is an interview (and it is!), you will come across as more
confident and prepared.

Follow-up:

Just as you would a traditional interview, follow-up with the interviewer to let them know
that you appreciate the time they took in interviewing you. Let them know again of your
interest in the job and that you look forward to hearing from them regarding the position.

Remember, a phone interview is just like a regular interview. It can determine whether
you get hired on the spot or get selected for a future interview. It's important to treat it
just like any other interview you would participate in, so ensure that you are prepared,
confident, and attentive to the interviewer.


                                                                                               37
38
HOW DO EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES WORK?

Employment agencies (also known as placement and temporary [or temp] agencies) can help you
find a job. Their role is to find people for specific openings but these jobs are with other
companies. Their job is to find you a job with another company.

You should not pay any money to these agencies. They make their money by charging the
company that is looking for employees, or they take a small percentage of your wage. If
someone says you need to pay first for a job, you should be very careful and find out more
before you give any money to anyone. Agencies and headhunters may sometimes require that
you pay them after they find you work. But, any payment should be made only after you have
started in a suitable position.

Before you apply to an agency, check to make sure that they can really place you in your field.
Some agencies focus on placing people in specific fields like, technology, office assistance, and
security. You should be careful that you apply to agencies that have jobs in your field.
You can and should also apply to many different agencies. That way, you will have
more agencies working to find you a job. There is no penalty for applying to many
different agencies at the same time.

Some placement agencies place you in short-term or temporary positions and others place you in
long-term or permanent jobs. Once you register with an agency you should call your placement
agent OFTEN (about once a week or twice a month) to find out if they have jobs available for
you.

There are some tips you should consider when working with an employment agency:

      Look out for "bait-and-switch" tactics. If you read about a great job but if they tell
       you it has already been filled, or that you are overqualified, be careful. If/when they offer
       you a very different job, the agency is not dealing in good faith. An offer of highly paid
       work from home is usually scam.
      If the ad says "get rich quick", you will not get rich but the advertiser will. For
       many years, scam artists placed advertisements that promised a lot of money for "only a
       small investment" and people believed them. Now they place similar ads online or on the
       television. It may cost "only $39.95" to find out that you will never hear from them again
       or that your job is to follow instructions on how to run a similar ad to trap others. If you
       are job hunting you must have better ways to spend the money.
      Be careful if the job description is not specific. Some employment agencies keep
       their job descriptions very general in order to avoid their competitors finding out which
       companies they represent. But you should be offered a full description of the position
       before you accept it.
      Offers of high earnings may not mean much. Sales positions can start a great career
       or offer a downhill ride. If, taking your experience into account, the earning potential
       sounds too good to be true, it probably is. Offers that promise high earnings for beginners
       often involve commission sales rather than salaries.
      Even the best sales technique will not sell a bad product. Internet sales are growing
       so quickly that many new Canadians are tempted to jump into any sales job to gain
       experience. If you are interested in online sales, look before you commit. Make sure you
       know all the details about the product, the producer and the marketer. Check their
       reputations with business associations and consumer agencies.
      Never give out your Social Insurance Number (SIN), credit card number or any
       financial information when you respond to an advertisement. Over the Internet,
       the telephone, or at your door, do not give personal                 information to anyone
       unless they offer you a job in writing and you receive                a copy of the contract.
       Special caution is urged when making applications                     over the Internet.
                                                                                                    39
Second Interview Tips
Do's

In the first interview employers are trying to identify many general qualities important to their
organization, but in the second interview employers will try to determine if you are having the
specific qualities they are looking for in a new employee. So you have to work hard for the second
interview.

Following are some second interview tips.

   1. Collect the information

       It is important to know the schedule of the day's activities, including names and titles of
       the interviewers. If possible for you then collect the biographical information about the
       person who will be interviewing you. Some organizations post staff profiles on their Web
       site.

   2. Travel arrangements

       Traveling planning is as important as other aspects of second interview. You must reach 5-
       10 minutes early at the interview. Your travel plans can be handled in a number of ways.
       You may be asked to make your own arrangements or the organization may coordinate
       your travel arrangements.

   3. Lodging

       If you are not living at the location of interview and staying at a hotel, ask if the
       organization will be making arrangements for your lodging. Make sure you have clear
       directions from your place of lodging to the organization. Check on parking options if you
       are driving to the interview.

   4. Research the employer for relevant information

       You can ask the first round interviewer to send you any additional information. The
       information may be about the job, the organization, the department you would work for.

       Check the Website for articles or information about the organization or industry.

   5. Dress code

       Professional dressing is always helps for good impression. Arrive dressed appropriately for
       the job. If any doubt then wear a conservative suit.

   6. Prepare questions to ask your interviewers

       In the second interview there is an opportunity to ask the questions to interviewers. Your
       questions will show enthusiasm about working for the employer. Remember you are also
       interviewing to see if this is the position you want.

       Following are some points you may want to cover:

             Ask to see a job description.
             Ask about the performance appraisal system.

                                                                                                     40
         Ask about the management style of the organization.
  7. Salary

     One question you should be ready to answer is on the salary expected. In an interview, you
     might be asked to state a figure. You must know the salary of persons of your qualifications
     as starting salaries in positions similar to the one for which you are interviewing. One way
     to handle salary questions is to give a salary range.

  8. Self-Presentation

     Arrive 5-10 minutes early at the interview. Be aware of how you interact with others,
     including support staff and other candidates. Engage in small talk with company
     representatives, but avoid controversial topics. Maintain professionalism at all times.

     Do not smoke while you are on site. Offer information you have learned about the company
     in your discussions and conversations. Remember your table manners: companies want
     employees with social as well as job skills.
     Maintain smile, composure and enthusiasm throughout your interview.




     To be continued…..

Second Interview Tips – Part II
Do's

  9. Do's for second interview

     Following are Do's for second interview:

        1. Do try to collect the business card of everyone you meet with. Keep a small notepad
           handy to write down names in case there is someone from whom you cannot get a
           card.
        2. Do listen for clues that get at the heart of what the employer seeks in the person
           hired for this position and key into the needs, concerns, issues, and problems that
           you would be expected to handle.
        3. Do remember that most of the guidelines that apply to first interviews also relate to
           second interviews.
        4. Some experts suggest that talking with company insiders is one of the most
           productive ways to prepare for a second interview.
        5. Look for opportunities to refresh yourself during the interview day. In the break you
           can splash some water on your face. Maintain your energy, confidence, and
           enthusiasm.
        6. A major reason for the second interview is so the employer can see how well you fit
           in with the company culture. Deploy your very best interpersonal communication
           skills. Remember one thing that second interview is also your opportunity to
           determine whether the company is a good fit for you.
        7. Do expect to be asked some of the same questions you were asked in the first
           interview, but some new ones as well. Second-interview questions may contain
           more questions on your personality, or they may be more targeted toward specific
           technical skills.
        8. Be sure you know exactly where it is and how long it takes to get there.
        9. Remember one thing that second interview will involve more preparation, more
           people, more questions, more intensity, and more pressure.

                                                                                               41
           10. In the second interview, they may ask behavioral questions, which are commonly
               asked in second interviews.
           11. You have to prepare lots of questions to ask. You will likely have more opportunity
               to ask questions in the second interview.
           12. Do get a feel for what second interviews are like. The University of Kent in the UK
               offers write-ups that describe second and subsequent interviews at numerous
               major, international companies.
           13. If you do not receive an offer, ask about the next step in the process.




   10. Observe carefully

       You have to consider your own comfort with the job and organization. Each department or
       company has a "climate". So you have to observe the climate very carefully. You may ask
       some yourself following questions about the work environment:

              What is the work environment like? Calm? Frantic? Stimulating?
              Do you feel comfortable, does it seem like somewhere you would like to work?




       Ask for the job

       No one will give you job, unstill you ask for it. Do not think that the interviewer knows that
       you want the job. Let him/her know that you want it.

       Follow up

       Follow up letter is also one important part of interview. After you return from your visit,
       write follow-up letters to your interviewers. If you interviewed with several individuals, plan
       to write individual thank-you letters.

       Make each interview a learning experience

       After the interview, write down what you have learned. Ask yourself following questions:

              Did I present my qualifications well?
              Did I talk too much?
              What can I do to improve my next interview?

       With the help of these questions, you can make plans to improve your skills.



THE COMPANY CHRISTMAS PARTY

Company Christmas parties are a tradition in Canada and newcomers are often not familiar with party
traditions. They may feel even more uncomfortable if their culture does not celebrate Christmas.
Nevertheless, it may be a good idea to go to the holiday party.

Newcomers to Canada are sometimes also shy or might find a social evening intimidating. An evening
full of conversation in English and social interaction in a not-yet familiar culture might be scary,
especially if English is not your first language. Try to consider the party a good opportunity to practice
                                                                                                       42
your language and social skills! Your friends and colleagues will be interested in the stories of your
country and culture.

Here are some useful tips for these holiday parties:

• Ask your friends or colleagues about their wives or husbands, interests and hobbies. They may be
similar to those of you or your spouse. This would be a great way to create instant conversation!

• Dress up. Put on nice clothes and let them see you at your best.

• Carry breath mints. As the evening moves on and you have had a few drinks, garlic dip and a few
more drinks, your breath may not be very fresh. Be kind to your fellow partygoers and carry some
mints.

• Do not drink too much. This is an important standard. Drinking and job stability do not mix, if the
event is a workplace party.

• Bring your spouse, or if you are going alone, then “mingle.” Mingling means to talk and get to know
others. Do not spend the entire evening alone — talk to other people. Take an interest in others and
you will be surprised how much they take an interest in you.

• After the party, send a handwritten note or a thank-you email to your host, manager or supervisor,
appreciating a wonderful dinner and a great time.

• Do not just leave when the dinner is over and the music begins. Stay a little bit, chat, and listen to
music, laugh and dance!

• If it is a work party, do not talk about work too much. Talk about holiday plans that you may have or
the exciting things you have planned for the New Year. Create an excitement about something non-
work related.

And do not forget to have a great time! You will find that around the world, people are not so different
when they are relaxed and enjoying themselves.




                                                                                                           43
             FILLING OUT APPLICATION FORMS
Sometimes employers ask you to fill out an application form when you apply to
work for them. The way you complete this form can say a lot about you. If you
do not follow the instructions, the employer will think that you will not follow
instructions at work either. If your form is messy, they might think that you
will be a messy worker also.

Here are some things to remember when you fill out application forms:

 1. Make sure your handwriting is neat. If the form you filled out looks sloppy and hard
    to read, an employer will possibly not even read it.
 2. Make sure you fill out EVERY BLOCK on the application form. If there is a section
    that does not apply to you or if you do not think you should answer it, you can write
    N/A (not applicable).
 3. If you can take the application form home, try to take two of them. One you can use
    as a working copy and the other one as the clean copy that you will submit to the
    prospective employer.
 4. Read each question carefully before answering. Make sure you are clear about what
    they ask.
 5. Print all your letters the same size and do not write outside of the lines.
 6. Use a pen, not a pencil. If you make a mistake, cross it out with a single stroke
    through the incorrect word(s).
 7. When you are done filling your form out, read all your answers again and check your
    spelling and grammar. Try to ask someone else to read the form over to check for
    mistakes that you may have missed.
 8. Do not forget to sign it.
 9. A lot of the information they ask on application forms are also on your résumé, so
    keep your résumé handy when you are filling out application forms.




                                                                                            44
        ELECTRONIC RESUME
With more and more information going on-line, technology has opened new doors for job
seekers!

Many business and organizations are now using on-line recruitment methods. Companies are
now advertising available positions through their own company web site and providing job
seekers the opportunity to apply for the position through e-mail.

What is an Electronic Resume?

This resume format allows you to make your information electronically friendly! There are two
basic versions of the Electronic Resume:

Plain Text: This version will allow you to insert your resume into an e-mail or to cut and paste
it into on-line application forms.

Scannable: Employers are using the Electronic Resume format to select prospective
candidates through a process that involves scanning all resumes submitted into a resume
management system database. They will then run a search of all resumes that use keywords
that are related to the position they are recruiting for.

Preparing Your Electronic Resume

In creating your Electronic Resume, you are not developing a different resume. All your
information will basically stay the same. What you are doing is changing the format.

You must ensure that your resume will be recognized through the scanning process. To
increase you chances for success, consider the following suggestions:

      Use keywords that highlight specific skills, abilities and qualifications (a well-written,
       well-prepared resume will already contain many of the necessary keywords!)
      Alter your margins, use a maximum of 65 characters per line
      Use a basic font and font size ranging from 10-14 points
      Do not use underlining, italics, script or graphics
      Avoid using columns

REMEMBER:




                                                                                                    45
      Before you send out your Electronic Resume try e-mailing it to a friend to see how it
       looks! You want to make sure that the format remains the same once sent
       electronically.
      Electronic Resumes are becoming more popular. It is a quick way to contact a potential
       employer!
      Putting your Electronic Resume on-line allows for more exposure! Consider using some
       of the sites to post your resume.


THE POWER OF A SIMPLE THANK-YOU NOTE

When a friend was hired for her first real job after graduating from university, she was remembered
and saluted by her new supervisor for one seemingly small step she had taken during the interviewing
process: She was the only applicant of several interviewed who had sent a thank-you note after her
interview.
It seems amazing, but it is true: A simple thank-you note after a job interview can have considerable
power and influence, and reflect very favorably on your candidacy for the position. Why? There are
several reasons:

1. By sending a thank-you note, you show your interviewer common courtesy and respect.

Unfortunately, in our busy and often impolite world, we simply do not acknowledge each other's time,
efforts and commitments. So in sending a thank-you note, you tell your interviewer in no uncertain
terms that you appreciate the time he/she has given you. After all, he/she had to give up part or all of
the day to be with you, and expend effort learning more about you and what you have to offer.

2. So few job applicants send thank-you notes that you automatically stand out if you do.

It is shocking, but the majority of job applicants DO NOT send thank-you notes after their interviews.
Why? Who knows? But the bottom line is that you wind up in a position to shine simply by putting
forth the effort of sending a note. It is strange, but true.

3. A thank-you note gives you an opportunity to reiterate points you made during your
interview.

Have you ever left an interview wishing you had more strongly emphasized a certain skill or
experience the employer seemed to be looking for? A thank-you note gives you the chance to do just
that. After using the first paragraph of your note to thank your interviewer, you can use a brief second
paragraph to touch again upon the key points you made in your interview. You can also use a similar
strategy to clean up any interview rough spots you might have had -- i.e., to expand upon or clarify
responses you felt were weak or shaky.

4. A thank-you note lets you make points you forgot to make in your interview.

Sometimes after an interview, as you walk out to your car, you smack yourself on the forehead and
say to yourself, "Why didn't I talk about _____?" Frustrating? You bet. But you can take care of the
problem to some degree in your thank-you note. Again, perhaps in the second paragraph, you can say
something to the effect of "After our discussion, it occurred to me that I forgot to tell you about
_________."

                                                                                                      46
5. A thank-you note demonstrates your written communication skills.

In receiving and reading your thank-you notes, your interviewer will see firsthand how you handle
yourself on paper. You will be using similar skills every day with the company's potential clients,
customers and vendors -- so the interviewer will be reading carefully to see how you come across in
print.

Writing thank-you notes is not terribly difficult or time-consuming. Be sure to follow through,
preferably the same day as your interview. It can make a much bigger difference than you might think
-- perhaps even the difference between the job going to you or someone else.

THE POWER OF A SIMPLE THANK-YOU NOTE

When a friend was hired for her first real job after graduating from university, she was remembered
and saluted by her new supervisor for one seemingly small step she had taken during the interviewing
process: She was the only applicant of several interviewed who had sent a thank-you note after her
interview.
It seems amazing, but it is true: A simple thank-you note after a job interview can have considerable
power and influence, and reflect very favorably on your candidacy for the position. Why? There are
several reasons:

1. By sending a thank-you note, you show your interviewer common courtesy and respect.

Unfortunately, in our busy and often impolite world, we simply do not acknowledge each other's time,
efforts and commitments. So in sending a thank-you note, you tell your interviewer in no uncertain
terms that you appreciate the time he/she has given you. After all, he/she had to give up part or all of
the day to be with you, and expend effort learning more about you and what you have to offer.

2. So few job applicants send thank-you notes that you automatically stand out if you do.

It is shocking, but the majority of job applicants DO NOT send thank-you notes after their interviews.
Why? Who knows? But the bottom line is that you wind up in a position to shine simply by putting
forth the effort of sending a note. It is strange, but true.

3. A thank-you note gives you an opportunity to reiterate points you made during your
interview.

Have you ever left an interview wishing you had more strongly emphasized a certain skill or
experience the employer seemed to be looking for? A thank-you note gives you the chance to do just
that. After using the first paragraph of your note to thank your interviewer, you can use a brief second
paragraph to touch again upon the key points you made in your interview. You can also use a similar
strategy to clean up any interview rough spots you might have had -- i.e., to expand upon or clarify
responses you felt were weak or shaky.

4. A thank-you note lets you make points you forgot to make in your interview.

Sometimes after an interview, as you walk out to your car, you smack yourself on the forehead and
say to yourself, "Why didn't I talk about _____?" Frustrating? You bet. But you can take care of the
problem to some degree in your thank-you note. Again, perhaps in the second paragraph, you can say

                                                                                                      47
something to the effect of "After our discussion, it occurred to me that I forgot to tell you about
_________."

5. A thank-you note demonstrates your written communication skills.

In receiving and reading your thank-you notes, your interviewer will see firsthand how you handle
yourself on paper. You will be using similar skills every day with the company's potential clients,
customers and vendors -- so the interviewer will be reading carefully to see how you come across in
print.

Writing thank-you notes is not terribly difficult or time-consuming. Be sure to follow through,
preferably the same day as your interview. It can make a much bigger difference than you might think
-- perhaps even the difference between the job going to you or someone else.

                                   Sample Email Thank You Letter

Subject Line of Email Message:
Thank You – Senior System Analyst Interview

Email Message:

Your Name
Your Address
Your City, State, Zip Code
Your Phone Number
Your Email

Date

Name
Title
Organization
Address
City, State, Zip Code



Dear Mr. /Ms. Last Name:

Thank you for taking the time out of your busy schedule to talk to me about the Senior System Analyst
position with XXX Company. I appreciate your time and consideration in interviewing me for this
position.

After speaking with you and the group, I believe that I would be a perfect candidate for this position,
offering the quick learning and adaptability that is needed for a diversified position.



                                                                                                          48
In addition to my enthusiasm for performing well, I would bring the technical and analytical skills
necessary to get the job done.

I am very interested in working for you and look forward to hearing from you once the final decisions
are made regarding this position. Please feel free to contact me at anytime if further information is
needed. My cell phone number is (555) 111-1111.

Thank you again for your time and consideration.

Sincerely,

Your Signature

----------------------------

Your Typed Name




                               ASSESSMENT OF YOUR CREDENTIALS

Your education and professional experience were probably assessed as part of the immigration
process before you came to Canada. You were probably told that your skills match what is needed
here. Nevertheless, this assessment process is not the same as that of your professional regulatory
body’s. Regulatory bodies carry out evaluations in Ontario in order to grant you a license or certificate
so you can practice here.

It is easy to get disappointed by this two-tiered process. While immigration officials in your home
country might have you told that you will likely be able to practice in Ontario, the professional
regulatory body has different standards. It is possible that they will ask you to complete courses or
even reject your application.

If you would like to have more information on credential assessments, you can visit the Canadian
Information Centre for International Credentials web site: http://www.cicic.ca/en/index.aspx.

For Labour Market Information in Canada, you can consult the following site:
http://www.settlement.org/downloads/CdnLabourMarketOnline.pdf


The following are credential assessment services in Ontario:

World Education Services-Canada (WES Canada)
      45 Charles Street East, Suite 700
      Toronto, Ontario M4Y 1S2 Canada
      Tel.: +1 416 972-0070
      Fax: +1 416 972-9004
      Toll-free: +1 866 343-0070
      E-mail: ontario@wes.org
      Web site: http://www.wes.org/ca/
                                                                                                        49
Comparative Education Service (CES)
     University of Toronto
     315 Bloor Street West
     Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A3
     Tel.: +1 416 978-2190
     Fax: +1 416 978-7022
     Web site: http://www.adm.utoronto.ca/ces/


International Credential Assessment Service of Canada (ICAS)
      Ontario AgriCentre
      100 Stone Road West, Suite 303
      Guelph, Ontario N1G 5L3
      Tel.: +1 519 763-7282
      Toll-free: +1 800 321-6021
      Fax: +1 519 763-6964
      E-mail: info@icascanada.ca
      Web site: http://www.icascanada.ca/




  Job-Hunting in a Weak Job Market: 5 Strategies for Staying Upbeat (and Improving Your
                         Chances of Success)

By: Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D.

Job Market Blues: A malady affecting millions of Americans during a weak job market caused by a struggling
economy. Symptoms include high levels of anxiety, fear, and depression related to keeping one's current job or
finding a new job, tied to the ability to pay one's bills and maintain a place to live and food to eat.

For many job-seekers, searching for a new job is a stressful experience. The end result, though, is usually a
positive one in which the job-seeker is rewarded for his or her past accomplishments with a better job -- a job that
has more prestige, higher pay, and perhaps with a better organization.

But when you have to conduct a job-search in a weak job market, the stress level increases dramatically --
especially if you are currently unemployed, expect to be let go from your current employer, or work in an industry
or profession that has seen widespread job cuts.

To make matters worse, it's hard not to get anxious and depressed from the daily economic and job news we
receive. Just about every day we hear about another company announcing layoffs or some economist predicting
more months of job losses and a sharp increase in the unemployment rate… leading many into the Job Market
Blues.

Let's face it -- if very few politicians will. The U.S. economy is in a recession. While other economic data may not
yet confirm what many of us have known for months, history shows that anytime in the last century when the

                                                                                                                       50
economy has had at least six consecutive months of job losses (as we have had, starting back in January 2008),
the economy has ultimately been declared in recession.

So, when all this bad news abounds and adds to the stress you already feel in trying to find a new job, how do you
keep your focus and stay upbeat? What's the remedy? Granted, it can be difficult, but if you follow the five
strategies in this article, you should be well on your way to overcoming the stress and anxiety and landing that next
great job – or at least a job that will help you pay your bills.

1. Keep a positive focus. In a weak job market, employers that are actually hiring workers have a much greater
selection of prospective candidates and will quickly eliminate any job-seekers who appear desperate or too
negative.

Your goal, even if you are scrambling to pay your mortgage and put food on the table, is to appear outwardly
positive. Employers seek job candidates who are confident and specific about the jobs they seek and the impact
they can make in those positions.

You may need to consider temping or a survival job if you are currently unemployed while you seek a new job in
your profession, and while that is not the ideal scenario, doing so will allow you to pay your bills, gain some
renewed confidence, and give you an emotional boost that will help in your job interviews.

If you were downsized or fired, you face some additional challenges of convincing yourself that you are still a good
job prospect.

One final tip. When the bad news is overwhelming or you are feeling angry and frustrated, try and find a way to
step outside the bubble. Take a few hours to get away from all the bad news -- do something enjoyable like going
to the park or beach or down to the river to fish. Doing so will not make all the bad news disappear but will give you
a mental break you need to face the next challenges.

2. Surround yourself with support. Do not suffer through a bad time alone. Seek out the emotional support of
family and friends. Sometimes just talking out about our fears and the stress we are experiencing makes us feel
better.

Whatever you do, don't hide your problems from the people closest to you. There is no shame in being downsized
or in struggling to find new employment. The comfort you can receive from a spouse, significant other, parent, or
friend can be enough to give you the emotional boost you need to reinvigorate your job-search.

The other benefit from seeking the support of others is that the more people in your network of contacts that know
you are seeking a job, the more likely you will uncover more job leads that you may never have found if people
around you did not know you were seeking a new position.

One final tip: While using your existing network for support is a good start, consider taking additional steps to
expanding your network. Join one or more community or professional organizations. An even better idea? Join
together with other job-seekers in forming a job club, which has then dual benefits of offering support and potential
job leads.

3. Don't believe everything you hear or read. While much of the current employment news is certainly awful --
the reality is that there are many companies hiring new employees every day.



                                                                                                                   51
Of course, it's not just employment news that turns our stomachs, but all the other economic bad news -- such as
faltering banks, the weak dollar, rising inflation, and a president who wishes he had a magic wand to fix all the
problems.

But there are also programs and professionals that can assist you in improving your job-hunting techniques or
offering retraining opportunities.

One final tip. If you watch your local television news, turn it off -- at least until you have a new job. Several
organizations have proven that most local news programs sensationalize bad news for ratings, and the more you
watch these programs, the more you feel that the world is collapsing around you -- and you simply do not need that
kind of atmosphere when you are struggling to keep your confidence.

4. Have long-term focus, but short-term goals. The most successful job-seekers have a long-term career
strategy developed with smaller short-term goals to assist them in achieving that long-term goal.

Your most basic goal may be to simply find a new job in your field, but even in this job market, that could be more
long-term. Instead of dwelling too much on getting the job, put more emphasis on the process of finding the job.

In other words, create daily job-hunting goals for yourself. Make it a goal to accomplish several things each day,
such as tracking down job leads, applying for jobs, making new network contacts, following up job leads, going on
job interviews.

One final tip: It's a bit of a cliché, but the best way to really focus on finding a new job is to treat the job-search like
a job in itself. Invest as much time, energy, and commitment to finding a new job as you do at your job. The more
things you can do today to find a new job will result in more job opportunities -- maybe not tomorrow or even next
month, but the rewards will come to you.

5. Remember that everything counts. Of course, everything counts -- but let's use a marketing example to
demonstrate that when you are seeking a new job you are basically marketing yourself to prospective employers.

Marketing is not just about having a great product, but also having the right packaging, distribution, price, and
promotion to attract consumers. There are many stories of great products that have failed miserably because of
some flaw in the other elements of marketing.

If you are struggling with your job-search, review your entire marketing package:

Your product. All products need some freshening at times, but they also need to have obvious features that are in
demand. Review your accomplishments, education and training, and other elements that make you -- or can make
you -- a strong candidate. Just as consumers love new and shiny products, so too do employers seek job
candidates who have the best mix of education, training, and accomplishments -- all packaged in a friendly,
positive, and professional style.

Your promotion. The three most important elements in promoting yourself to employers are cover letters, resumes,
and interviewing technique. If you are not getting any interviews, the problem could very well be with your resume
or cover letter; seek advice from experts about the quality of your resume and cover letters (from local career one-
stop centers, former bosses, your college career center, or a resume service). If you are going on interviews but
not obtaining any offers, the problem may be with your interviewing style; consider asking a hiring manager who
did not hire you to critique your interviewing style, or consider conducting a mock interview with someone in your
network or a local career professional.
                                                                                                                          52
Your distribution channels. The vast majority of job-seekers who struggle in any economy to find a job typically are
only utilizing a small part of their job-search distribution channels. When job-hunting, your most important channel
for uncovering job lead is your network of contacts -- the vast majority of new hires result from a personal
recommendation of a network contact. And with the expansion of Web 2.0 tools, networking has exploded online.
Besides networking, other channels for uncovering job leads includes: Web job boards (national, local, and
industry/profession), company job postings, trade publications, local newspapers, cold calling, recruiters, career
fairs, and career centers (local, university).

Your pricing. In any job market, it's important to have a realistic idea of your value to prospective employers, but it
is even more important in a weak market to not price yourself out of the chance to obtain the interview or receive
the job offer. Use industry salary information as well as salary Website information to determine the salary you
seek -- especially if employers ask for that information from the beginning with a salary request. You should also
have a strong understanding of the salary negotiation process so you're ready when the time arises. Finally, you
typically should not undervalue yourself when job-hunting, but in bad times, you may be forced to take a big cut in
salary just to pay the bills; if so, stay determined that it is just a temporary setback until the market gets better or
until you can find a better job.

One final tip. Whether you believe the power that marketing has in job-hunting, the most important thing to
remember is that you should always put your best foot forward in all aspects of job-hunting. You cannot be
defeatist. You cannot appear demanding. You cannot appear or act overqualified. If you are not getting any
interviews or if you are obtaining interviews only to be told you are under-qualified or overqualified, the problem is
indeed in the marketing of yourself -- and you'll need to fix it before you'll be successful.

Final Thoughts
In a struggling economy, the Job Market Blues affect us all. Staying upbeat in these weak economic times is tough
even when you are happily employed and not seeking new employment. Job-hunting in such a job market can
place a great strain on your self-confidence and outlook for the future. By following the advice in this article, you'll
not only regain some of your confidence but ideally uncover ways you can enhance and improve your job-search,
leading to both short-term and long-term job goal successes -- and beating the blues.

Please note: This article has been reproduced from Quintessential Careers (quintcareers.com). Copyright
by Quintessential Careers. The original article can be found at: http://www.quintcareers.com/job-
hunting_weak_job-market.html. Reprinted with permission from website.

Source: http://www.quintcareers.com/job-hunting_weak_job-market.html




                       Why You Didn’t Get the Job After an Interview
                                      Susan Qudeer
A job interview is all about how you measure up against the other candidates being
interviewed. If you were unsuccessful, very often you will hear that someone else was better
qualified. While this may be true, there may be other reasons as well.

You failed to be memorable
You need to make an impression. There are many ways to do that, but one good way is to
provide answers in a story format. You can then be identified with the story: “Oh, I remember
                                                                                                                      53
him-he was the one who turned a loss into a profit by giving out the hardware overstocks as
free samples to shoppers as they entered the store.” A good story about your
accomplishments is far more memorable than just saying you have the necessary experience.

You delivery was annoying
You either spoke too quickly or too slowly. You were hard to follow or they got tired of waiting
for you to get to the point. You may figure this out by noting the interviewer’s reactions. Do
they look bored or puzzled? Practice can improve your performance.

Too much self-promoting or too little
There is a fine line between describing your achievements and being boastful. It is important
to strike the right balance. Culture plays a big part in what is expected and acceptable. You
may need to ask for help from mentors in setting just the right tone.

You didn’t know enough about the job
If you have not shown the interviewer that you are familiar with the company and how you
could be an asset, they will wonder if you are the right person for the job. Do your best to find
out how the company operates and what it needs.

Job slated for someone else
Sometimes jobs are advertised because it is a requirement, but they already have someone in
mind for the job. No one will tell you this, and there is nothing you can do about this. The only
thing good about it is that you get interview practice and some exposure to possible
employers when another job comes up.

Looking for comfort at work
While there is a lot of discussion about diversity in the workplace, often people feel more
comfortable with people like themselves. Someone with a different background, culture,
outlook or age may not be seen as such a good “fit”. If you don’t look, sound or think the way
the interviewer does, there is very little you can do about this except to impress them with your
good stories, polished speaking style, knowledge about the company, innovative ideas,
enthusiasm, history of hard work and willingness to take on a challenge.




                 MYTH: ALL AVAILABLE JOBS ARE ADVERTISED

Most people start their job search by looking at the newspaper or exploring a job search site on the
Internet. But only 5% of available jobs are advertised in newspapers or on the Internet while 5% are
obtained through direct mail and 10% are filled through a search firm or recruitment agency. Almost
80% of job vacancies are in the hidden job market.

Here is a comparison of different methods used for job search:



                                                                                                  54
Advertisements – most job seekers look at these. If that is the only method you use, you have a
LOT of competition.

Direct Mail - mass mailing resumes or cover letters is not effective if you do not follow up. Just think
about yourself: do you like reading unsolicited mail? Employers receive hundreds of e-mails and letters
from job seekers every day. They usually make three piles out of them: 1. must read 2. should or
want to read, or 3. store it in the round file (or file it under G – g for garbage, that is, throw it in the
garbage bin.)

Search Firms or Placement Agencies are a good place to look for a job, but you cannot depend
on them alone. They work for their clients (the employers that hire them) and not for the candidate
(you, the job seeker). Their clients pay them and not you. Note: if an employment agency asks you to
pay them to find you a job, it is best not deal with them.

If the placement agency finds a match between the needs of the employer and what you have to offer
in your resume, and if they know about you, they are likely to call you. But do not rely on these search
firms alone because sometimes you could wait forever. Often, they place ads in the newspaper or on
the Internet on behalf of the employer so that they can receive your resume first to screen you before
they send it on to the employer.



Make sure that your resume does not have any errors. Typing mistakes and poor English can reflect
negatively on you. Your resume can be thrown out because of mistakes; your resume serves as your
calling card or marketing piece. If it is well organized and letter perfect, you yourself are looked at as
organized. If it is sloppy, you will be considered sloppy, too.

THERE IS A MASSIVE JOB MARKET JUST BELOW THE SURFACE:

THE HIDDEN JOB MARKET – it contains jobs that are not advertised in newspapers or on the Web.




        WHAT DO I ASK AT AN INFORMATIONAL INTERVIEW?
Here are some sample questions you can ask at an informational interview. You can print this
page and put your notes into the spaces below each question during your interview:

    1. How long have you been employed in your position?




    2. How did you get into this field?




                                                                                                         55
3. What does a typical day look like for you?




4. What do you like the most about your job?




5. What type of person would be suitable for this position?




6. How well-suited is my background for this field?




7. What kind of training / education do I need to work in this field?




8. What types of employers hire people in this line of work?




9. What do you think the future outlook is for this occupation?




10. What is an entry-level position in this field?




11. What is the salary range for this job?




                                                                        56
   12. Are there possibilities for advancement in your organization / in this field?




   13. Can you refer me to someone else who can provide me with additional information about this
       field / occupation?




   14. Can I leave my resume with you so you can give me comments / feedback on it?




   NOTES:

          Do not exceed your requested time, but be prepared to stay longer in case the contact
           person shows a desire to talk longer.
          Dress as if you went for an actual job interview. First impressions are always important.
          Arrive at your appointment a few minutes early and BE COURTEOUS to everyone that you
           meet. That includes secretaries, receptionists and everybody else.
          Take the initiative during the interview. You should be the one asking the questions since
           you are interviewing the other person. Ask open-ended questions which promote a
           discussion instead of yes / no questions.
          When you are inside the organization, look around. What is the work environment like?
           How are the dress style, communication patterns, sense of humor? Is this a place where
           you would want to work?




                         Career Fair Checklist for Career Fair Success

Are you planning to attend a career fair soon? Are you searching for pointers to help you
succeed at the career fair? Which activities should job-seekers perform before, during, and
after the career fair? Take a look at the following checklist for career fair success.


Career Fair Checklist

1. Activities to accomplish before the event
 Take the time to read one or more article on the purpose and nature of career fairs.
 Go to the career fair website. Whenever possible pre-register with the career fair and

                                                                                                    57
 obtain the list of organizations attending the event.
 Decide on the organizations you are most interested in and conduct research on each.
 Gather basic information about the company (size, organization, locations, top
 management), their products, and standing in their industry. Learn how to research
 companies.
 Develop a plan of attack for the career fair. Many experts suggest interviewing with your
 top companies first, then with other recruiters, and toward the end of the day returning
 to your top choices.
 Finish polishing your resume. Review for keywords and accomplishments, check for typos
 and other spelling errors, and customize for each targeted organization (even if it is
 something as small as inserting the organization's name into your job objective). Have
 someone read over your resume, it always helps to have a fresh pair of eyes to review.
 Print out extra copies of your standard resume to bring to the career fair -- just in case you
 need them.
 Consider a mock interview if it's been a while since you have been interviewing. If nothing
 else, review common interview questions as well as prepare a few questions to ask the
 recruiters -- ones that can't be easily answered from available company information.
 Check your attire. Whenever possible, you should wear a well-fitting suit to career fairs.
 For men, it means conservative shirt and tie, polished shoes, styled hair, and removal of
 jewellery from all visible piercings. For women, it means a conservative suit (pants or
 skirt), shoes and pantyhose, styled hair, and removal of jewellery from visible piercings.
 Oh, and if you are prone to sweaty palms, be sure to pack a handkerchief or something
 else (other than your suit) on which to wipe your hand.
 Create or review your elevator speech -- a 15- to 30-second commercial that succinctly
 tells the person you are giving it to who you are, what makes you unique, and the benefits
 you can provide. Learn how to create your elevator speech.


 Other useful, though not necessary items, for the career fair include a portfolio of your
 accomplishments and samples of your work, as well as a stack of personal business cards.
 Portfolios usually get more attention in later interviews, but it doesn't hurt to bring one
 along if you get a recruiter who is hot to hire you. Read more about career portfolios. Your
 personal business card, which is not the business card of your current employer, could be
 a networking card or a resume highlights card. Read more about personal business cards.
 a>.
 Get a good night's sleep the night before. And, as my students like to add, don't get drunk
 the night before either. Oh, and packing some breath mints for the long day ahead might
 also be helpful.
 Remember to pack pen and paper (ideally on a clipboard) for jotting down notes, contact
 information, and other vital details.

2. Activities to accomplish during the event
 As soon as you enter the hall, survey the layout and confirm that it matches up with the
 plan you developed. Then execute your plan.

                                                                                                  58
 Attempt to establish rapport with each recruiter. Remember to smile, make eye contact,
 and offer a firm (but not death-grip) handshake. Use your elevator speech.
 Gather information and materials from each organization's booth. And if they have some
 goodies (pens, magnets, etc.), feel free to take one, but don't be greedy.
 Answer questions, showcase your knowledge of each company, but also remember to ask
 questions so you'll have a better understanding of which organizations are the best fit for
 you.
 Ask about the organization's recruiting timetable. Solicit information about the next step
 in the process.
 If you are considering relocating to a different area, once you've established rapport, ask
 the recruiter if you can obtain the name of the recruiter for that area. Better yet, ask the
 recruiter to forward your information to that other recruiter.
 Remember not to overstay your welcome. If the recruiter starts looking over your
 shoulder, it's time to move on.
 Don't forget to collect business cards from each recruiter. And if you can't get a business
 card, be sure to get all the contact information (including the correct spelling of each
 person's name).
 Remember that politeness counts. If the recruiter appears thirsty, offer to get a beverage
 from the refreshment area for him/her. And don't forget to thank each person you speak
 with for taking the time to meet you and talk to you about opportunities with his/her
 organization.
 Network, network, network. Make connections with people -- not just the recruiters but
 with fellow job-seekers, career professionals, and the like -- the more people in your
 network, the stronger it becomes.

3. Activities to accomplish after the event
 Send thank-you notes to each recruiter, thanking them for their time, interest, and help in
 your job-search. It doesn't matter how you send the thank-you – just as long as you send
 one. Read more about thank-you letters, see samples.
 Reflect on your system, your execution, and your results. What might you have done more
 effectively? Make some initial plans for improvement before the next career fair.
 Plan to follow up with each recruiter about two weeks after the career fair. Contact them
 and express your continued interest with the organization, your assurance of your ability
 to contribute to the organization, and get more information about next steps in the
 process.
 Consider developing some sort of system for keeping track of all the recruiters and
 potential job leads. See an example of a job lead log.
 Remember to find other sources of job leads. Career fairs are a good source, but there are
 many other ways to generate job leads. Read more about ways of developing job leads.

Please note: This article has been reproduced from Quintessential Careers (quintcareers.com). Copyright by
Quintessential Careers. The original article can be found
at: http://www.quintcareers.com/career_fair_checklist.html Reprinted with permission from website.



                                                                                                             59
                     BUSINESS COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL

* A universal format, style, and etiquette is accepted by nearly all organizations. Job
candidates can alienate potential employers simply because they do no use standard
business writing style. Professional communication ability remains a significant factor that
employers use in evaluating and comparing applicants.

* Each letter, however, must be individually tailored to the needs of the prospective
employer and individually produced.

* Misunderstandings often occur because of the failure to follow up in writing. Take the extra
time needed to avoid confusion.

* Always keep copies of letters sent because they may save later embarrassment.

* If correspondence is lost in the mail, showing potential employers the copy may save a job
offer.

* The importance of proper communications cannot be overemphasized. Written
communication is the backbone of every human resources department. A good succession of
communication shows the employer that you sincerely want the job.


Correspondence Tips

* Use a standard business style format and 8 1/2" x 11" paper.

* Type all letters. Employers type even personal notes, so follow this practice.

* Address letters to a particular individual, and use his or her correct title.

* Never duplicate a letter; each must be an original.

* Make paragraphs average in length.

* Always send a letter with a resume, never send a resume alone.

* Check your work carefully for grammar and spelling. It is a good idea to have someone else
proofread it.

* Be wary of suggestions to use fancy attention-getters, overzealous or desperate-sounding
phrases, and exaggerated praise of the employer.

                                     Tough Economic Times
                               What Do They Mean for Your Job Search


                                                                                             60
                                                           Shawn Elliott


Concerned about the impact of the economy on the job market for new grads? With the current economic downturn, HR
budgets are tighter than ever before, which means that companies will likely scale back on campus recruiting activities and
sponsorships. The good news, however, is that they will still be hiring. If employers have learned anything from the past,
it’s that they cannot simply step out of the cycle of hiring new grads; they are just going to have to do things a little
differently from now on—and students like you are going to have to take more ownership of their job search.

With fewer companies conducting on-campus recruitment, students will need to take a much more active role in seeking
out job opportunities, much the same as experienced workers do when they are looking for new employment. In fact, as
companies reorganize and restructure, you may even find yourself facing tough competition from experienced workers.

Here are five tips to help you find that great opportunity upon graduation—even in an economic downturn!

Treat your job search like a class
Looking for a job is a big time commitment—as it should be, given that the purpose of post-secondary education is often
to land a great job. Like your fellow students, you’re busy juggling a course load and other priorities. So why not
schedule three to five hours a week for job searching into your agenda, and treat it like just another course you’re taking?
Use the time wisely: conduct your research, plan your networking calls, call on friends to practice mock interviews or do
résumé critiques. Planning your time and setting goals will yield much greater results than browsing job sites online
when you happen to have some spare time.

Do your homework
Looking for a job means you’ve got homework to do, whether it be preparing for a telephone interview, an in-person
interview or even a networking call. Remember, you only have one chance to make a great first impression, so you have
to demonstrate that you’ve done your research. There is no shortage of information available to today’s job seeker:
company websites, employment journals, best-of lists and financial reports, just to name a few. It is your responsibility
to make yourself as knowledgeable as possible about your prospective employers.

With this comes a note of caution: it’s very easy to fall into the trap of surfing the Web for hours when researching
companies. Make a list of what you need to know, and seek out those specific answers; once you have them, move on to
your next prospect. Don’t allow yourself to get caught up in the increasingly popular “Rate your employer” sites. While
you may find some useful information, it’s more likely that you’ll find yourself on the receiving end of a disgruntled
employee’s rant—and wasting precious time.

Network, Networking, Networking!
Most job seekers will tell you that a large portion of available jobs are never posted for the general public to see. In fact,
surveys suggest than less than 10% of job seekers find a job through online job boards. So how do you find out about these
hidden jobs?
By networking! Take some time to examine your current network. Make use of some of the many, many networking tools
available with the advent of Web 2.0. Facebook is perhaps the most popular, but there are quite a few others that will yield
results in building and expanding your network: LinkedIN, Xing, Ning and YouTube are all examples.

Don’t forget friends and family. Chances are good that someone in your extended family, or a relative of a friend, is

                                                                                                                                 61
working for a company that you are interested in. Don’t be afraid to reach out to that person and ask for help or advice. And
get involved! Student associations, whether within your school
or involving several colleges and universities, are great networking opportunities. Get involved in the association,
participate and, whenever possible, attend group events. Employers are often present, and if they aren’t, there will be no
shortage of interesting people to connect with to share tips and ideas.

Not good at networking? You’re not alone. Networking is a learned skill, one that takes lots of practice. A quick visit to
your local bookstore or online retailer will yield lots of great books that provide tips on how to be a more effective
networker. Take some time to assess your skill in this area, and if necessary, find a book to bridge the gap. One
technique that you should consider is to categorize your contacts according to how well you know them, and network
with those that you know best, first. By the time you get through that list, and move on to the second and third
categories, you’ll be a pro!


Be organized
It is absolutely critical that you build to-do lists and create a log to track your results. You’re going to need to do a lot of
follow-up, and being organized is the only way to ensure you don’t miss a call or forget to send a thank-you note. Set up
a folder in your email to track correspondence, and make sure your contacts are up-to-date.


Stay positive
Of all the advice that can be shared with a job seeker, the most important is: stay positive. You will no doubt come up
against more closed doors than open ones, but the key to reaching that open door is often your mental positioning. Have
your “elevator speech” always ready, and kick into overdrive at every opportunity that comes your way. Be patient. Be
persistent. Be prepared




Education and Training




When investigating different career alternatives, one
constant factor you have to consider is your level of skills,
education, and training. Each occupation requires a
particular set of them. Now that you have chosen a specific
occupation as your dream job you will want to look again at
exactly what qualifications are needed.

After you have identified the qualifications you need, the
next step is to decide how you will go about acquiring those
you don't have. Quite often, you will need to return for
some type of schooling to get a specific degree, diploma or
certificate. Or it may require developing certain skills
                                                                                                                                   62
through less formal channels.

Whichever route you need to take, keep the following
points in mind:

          Double check the importance or necessity of the
           qualifications. If further schooling is needed, make
           sure the program or courses you enrol in are
           recognized by employers. This can't be stressed
           enough. You don't want to spend four years in college
           getting a degree that nobody in your chosen
           occupation accepts as valid.
          Contact the school or schools that offer the program
           you plan to take to make sure you have all the
           requirements you need to enroll in the program.
          Don't wait until the last minute to start investigating
           your options. Talk with your parents, teachers, or
           career counsellors about the choices you plan to
           make. The less hurried your decision, the more likely
           it will be the right decision.



Job Search: Career Planning - Education and training. (n.d.) Retrieved April 3, 2009 from
http://www.nextsteps.org/jobsearch/index.html




Flaunt Your Fluency
By Therese Droste, Monster Contributing Writer




Are you bilingual or multilingual? Whether English is your first or second language, your linguistic skills make you valuable
in the workforce. In fact, companies that recognize and reward such abilities with extra pay tend to have better retention
and satisfaction rates among workers than companies that remain neutral. If your employer falls into the latter group,
don't be shy about demonstrating the benefits of your multicultural background.

So what can bilingual or multilingual skills do for you and your employer? Plenty.

This expertise can boost your profile as a team player. "From time to time, you may be asked to facilitate communications
with a customer due to your language skills," says Joyce Moy, a fluent Chinese speaker and director of the Center for
Workforce Strategies in Long Island City, New York. "If someone asks me to translate something, I look at the request as a
favor that isn't much different than if I were good in computers and someone asked me to fix a glitch, even if it were not
part of my job."

How can you convince employers your language skills are an asset? First, you must convince yourself your skills are
valuable. David Tulin of Philadelphia's Tulin DiversiTeam Associates suggests writing out the following statements:


          My accent will be seen as an additional competence that helps me communicate better with colleagues and
             customers from diverse backgrounds.
                                                                                                                           63
        My language skills will be used to resolve cultural or language conflicts, or problems between customers and
           colleagues.
        Being multicultural or multilingual demonstrates I can adjust my style to different people and situations.
        Being multicultural or multilingual indicates I have experienced looking at problems and opportunities from
           different perspectives.
        Being multicultural or multilingual indicates I think before I act.
        Being multicultural or multilingual means I know how it feels to be misunderstood, and I also know what it
           takes to reverse misunderstandings.

The next step is to take that list of statements and match them with positive experiences in your life in which your
multilingual abilities or multicultural background helped you resolve a problem or communicate better with another person.
"It's similar to creating a life resume," says Tulin. Yet because so many of your life experiences become distant memories,
you have to ponder the past, target such situations and write them down.

The final step is to take those pragmatic life experiences and find opportunities to remind or even inform employers or
interviewers how your multicultural life experiences can be translated to help drive a company's business goals.

Let's say in an interview you're asked how you would deal with a problem situation with a colleague or customer. You could
preface your answer with: "Partly because I know how it feels to have the shoe on the other foot…" and then fill in the rest
with a specific example of how your background helped you solve a similar problem. Simply put, you provide the employer
with an example of how you used your experience as a multilingual person to solve a past business problem or show how
your skills helped you in your past job.

"Once you've convinced yourself how valuable your skills are, you will articulate them better and gain an employer's
confidence," says Tulin.




Things To Consider When Planning Your Second Career
There are many reasons to choose a second career. Maybe you are tired of your current job and would
welcome a change. Perhaps you have recently endured some life-changing event and want or need to
rethink and regroup. Whatever the reason, planning a second career can prove just as, if not more
rewarding than the first. You will also carry with you the skills and experiences you gained the first
time around, and will grow to appreciate them all the more.

 The first question you should ask yourself when planning your second career is what you would most
 enjoy doing for the reminder of your working years? This can be especially important if you chose
 your first career out of necessity or convenience, or harbor a secret longing to tread in uncharted
 waters. Whatever the reason, it is now time to assess your current training and experience, then
 weigh what will be required for the new career.

This may mean you will need additional training or, at the very least, to update the training you have
already received so you will familiar with the latest trends and changes to your particular industry or
field. If your new career differs greatly from the old one, you may need to receive new training
altogether, but you may be surprised to learn just how far your previous education and job experiences
can take you.

Next, you should consider what you are willing to do to make it all work. This may mean making
compromises and concessions, but if the desired end result is happiness, this won't seem quite as
difficult as it may have in the past. Consider how each facet of the new career, i.e. planning, training,
and the actual procurement of the job, will affect your current lifestyle, and figure out what you are
willing to give up or change to make them happen. You may find you do not need to sacrifice much, or

                                                                                                                          64
might discover several changes need to be made. Either way, think about how you will make those
changes, and turn them into something positive that will work in favor of your new life change.

Be open-minded and always retain a positive attitude when moving through each stage of your career
plan. Remember why you decided to make the change, and what led up to your decision to do so. Take
advantage of every opportunity possible, and remember you are being afforded a second chance, one
that should not be taken lightly.


10 tips to improve the way you speak English
Anita D'Souza



Many deserving candidates lose out on job opportunities because of their vernacular accent.
Can I 'neutralise' my accent?

Yes, you can. All you need to do is train yourself to speak English as comfortably and perfectly as you speak
your mother tongue.

How do you train yourself? By inculcating certain practices in your daily lifestyle. These will get you closer to
sounding like a native English speaker and equip you with a global accent -- and you will speak not American or
British English, but correct English.

This is the first step to learn any other accent, be it American or British or Australian.

Lisa Mojsin, head trainer, director and founder of the Accurate English Training Company in Los Angeles, offers
these tips to help 'neutralise' your accent or rather do away with the local twang, as you speak.

i. Observe the mouth movements of those who speak English well and try to imitate them.

When you are watching television, observe the mouth movements of the speakers. Repeat what they are saying,
while imitating the intonation and rhythm of their speech.

ii. Until you learn the correct intonation and rhythm of English, slow your speech down.

If you speak too quickly, and with the wrong intonation and rhythm, native speakers will have a hard time
understanding you.

Don't worry about your listener getting impatient with your slow speech -- it is more important that everything you
say be understood.

iii. Listen to the 'music' of English.

Do not use the 'music' of your native language when you speak English. Each language has its own way of
'singing'.

iv. Use the dictionary.

Try and familiarise yourself with the phonetic symbols of your dictionary. Look up the correct pronunciation of
words that are hard for you to say.


                                                                                                                  65
v. Make a list of frequently used words that you find difficult to pronounce and ask someone who speaks
the language well to pronounce them for you.

Record these words, listen to them and practice saying them. Listen and read at the same time.

vi. Buy books on tape.

Record yourself reading some sections of the book. Compare the sound of your English with that of the person
reading the book on the tape.

vii. Pronounce the ending of each word.

Pay special attention to 'S' and 'ED' endings. This will help you strengthen the mouth muscles that you use when
you speak English.

viii. Read aloud in English for 15-20 minutes every day.

Research has shown it takes about three months of daily practice to develop strong mouth muscles for speaking
a new language.

ix. Record your own voice and listen for pronunciation mistakes.

Many people hate to hear the sound of their voice and avoid listening to themselves speak. However, this is a
very important exercise because doing it will help you become conscious of the mistakes you are making.

x. Be patient.

You can change the way you speak but it won't happen overnight. People often expect instant results and give
up too soon. You can change the way you sound if you are willing to put some effort into it.

Quick tips

Various versions of the English language exist. Begin by identifying the category you fall into and start by
improving the clarity of your speech.

~ Focus on removing the mother tongue influence and the 'Indianisms' that creep into your English
conversations.

~ Watch the English news on television channels like Star World, CNN, BBC and English movies on Star Movies
and HBO.

~ Listen to and sing English songs. We'd recommend Westlife, Robbie Williams      [Images],   Abba, Skeeter Davis
and Connie Francis among others.

Books to help you improve your English

       Essential English Grammar by Murphy (Cambridge)
       Spoken English by R K Bansal and J B Harrison
       Pronounce It Perfectly In English (book and three audio cassettes) by Jean Yates, Barrons Educational
        Series
       English Pronunciation For International Students by Paulette Wainless Dale, Lillian Poms



                               How do I Handle a Telephone Interview?

                                                                                                                    66
Telephone interviews are used by employers to screen candidates so that they can limit the number of
people they will invite for a personal interview.

It is important for a job seeker to always be prepared for a telephone interview. You never know when
a recruiter will call you and ask if you have a few minutes to talk. Better yet, if you suspect that a
potential employer is calling, let your answering machine take the call and call them back when you
are ready and prepared. You do not want to have to answer a surprise telephone interview call while
your children are fighting in the background or your dog is barking waiting for you to let him go
outside.

Be Prepared

You should prepare for a phone interview just as you would for a regular interview. List your strengths
and weaknesses and also prepare your answers to common interview questions. Be ready for a
conversation about your background and skills.

 Keep your resume in front of you when answering interview questions.

 Have a short list of your accomplishments at hand.

 Have a pen and paper handy so you can take notes.

 If you have call-waiting service, turn it off, so your telephone interview is not interrupted. It would
be very unprofessional to take a waiting call while you are being interviewed for a position.

 If the time they call is not convenient for you, ask if you could talk at another time and suggest
alternatives.

 Clear the room of children, pets and friends. Turn off the stereo, the TV and close the door.

During the Telephone Interview

 Do not smoke, chew gum, eat, or drink.

 Smile. Smiling will project a positive image to the listener and will improve the tone of your voice.

 Speak slowly and clearly.

 Use the person's title (Mr. or Ms. and their last name – avoid using Mrs. or Miss, as the person
might be offended if you use the wrong title). Only use a first name if they ask you to do so.

 Do not interrupt the interviewer.

 Take your time – it is acceptable to take a few moments if you need to collect your thoughts.

 Give short answers.

 Remember that your goal is to obtain a personal interview. After you thank the interviewer, you can
ask if it would be possible to meet in person.

After the Interview:

                                                                                                          67
         Take notes about what they asked you and what you answered.

         Do not forget to thank for the interview.



Networking Your Way to a New Job
by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D.

Career experts estimate that the vast majority of job openings are never advertised or publicly announced, but
filled through word-of-mouth or networking -- known as the "hidden job market." The likelihood of a job opening
not being advertised at all increases with the level of the job. Yet, even with this knowledge, most job seekers fail
to fully utilize networking for all it's worth.

Networking means developing a broad list of contacts -- people you've met through various social and business
functions -- and using them to your advantage when you look for a job. People in your network may be able to
give you job leads, offer you advice and information about a particular company or industry, and introduce you to
other so that you can expand your network.

The best place to start developing your network is with your family, friends, and neighbors -- and with their family,
friends, and neighbors, but don't stop there. Talk to co-workers, colleagues in your industry, and those you meet
at industry gatherings, such as trade shows and conferences. Talk with former co-workers, bosses, and
teachers.

The key to successful networking deciding to put the energy needed to make it work. First, you need to get
organized (for example, keeping a business card file or computer database). Second, you need to stay in contact
(for example, through regular phone calls, email, and holiday greetings). Third, you need to set goals for yourself
(such as 5 new contacts per week).

The Steps to Successful Networking:

    1. Develop a firm grasp of job search basics. A good place to start is to review the Domino Effect.
    2. Conduct a self-assessment. An honest review of your strengths and weaknesses is vital. A good place
       to start is with the one of our career tests and quizzes. You should also make some decision relating to
       the types of jobs you want and the types of companies and industries that interest you. Unsure?
       Examine some of these career exploration tools.
    3. Prepare a strong resume. If you don't already have a resume, now is the time to develop one. You
       should ideally develop two resumes -- one in traditional format and one in scannable format. You can get
       information on both types of resumes by going to Resume Resources.
    4. Decide how to organize your network. This step is crucial to your success. If you have ongoing access
       to a computer, the best method is a database or spreadsheet where you can enter key information, such
       as names, titles, company names, addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers, email addresses, and dates
       of communication. Keeping an organized collection of business cards, where you can write notes and
       comments about your network, is another alternative.
    5. Communicate with your network. It is extremely important to stay in touch with your network, which
       you can easily do by phone, mail, or email. Don't be afraid to ask for their help. Most people like helping
       others, and you must communicate your current needs with your network in order for them to be able to
       help you.
    6. Initiate informational interviews. One of the best ways to gain more information about an occupation
       or industry -- and to build a network of contacts in that field -- is to talk with people who are currently
       working in the field. The purpose of the informational interview is to obtain information, not to get a job.
       For everything you ever wanted to know about this type of interviewing, go to Informational Interviewing
       Tutorial.
    7. Follow up with your network. The key is keeping your network informed of your situation and thanking
       them for their efforts. Never take your network for granted.

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Please note: This article has been reproduced from Quintessential Careers (quintcareers.com). Copyright
by Quintessential Careers. The original article can be found at:
http://www.quintcareers.com/networking_guide.html


             THE IMPORTANCE OF TRANSFERABLE SKILLS FOR NEW CANADIANS



Transferable skills are those skills or abilities that can be transferred from one job to another. They
can be acquired through volunteer work, sports, hobbies,



        community work, and careers. Having transferable skills is important for                  new
Canadians and there is a growing demand from employers to hire                 individuals with a
variety of transferable skills.

Employees are expected to have knowledge of their professional area and also have to be able to
adapt to a new working environment, bringing well developed communication skills, the ability to lead
and to follow instructions, and to be able to function efficiently and effectively.

Communication skills, planning skills, and multi-tasking skills, among others, are known as transferable
skills. New employees need to perform efficiently as soon as they start their job, with the help of
these skills.

Transferable skills are strongly desired by employers when recruiting. Developing transferable skills
that would be an asset in a work environment is very                important for newcomers.
Employers are looking for employees who can fit into                                    their
organizations, can add value and learn quickly.

Organizations and employers are looking to hire individuals who are experts in
their fields and also are competent in other areas such as communication, networking, team building,
and career management.

Some of the transferable skills, which employers look for, are:

      Delegating responsibility
      Dealing with crises
      Paying attention to detail
      Assessing and evaluating own and others' work
      Time management
      Multi-tasking
      Presenting written and oral material
      Handling complaints
      Keeping records
      Coordinating activities
      Planning and arranging activities
      Utilizing computer software
      Training or teaching others
      Motivating others
                                                                                                          69
      Identifying and managing ethical issues


                     Mistakes You Should Avoid When Applying For A Job

Here are some major mistakes job applicants make and tips on how to avoid them:

Not researching the company before your interview

Researching the company's web site and the requirements of the job for which you are applying is
very important. You can even contact and network with employees at that company and also call
professional organizations your desired company has memberships in.

If you do your research, it will show you what positions are available and also what type of people the
company wants to hire. If you do not know much about the organization, it will be obvious in the
interview.

Not being able to articulate needs and desires

Many people do not understand what they can bring to the organization; therefore they might not be
able to present themselves and their skills accurately. Companies are hiring because they might need
to solve some problems or because they have opportunities and need more employees. The best
applicants are those who can articulate how their experience is best for the particular position.

Knowing what you want to do and applying for it is important. Some job-seekers have a general
resume and use it to apply for every job. Sometimes they do not even know what they applied for
when they get that phone call for the interview. That is hugely unprofessional.

Also, avoid saying on your resume that you did something that you did not actually do. You might not
remember it in your interview.

Be professional in the interview

Be early to all interviews and do not bring food! Unless of course, you are asked to do so.
Do not share personal information that is not relevant to the job, such as your date last night
(explaining why you are so tired today) or your medical history (explaining why you are not feeling
well). Another unprofessional mistake is to speak badly of a present boss. It makes the recruiter think
that you were / are the problem.

Demonstrating well-developed communication skills

Make sure you are able to talk with confidence and expertise about who you are and what you do
best. Practice the basics of communication before going to the interview, listening and responding,
and NOT TALKING over the interviewer. Too many applicants over-talk while at the same time they do
not listen to the questions they ask of them. Part of having a good interview is listening.

But do not be dull or be afraid to show enthusiasm. Companies seek enthusiastic, focused, passionate
employees.

Keep the personal to yourself


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With the popularity of MySpace, Facebook, Hi5 and other social-network web sites, applicants often
think they can include their social-network identification in their résumés or disclose it in an interview.
However, this can backfire. Generally, what you post on those sites is too personal and makes you
look unprofessional.

Also, make sure that your voicemail reflects a professional attitude. When searching for a job, keep
the outgoing message simple, such as whom they have reached and that you will return the call soon.

Your e-mail address should also reflect professionalism. E-mail addresses often describe people's
personal attributes. The e-mail addresses you give to recruiters should simply state the professional
name of the applicant.

Job interviewing can be a stressful experience. But if you conduct a proper research into the
organization, identify your own experiences and desires while exhibiting professional conduct, your
chances of being hired are greatly increased.


                                           Skills Identification

Employment experts agree that skills identification is essential to a successful job search. Employers
want to know what it is you can do for them -- not just what you've done for someone else. A
knowledge of your unique skills is needed to successfully complete an application, write a resume or
answer interview questions. Skills identification is the first step toward new employment.

Webster's New World Dictionary defines a skill as "a great ability or proficiency, expertness that comes
from training, practice, etc." A simple definition is that a skill is anything you can do right now.

Everyone has skills, hundreds of skills, many of which employers are looking for in an employee. Yet
most people can only identify a few skills and are generally unable to describe them to an employer.
Employers need to hear what you can do. If you're looking at purchasing a product that will cost you
thousands of dollars a year for many years, you also would want to know what it can do. The more
skills you have identified, the easier it is to convince a potential employer that you have what it takes
to do the job.

SKILLS CATEGORIES

Job Skills

Job skills are those skills specific to a job or occupation. An administrative assistant is skilled in typing,
word processing, answering telephones, company correspondence and filing. An accountant would list
accounts receivable, performing accounts payable, payroll, figuring taxes, using a 10-key adding
machine and computer accounting programs. A salesperson would include customer service, record
keeping, order processing, inventory management, billing and product displays.

Job content skills are important to employers for obvious reasons. These are the specific skills they
look for in a candidate to accomplish the duties of the job. Job skills do not always come from
employment. Along with the skills you used in previous jobs, you may have developed job skills
through education, hobbies, community activities and life experiences. Common activities such as
shopping, managing finances, balancing a bank account, hosting a party and teaching a child all
contain potential job skills.

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Self-Management Skills

Sometimes called "personality traits," these self-management skills you use day-by-day to get along
with others and to survive. They're the skills that make you unique. Sincerity, reliability, tactfulness,
patience, flexibility, timeliness and tolerance are examples of self-management skills. Employers look
for these skills in candidates as evidence of how they will fit into the organization. How a person will fit
in is an important consideration to employers.

Transferable Skills

These are skills that can transfer from one job or occupation to another. They may be either self-
management or job content skills, and may or may not have been developed through previous
employment. For most job seekers it's very unlikely that they'll find a job that is identical to their
previous employment. For many today, that new job will be totally different from their past
experience. Therefore, it's critical for a successful job seeker to carefully evaluate how their skills
transfer into other opportunities. It's also important to look for ways to express this transferability to a
prospective employer.

Duties

Many people have trouble distinguishing between their skills and duties. Duties are the basic functions
of an activity. Skills are tools to accomplish those functions. Duties or functions are a part of any
organized activity, whether it's employment, volunteer work or hobbies. A simple example is the
management of a lemonade stand. The basic duties of a lemonade stand owner might be to manage
lemonade operations including production, marketing, distribution and finances. There are many skills
needed to accomplish these functions including: mixing, measuring, planning, sales, customer service,
writing, cash handling, record keeping, maintenance, timeliness, dependability, accuracy and
motivation. A complete list of skills would be very long.

Writing out the duties or functions of an activity first can be a useful way to begin identifying skills.
When presenting your skills to an employer, it's best to tie them to specific activities in which they
were used. It isn't enough to tell the employer your skills; you need to be prepared to tell them where,
when and how you used those skills.

Writing Your Skills

Identifying, listing and describing your skills isn't an easy task. However, it's critical to job search
success and you should plan to invest the time needed. Listed below is an outline for skills
identification that has been successfully used by many job seekers:

 List by title a job you've held. Start with your most recent employment and work backwards.
 Write a detailed description of four to five major duties.
 Think of the skills needed to accomplish each duty you've listed. Write those skills down on a piece
  of paper. Remember to look for both job and self-management skills. Be sure to include tools used,
  machines operated, knowledge applied, etc.
 Repeat the above steps for each activity you anticipate describing to an employer either on an
  application, in your resume or in an interview. Use this process for other work-related activities
  including hobbies, volunteer work and community experience.

Once you've completed this process you should have a long list of skills. Go through the list and select
those skills that match your job goal(s). These are the skills you will use in your job search effort.
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                      NETWORKING TIPS / INFORMATIONAL INTERVIEWS

 Make a list of EVERYONE you know personally, professionally or academically. Do not leave out
someone because you think they might not know anyone. You do not know the people this person
might know.

Organize your list according to who would be most likely knowledgeable or helpful.

Create a list of contacts related to your career interests.

Know yourself, your skills, interests, values, and personality.

Take an inventory of your accomplishments.

Research careers, companies and industries.

Plan and practice an opener. Discuss it with a friend, colleague, or counselor if you like.

Make your move! Send an email or letter first and follow it up with a phone call or you can also
simply call. Assign yourself a daily quota of contacts and be persistent - but not pushy!

Make sure you follow up. Call again within a week if you get no response. Arrange a meeting in
person or by phone but ask only for 15 - 20 minutes.

Make sure you know why you are calling and what you hope to learn, whether it is industry
information, career exploration, mentoring, job search advice, graduate or professional school
guidance, etc. You are not asking for a job at this time.

Ask for names of others. Most important question: Whom do you recommend I contact for
additional information?

Send a thank you note within 48 hours. It can be done over e-mail but a personal letter can also be
very effective.

Maintain connections and nurture the relationships by staying in touch and letting them know when
you find work.

Be patient because networking takes time. Final advice: never stop networking!

                JOBS ADVERTISED IN THE NEWSPAPER OR ON THE INTERNET

Two usual places where you can find advertised jobs are newspaper classifieds and job postings on
the Internet. These can be important in your job search. However, since less than 20 per cent of jobs
are actually advertised, it is important that you also use other job search methods.

Because it does not take a lot of work to access advertised positions, it is not only less work for you
but also for your competitors. Competition for these few advertised positions is greater than for jobs
you can find in the hidden job market.

Classified advertisements
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Non-creative job search means reading the classified sections of newspapers. Although they can be a
valuable source in your job search, they also have disadvantages. Many times these ads leave out
valuable information, such as the name of the employer and the location of the job.

Here are some points that can help you evaluate and respond to newspaper ads.

 1.       Avoid delays. Read the newspaper every day first thing in the morning.
 2.       Read every job posting. New postings are printed daily. Some may even be placed in the
           wrong section, so read all the help wanted ads.
 3.       Write down ads that interest you.
 4.       Do not downplay your qualifications. Employers are looking for the ideal candidate. At
           the same time, job seekers can learn new skills or improve existing ones through on-the-job
           training or experience. If you think you would like the job, consider if you could handle this
           job with a few weeks of experience or if you have done something similar in the past.
 5.       Do not skip over the advertisements that seem to have little information. When you
           are looking for a job, you should give a chance to every listing and follow up, even if the ad
           does not gives you a lot of information. For example, employers often leave out information
           about salary, hours of work and duties, because these are negotiable.
 6.       Beware of ads that appear too good to be true. They probably are.
 7.       Tailor your resumé and cover letter. List your specific skills that relate to the
           announcement.
 8.       Do not include references but take your references list with you for your interview.

                                    THE “HIDDEN JOB MARKET”

Did you know that 80% of jobs are not advertised? They are in the so-called 'Hidden Job
Market'. Two ways you can explore the Hidden Job Market are networking and cold calling. Only
20% of jobs are in the Visible Job Market which means that are advertised on the Internet,
newspapers and trade magazines. These methods are only recommended to be used a little in
your job search. It is better and more fruitful to focus on the Hidden Job Market; there is less
competition there.
Although in your own country you probably had a big network of contacts, your network in
Canada may be small. It is important that you rebuild your network in Canada. Socialize with
people, attend job search workshops, volunteer, attend job fairs and join associations. Talk to
everybody you meet. Remember that people like to help other people.

                                     Finding the Hidden Job Market

Informal networking is a good source of job leads and information about unadvertised job
opportunities. If it is possible, have as many contacts as possible to hear your story, so that people
know that you are doing job search.

Sources of Contacts

To start developing your network, search for names of individuals. This you can do in different ways:

         Teachers, friends, relatives, and former employers - or professionals these people recommend.
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      Members of professional associations.
      People in the information sector - resource centre employees or librarians.
      Community service agencies or The Greater Kitchener-Waterloo Chamber of Commerce.

Once you have identified people with whom you wish to speak, you can now plan to interview them.
This is a powerful tool known as informational interviewing. Your objective during an informational
interview is to gather career information from professionals in your field(s) of interest.

How to Contact People in Your Network

A. By Phone
When you call to schedule an appointment, you should cover three issues:

   1. Offer a personal introduction.
   2. Identify your purpose for seeking an appointment.
   3. Arrange a mutually convenient time.

Some pointers:
1. Write a script of what you want to say on the telephone. If you do this, it will lessen your anxiety
and it also makes it easier for you to get all information you need. This will also allow you to look
organized and professional.
2. If you are unable to get past the secretary, you can consider calling before 9:00 a.m. or after 6:00
p.m. Chances are better that the individual you want to speak to will answer his or her own telephone.
3. If you are calling because someone referred you, do not forget to mention the name of that person
at the start of your conversation.
4. Emphasize that you need only 20 or 30 minutes to talk to this person. Make sure that you keep to
it.
5. Indicate your desire to have a personal interview as opposed to a telephone conversation.

B. By Letter
A. letter requesting an appointment should include:

   1. Introduce yourself.
   2. Explain why you wish to see the person.

Some pointers:
1. Type the letter in business format and make sure that there are no grammatical or spelling
mistakes.
2. Your last paragraph should always state that you will call on a specific date, usually one week after
you mail the letter, to arrange for a mutually convenient time to meet. Make sure you adhere to this
timetable.
3. Make sure that you maintain an organized file of all letters.




                                     VOLUNTEERING


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Why should you volunteer?

Volunteering has a lot of benefits. Here are some of them:

   Volunteering is a good way to develop new skills
   It allows you to explore different career options
   You can gain valuable practical experience when volunteering
   Volunteer positions can sometimes lead to a permanent position
   You can make new contacts to locate job possibilities
   Volunteering can improve your qualifications on your resume
   Volunteering can give you Canadian work experience
   It can provide you with Canadian work-related references if you are looking for work

Volunteering is not just about gaining experience and new skills. You can also:

   Meet new people and make new friends
   Explore new interests
   Improve your personal development by gaining more self confidence and self-esteem
   Get involved in your community
   Have fun - volunteering can be enjoyable and very rewarding

What is the right volunteer position for you?

When you choose a volunteer position, consider the following:

   Identify the skills you have to offer
   Pinpoint what skills you would like to learn and/or develop
   What kind of things do you like to do
   What types of things do you not want to do
   Think about how much time you are able to commit
   Consider for how long you are willing to volunteer


If you would like to volunteer in the Kitchener-Waterloo area, you can contact the Volunteer
Action Centre at:

151 Frederick Street, Suite 300
Kitchener, Ontario
Phone: 519-742-8610
Web address: www.volunteerkw.ca


                                              Job Search Scams

Job search scams look very appealing, and even smart people "fall" for them. The result can be loss of the
money you do have, or trouble for you and identity theft when your SIN or bank account information is provided
to the fake "employer." Trust only AFTER you verify!



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Don't expect to get paid if you fall for one of these scams, even if you do some work for them. You could face
very unpleasant consequences in the loss of your identity, loss of your money.

 Where Are the Scams?
You will find these scams in e-mail sent to you by people you don't know. You'll also find these jobs posted on
legitimate Websites, particularly Craigslist, and also on other well-known job sites.

Categories of Scams

With the collection of personal information as their goals, these are the general categories of scams. New scams
do pop up all the time, so this is not, unfortunately, a complete list.

       Bogus jobs
        Just plain fake jobs - these are usually relatively easy to spot, but not always. These are often the work
        an hour a day from your home and earn $500 to $3,000 a week. Doesn't sound possible, and it's not.

       Bogus jobs that appear to be from real employers
        Fake jobs pretending to be for real, legitimate employers. Contact the employer to confirm that the
        opportunity is real. If they haven't posted the job, they will appreciate knowing that someone is
        pretending to be them.

       Bogus jobs for bogus employers / Recruiters
        The whole set up is fake. They pretend to be hiring for a real or non-existent employer or recruiting
        company. The Website may look very snazzy and professional, but "no one is home." Jobs are posted
        for job seekers to apply for. Usually they only want your personal information and will most likely request
        your Social Insurance Number and/or bank account number.

       Bogus jobs for from bogus recruiters claiming to work for real recruiting companies
        They pretend to be working for a legitimate recruiter or recruiting organization. These can be hard to
        spot. If you find the recruiting company in an online phone directory, call the company to see if the
        recruiter who contacted you really does work for them .

       Bogus job boards/job sites
        The Website may look very professional, but, as with the bogus employers, their only goal is to collect as
        much personal information from you as possible. These sites usually require you to "register" before you
        can see the job postings, but they may allow you to select the "job" you want first and then collect your
        information.
       These all can be hard to spot, but there are ways to find out if the employer/recruiter is real. Look for
        contact information on their Website, and Google (or any other Search Engine) the employer name and
        phone number to see what you find.

    Genuine work-from-home and Internet jobs do exist, but be very careful before you sign up.


How to Win at a Job Interview
When you are at a job interview, it is your chance to present yourself as well as your
educational and professional backgrounds in the most positive way possible. This process
starts the moment you accept the interview, and ends when the employer decides to either
hire you or look for someone more suitable for the position. The better you communicate
professionalism with personality, distinction, and skill, the better your chance of getting the
job.

Here are some ways to ensure you can perform
to the best of your abilities:
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 Get ready for the interview by researching the
organization and by preparing questions based on
your research.
 Do mock interviews so you can be prepared for all
questions, especially the unusual ones.
 Dress professionally even if the organization’s dress code is business casual.
 Arrive 12 - 15 minutes before the interview.
 Give your interviewer a firm handshake. A confident handshake and a smile are a good
start.
 Pay attention to your body language. Sit straight, stand and walk with confidence and lean
forward toward the interviewer paying attention to what he or she says.
 Use confident and effective communication techniques.
 Make sure you listen. Answer in a short but effective way and
answer only what they asked.
 Show enthusiasm and interest but do not act desperately.
 Taking notes will be helpful for you since you might need to refer
to them later in the interview.
 Let them be aware of your skills, qualifications, credentials, and the benefits you can offer
in that position and to that organization.
 Tell them about your accomplishments such as how you improved productivity, solved
organizational problems in your previous positions and such.
 Maintain eye contact as much as you can since it shows confidence
and trust in yourself and your abilities.
 If you want the position, express a strong desire to get it.
 Send a follow-up thank you letter. State in the letter why the
position interests you, why you think you are suitable for the job, and
your appreciation for the interviewer's time. This will also give you the chance to include any
information you may have forgotten to mention during your interview.




                        REQUESTING REFERENCES
When you are interviewing for a new job, your prospective employer will ask you for a list of
references. He or she will check these before offering you a position. Having good references
is very important to getting a job. Collect a list of references and letters of recommendation
as soon as possible, so you can be                       prepared when you need them.

Whom to Ask For References

Employers generally check three references for each candidate, so make sure you have at
least three people on your list. It is important that you know your references. Make sure you
choose the right people. It is very important to ASK THEM FOR THEIR PERMISSION so
you can use their names. You should have a good idea of what they are going to say about

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you, your background and your performance. You do not want a negative reference to cost
you a job.

You do not have to use your employer as reference. Business acquaintances,
professors/academic advisors, customers, and vendors can all serve as references. If you
volunteer, you can also use members of the organization.

When you leave a position, ask for a letter of recommendation from your supervisor. With
letters of reference in hand, you will have written documentation of your credentials that you
can give to prospective employers. If you have not done it, you can still go back and ask for
letters from previous employers to include in your                        personal files.

How to Ask For a Letter of Recommendation

What is written in the letter of reference is extremely important. For this reason, do not ask
just anyone if they could write a reference for you because anyone can do it. It is better to
ask a person if they feel they know your work well enough to write you a good
recommendation letter. Or if they feel they could give you a good reference. That way, your
reference writer has an easy way to say no if they are not comfortable writing a letter and
you can also be assured that those who say "yes" will be enthusiastic about your performance
and will write a positive letter. Offer to provide an updated copy of your résumé and
information on your skills and experiences so the reference writer has updated information to
work with.

In addition to references, you may be asked for contact information concerning your
supervisor. However, prospective employers should get your permission before contacting
your current supervisor to avoid jeopardizing your present position.




                          REQUESTING REFERENCES - PART 2
   1. Make sure your reference list is tailored to the job you are applying for
      If you may have a number of references to use, you need to choose the ones that are
      relevant to the career field that you are pursuing since they will be able to talk about
      you according to what is required in your field.

   2. Let your reference be prepared
      The more information your references get about the job you are looking for, the better
      they can talk about you. It is a good idea to send an updated resume as well as the
      job posting to your reference so that they can be well prepared to answer the calls
      for the reference checks.

   3. Make sure the information about your reference is correct and current
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       Check the contact information before giving it to your potential employer(s). Do not
       assume the contact information you have for a reference is the one that the person
       wants you to use. Your references may not want their cell phone number given out or
       have concerns about being contacted at work.

   4. Keep your reference list up-to-date
      Do not assume the reference list you prepared three years ago will still work. Your
      reference may have changed job or moved. It is important to keep building new work
      relationships and having new people added to you list of reference.

   5. Follow –up IS A MUST!
      You made the request for a reference and got one. It is important that you let your
      reference know the result of the follow up. In this way, you show respect and
      appreciation to your reference and keep them remaining to be an important part of
      your network.




                                    TIPS FOR A GOOD RÉSUMÉ



Type your résumé on a computer. Use good quality, white paper with the standard, 8.5" x 11"size.
Print only on one side of the page.

Be selective of the information you provide. Employers will formulate their first impressions from
it.

Be brief and concise. Make sure that the résumé is easy to read. Employers are more than likely
going to have to go through many résumés. If yours is long, cluttered and may take a lot of time to
read, they might just not read it at all. If your résumé gets you an interview, you can get into more
details then.

Leave a lot of white space on the page so it will be easier to read. Use at least one-inch margins.
Choose a simple, easy-to-read font, possible 12 points size.

Absolutely do not fold your résumé. Keep your copies in a large folder.

Make sure that the information provided in your résumé is accurate. Do not exaggerate or
misrepresent yourself because employers check.
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Make sure you have given all the correct personal data, including your address and a telephone
number.

Use the help of an employment counsellor or teacher to identify your skills. It is always a good
idea to have someone else look over your résumé to proofread it.

Have at least three references. Do not include them in your résumé, but make sure you have them
ready on a separate sheet to give it to the interviewer if and when you get an interview. References
that are academic or work-related, are preferred.

Proofread, proofread, and proofread! Make sure that there are no spelling, grammatical or typing
errors in your résumé. If employers get many résumés, they will look for any excuse to quickly "dump"
as many of them as possible. Bad proofreading gives them an easy excuse to do that.

Do not sign or date your résumé. Update it regularly and keep past versions of it for future
reference.

A cover letter should ALWAYS be sent along with your résumé.




                                      PORTFOLIOS
Although your cover letter and résumé are important elements in your job search,
it is a good idea to also have a portfolio. It can deliver the plus you need to
convince potential employers that you have amazing skills.

Portfolios contain items or work samples that show your skills, abilities and personal traits in
the best possible way. Most portfolios are binders or folders but some are on disks, web sites
or videos. They can be interesting and also time-consuming to put together. You should take
your portfolio with you for your interviews, and not send them with your résumés.

So how do you put together an effective portfolio? Make it unique and make sure it is a
reflection of you, your achievements and skills. Also, be prepared to change your portfolio as
you and your work experience change. You will want to emphasize new skills that you acquire
through new experiences. Collect all items that might be suitable for your portfolio.



WHAT TO PUT IN YOUR PORTFOLIO?

      work samples
      Positive work evaluation forms and memos from superiors
      diplomas, certificates, degrees
      letters of thanks and appreciation
      records of attendance, sales, services performed.
      articles and / or newsletters in which your name appears
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      awards (such as customer service awards, employee and volunteer appreciation
       awards)
      charts, brochures and reports
      agendas or programs featuring your name
      surveys, especially customer surveys
      budgets, financial statements and annual reports



           JOB SEARCH ETIQUETTE FOR NEWCOMERS TO CANADA
When you are looking for work in Canada, it is a good idea to be aware of proper Canadian conduct so
you can make a good impression.

Remember the following:

 In Canada it is customary to book appointments before visiting an office. Although in some cultures
  it is all right to just show up to see someone, Canadians tend to confirm appointments the day
  before.
 Be prepared for your meeting.
 Before you go to an interview, familiarize yourself with the organization's website.
 Arrive on time. If you are going to be arriving late, call and tell them how late you think you will
  be. Also ask them if they would like to reschedule the meeting.
 Make sure you have your material needed for the meeting with you when you arrive.
 Even though you sent a resume and cover letter beforehand, take two or three copies of your
  resume with you, just in case there are several interviewers.
 Introduce yourself with your full name, not just your first name.
 Offer a firm handshake, look the other person in the eye and say "How do you do?" or "Pleased to
  meet you".
 Be prepared that they might ask you to spell your name.
 Do not sit down until they offer you a seat. Once you sit, sit still. Choose a position you can hold
  comfortably for a while.
 If coffee is offered to you, you can say "no thank you". In some cultures, that would be
  considered an insult, but in Canada it is interpreted that you have already had enough coffee.
 Never chew gum during the interview.
 Be ready to answer questions. Wait until the interviewer finished asking the question, then speak.
 The interviewer might ask if you have any questions about the job. Make sure you have some
  questions to ask, such as "Will I receive training?" Or, "When do you expect to make a decision?"
  Ask for a business card from all the interviewers.
 At the end of the interview, shake hands again and say thank you for the opportunity to meet with
  them.
 Remember to send a thank you letter following the interview, to everybody on the interview panel.


                      Effective Resume Strategies for Job Search Success

   A well-written resume is an effective job search tool but it takes an effective strategy of using
   your resume to your advantage if you want to be successful in your job search.

   Let's look at three resume strategies you should consider.

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Strategy #1 - Targeted to employers with job openings

Your resume should be flexible enough to be tailored and targeted to specific job openings. It
may be simpler to print up fifty copies of your resume and mail it out with a cover letter in
response to job advertisements, but that strategy usually doesn't work.

Take the time to really examine the qualifications that the employer is seeking for each job
posting. Look for clues that will help you decide which of your attributes to highlight in order to
grab their attention. For example, if the employer is looking for someone who is `motivated' or a
`self-starter' then you should tailor your resume to emphasize specific examples of how you
demonstrate those attributes.

Once you have determined which part of your qualifications to emphasize, revise your resume so
that those things stand out and can be easily spotted by whoever reads your resume. It is okay
to use bold, italics, or bullet points to draw the reader's eye to certain information, but use these
tactics sparingly so that the information does indeed stand out.

Strategy #2 - Targeted to employers without job openings

Nearly all employers will accept resumes even if they do not have any open positions, so take
advantage of this. If there is a particular employer whom you admire and would like to work for,
tailor your resume to highlight the attributes that they would find attractive and deliver it to
them. This will take some research on your part,

Try to hand deliver it to the person with hiring authority whenever possible, as this is an
opportunity for you to make a positive impression. Dress up as if you were going to a job
interview so that the person sees you in a professional light, and talk to them briefly about why
you are giving them your resume. Practice your statement in advance so that it is clear, concise,
and to the point - you want to make an impression but you do not want to drag the person into a
long speech about why you want to work for them.

Strategy #3 - Targeted to your network of contacts

Use your resume as a tool to network with your contacts. A good place to start is with the people
who have agreed to act as your references. Make an appointment to see them (15 to 30 minutes
max), letting them know in advance that you would like to share your resume with them and
solicit their feedback.

During your meeting, encourage them to provide honest input about how you could improve
your resume. Talk about the key points you are trying to communicate and ask them if those
points do indeed come across. Ask for suggestions and ideas on ways to make your resume more
effective. If their feedback is minimal and you feel comfortable leaving the resume `as is' you
should leave two or three copies of it with your contact. This will keep you firmly in mind and
allow them to pass your resume along where appropriate. If you decide to make changes based
on their feedback, that's okay. Go home, make the changes, and then send your contact two or
three copies of your updated resume, along with a brief note thanking him or her for their time
and input.

Regardless of the feedback you receive, ask your contact if they know anyone else in your field
of interest that you could contact to ask for resume feedback. Chances are they know of at least
one or two people and will be happy to give you their contact information. You can then
approach these new contacts to go through the same meeting/feedback/ask for referrals
process.
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In all cases, your meetings with contacts should be short and to the point. Don't get caught up in
meandering conversations or storytelling - you are there for a purpose, and your contact's time is
too valuable to be spent just chatting. Dress professionally, and always follow up your meeting
with a thank you note. As your job search progresses, check back with your contacts periodically
to update them on your activities and keep yourself in the forefront of their minds.


                             Career Fair Job Search Strategies



A career fair is a great place to meet with a lot of employers in a little time. You get to
present yourself in the best light possible and hit a large number of prospects all at once.
If you have the opportunity to go to a career fair, take it. But before you go, keep these
success strategies in mind:

1. Prepare, prepare, prepare

Get your resume in top shape; have a couple people proofread it for you for things like
grammar, spelling, and overall impression. Print out at least 15-20 copies on professional
paper and carry them in a binder or folder that will keep them neat. Also get to know the
companies that will be at the fair. You can visit their websites for basic information.
Companies will expect you to know about what they do and why they do it. Then prepare
a brief introduction of yourself. This shouldn't be over a minute long, should include your
name, career status, and what type of job you are looking for. Also mention why you
chose that particular company.



2. Dress for Success

Wear professional business attire. You should have a polished professional look.

3. Have a Gameplan

Get a floor plan of the event and map out the companies you want to target. Do this
alone rather than in a group. When you meet with potential employers, shake hands,
make eye contact, and listen carefully. Always respect other people's time and space.
Don't crowd in on a conversation ahead of you. Ask plenty of questions and be sure you
get a business card from every person you meet. Take a moment afterwards to jot down
notes.

4. Follow Up

Write a thank you note to each employer you met, stating your interest in their company
and the position. You can follow this up with a phone call or email after a few weeks if
you wish, but don't be pesky.



                               Telephone Interviews
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Telephone interviews are quite commonly used to determine which candidates will be called for a
personal interview. Telephone interviews can also replace the actual in-person interview, so they are
critical in deciding whether or not you will be hired. Here are some important tips to help you deal with
them:

Be available:

Be available at the agreed-upon time. Employers are often busy calling candidates. You do not want
to give them the impression that you do not appreciate their time. If you make an appointment to
receive their call, give them all your attention.

Choose a quiet spot where you will not be interrupted by children, pets, or household chores, like
washing dishes or vacuuming. Also make sure that there is no loud music, TV or other distractions.
Inform others in your household that you need this time for an interview so that they will not interfere.

Be prepared:

Read your resume again and refresh your knowledge of all your skills and strengths. Just because you
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LOOKING FOR WORK IN A SLOW ECONOMY - PART 1
It is natural to worry about job search in a slower economy but you do not need to panic. Slow
economy merely means a longer job search. You can shorten that time by using some useful tactics

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based on the economic slowdown. Here are some current economic realities and ideas on how to
counter them.

Economic reality #1: There is a greater competition for jobs

Hiring is a competition both for the employer and the candidate. Hiring managers

compare a number of candidates for positions, in order to pick the best one. It is

important for you to stand out so you need to prepare better than your

competition. You can do this by:

      Focusing on skills and not on job titles. List the skills you used in your last job, even if it
       was a job outside of Canada, and make sure you can describe how they were important. These
       are not always obvious so your description and explanation are crucial. A manager at a beauty
       shop might know about cosmetics, but his or her skills in communicating, managing inventory,
       and customer service are also relevant. When searching for jobs or preparing for an interview,
       he/she should emphasize those skills as well.
                      Researching a broader range of jobs. If you are not sure in which positions
                       you can use your skills, you can use this site listing different skills used in
                       different occupations: http://online.onetcenter.org/find/ (This site is USA-based
                       but you can try it nevertheless.)
      Preparing in advance before you call or apply for a job. Do a little research about the
       company you are applying to. You can do this by exploring their web site or even talking to
       their customers. It is also important to prepare stories about your successes at your last job
       because this proves that you can do well in the next position. Note: the best way to tell these
       stories is by thinking of a time you did a good job, then telling about it in this way: 1) Describe
       the problem you faced, 2) Describe the action you took, and 3) Describe the result (and of
       course, make sure it was a good result). If you prepare a few of these success stories, you will
       impress your potential employer greatly.

Economic reality #2: Job openings are less visible

There is a lot of business activity going on even during a recession. However, it is harder to find them
because businesses advertise less. You have to go beyond the local paper to know which employers
are still strong.

      This means networking. Start with friends, family, the chamber of commerce, and government
       job centres. The quick way to network: Have a short statement which describes what your best
       skills are, where you have worked previously and what you are looking for right now. Then, ask
       if they know someone who might be able to introduce you to an employer. The key to
       networking is not the people you know, but the people they know that you do not.
      When you look for jobs online, take notice of the employers also and not only the jobs. This
       way you will learn which companies are hiring. Then get in touch with the HR people or the
       owners of that business, asking for a 20-minute chance to discuss what you can offer to them.




                                                                                                       86
LOOKING FOR WORK IN A SLOW ECONOMY - PART 2

This tip is the continuation of the one posted last week that dealt with
looking for work in a slow economy. Here are some other economic
realities and information on how to deal with them.

Economic reality #3: Flexibility is strength

In a tough economic climate, you might have to be prepared to work for                        less
money. Flexibility can also take other forms, such as working different hours, commuting, taking a
contract or a temporary job. Since economic slowdowns are temporary, so is the setback you
experience:

      Keep networking when you have a temporary job. You have the chance to get a better job
       quickly as the economy improves.
      Carry a personal business card with your name, address, phone number
       and email on it. If you wonder where you can have these cards made,
       try www.vistaprint.com. It will cost a little bit, but it might be worth the               money.
       Once you have these cards, hand them out to people you meet                           and also tell
       them in a few words what you are looking for. If you use                     this strategy, it gives
       you the chance to get the word out fast.
      If you can find a temporary job that teaches you new skills or brings you in contact with
       many people, take advantage of the opportunity. Even if you have to take a job that is less
       than desirable for you, you can increase your skills by adding a class, a volunteer job or online
       courses, in order to be more qualified and successful.

Economic reality #4: Bad news is discouraging

It might seem hard to stay energized and positive when                              time passes and you
still do not have a job. Try not to become a                               so-called discouraged worker:
someone who has stopped looking.                             You can                              always
keep your job search fresh by doing the following:

                  Keep track of your progress. Use a calendar or day timer to keep count
                  of these: phone calls you made in search of employment, networking
          meetings, job applications, resumes you sent out, visits to the job centre and      time you
    spent researching employers. In order to shorten your job search,                try to increase
    these hours each week.




                                                                                                         87
      Use every strategy you can learn. Look for jobs and for employers online, read about
       different job search techniques, network, and take advantage of government resources. Using
       variety in your job search creates new possibilities.
      Set aside specific times for recreation, hobby or interests. Make it enjoyable for you
       and possibly active, such as exercising, walking, sewing, painting, reading. The break is
       energizing and refreshing that will benefit your job search.

   Everyone has to deal with the up-and-down cycles of the economy. The extra skills you develop
   looking for work                           during an economic slowdown will stay with you for the
   rest of                      your life, and when business picks up, you will be much better
   prepared to take on new opportunities.




FINDING A NEW JOB
When looking for work, you can achieve                        success by designing and planning
your job search and by taking                        a proactive and self-directed approach to it.
Finding a new job is never easy, whether you have extensive experience or if just completed your
education.

When starting to look for a new job, it is important that you clarify your career path in order to make
sure that you are headed in the right direction. Once you have identified what you want, created a
well-constructed resume and a detailed cover letter, you should have a clear idea of how to find your
ideal job. In order to locate and land your ideal position, the following ways are available to you:

Networking
Networking is one of the most powerful ways of finding work. Many jobs are never advertised because
someone’s friend or colleague received it. Most hiring managers find that word of mouth referrals are
the most effective, therefore, you should mention to people you meet that you are looking for work.

Internet Job Sites
The internet is a very useful job search tool, but it is not an effective self-marketing tool. Job sites
such as monster.com, careerbuilder.com, workopolis.com, etc. allow you to post your resume but you
must update your posting daily. Also, your resume might be pushed down the list by new job hunters
posting their resumes every day.

Recruitment Agencies
Recruitment agencies work for companies in order to find them suitable applicants. Their job is to
ensure that there is a match between the company’s needs and the applicants’ skills and interests.
Joining one of these agencies may get you an interview, but you are often one of many applicants that
the agency has recruited for the same position.

Headhunters (search and selection firms)
Headhunters are also recruiters but they are                        more specific in their recruitment:
they focus on finding candidates                        who exactly match the qualifications specified

                                                                                                      88
by their clients. Therefore,                    headhunters approach candidates whether they are in
the job market or not.

                        Cold Calling
                        Cold calling means approaching companies yourself, telling them about
               your skills and your interest in working for them. Cold calling has a
        69% success rate - better than networking! The reason cold calling is                   so
effective, because it gives you the opportunity to make contact and                      explore the
marketplace before positions are ever advertised.

Newspaper
Answering ads in a local newspaper has a 5% – 24% success rate.

Trying to find a job requires the same dedicated time, energy, and effort to succeed as          working
itself. Staying focused, and finding ways to deal with rejection (and using the
information gained so you can use it to move you forward) will help you to be successful.




  NETWORKING IS STILL THE MOST EFFECTIVE JOB SEARCH
                       METHOD
According to a survey of HR executives, networking off and online is the most effective method of
finding work. Responding to newspaper classified ads and attending job fairs are the least effective.
Here is a list of job search methods ranked in order of success:

   1.   Networking
   2.   Using social/professional networking sites
   3.   Targeted management recruiting firms
   4.   Using online job boards
   5.   Applying for jobs via an employer’s website
   6.   Cold-calling employers
   7.   Sending unsolicited resumes to employers
   8.   Responding to newspaper ads
   9.   Attending job fairs

The HR executives involved in the survey most probably answered the question based on their
experience selecting candidates; hence, this ranking also represents the most effective methods for
sourcing applicants.

Traditional networking lives on
Traditional networking represents the old model - it’s “whom you know and how well”. If you are not
connected, you will have trouble coming up with names. However, traditional networking has its
drawbacks. Finding the right target is the first hurdle for traditional networking, requiring a lot of time,
phone calls, emails, etc. to see if anyone in your network has information you are looking for.



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Social and professional networks represent the new way of doing things
Anyone can find target names with tools like LinkedIn Recruiter
(http://www.linkedin.com/home?myGroups). Not only will LinkedIn help you
companies, but hiring managers on the site have the chance to engage
                                                                                  Linked you and
                                                                                                 find

                                                                                  in
other candidates and start a conversation. Recruiters claim that the response rate is very high for
contacts via LinkedIn InMail. LinkedIn members are receptive to having conversations about
networking and job opportunities.

Why does traditional networking still rank higher than online networking?
There are still people out there who are not aware of the value of professional networking and have
still to create a profile on LinkedIn. Also, having a strong offline network is indispensable to find out
who are truly the best employers. Your network can help you get an introduction to the target
company so the first call is a warm call. Your network helps you be better informed and connected
overall.

On and offline networking are not mutually exclusive. The internet                              helps
companies in maintaining relationships and in efficiently reaching                         more
candidates. For every person that you meet offline, they have a                            whole network
of people online that can be reached through them.




         TIPS FOR A SUCCESSFUL JOB INTERVIEW - PART 1
A job interview can be excruciating, painful, stressful OR it can be pleasant, educational, enlightening
and successful. The experience of the interview is determined by how you spend your time before and
after it.

LONG BEFORE YOUR INTERVIEW

1. Get references and letters of recommendation. Think of three to six professional associates,
such as co-workers or former bosses, who would give you a good recommendation. Ask their
permission to use them as references. If they say yes, get job title, work address and work phone
number. You could also ask them to take the time to write out a general letter of recommendation for
future use.

DAYS BEFORE YOUR INTERVIEW

2. Research the company. Learn all you can about the organization and the field. The interviewer
will expect you to be familiar with the work you want to do, and about the place where you want
work. It also shows that you are interested and care.

In order to find information, you can go to the company's Web page or ask them for their marketing
material or brochures. If you do your homework, it will show that you are proactive, intelligent and
energetic. Research will also keep you from wasting your time applying for jobs that you do not want
or are not suited for.

3. Identify your skills and accomplishments. Make a list and be ready to describe your personal
and professional strengths, your transferable skills and your relevant accomplishments. This way you

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can identify qualities that the company values. Actual stories from your work experience can illustrate
that you possess those qualities.

4. Practice the interview. Practicing will give you confidence and a sense of ease when you are at
the interview. With a friend or a career counsellor, practice responding to typical interview questions.
Here are just a few:

         How has your background influenced what you are today?
         How do you define success?
         What is the most difficult challenge you have overcome on a job?
         How do you deal with deadlines?
         Tell me something about yourself.
         Why are you leaving your old job?
         Why would you be good for our company?
         Where would you like to be five years from now?

Have answers that are clear, concise and truthful. Your honesty and frankness will be appreciated.

Look at some books on job interviews and write out the difficult questions, then role-play answering
them. The books will give you a list of questions and also tell you how to respond. You also should
have some questions ready to ask the interviewer.

5. Check your clothing. Make sure your suit or skirt is clean, your shirt or blouse is ironed, and your
shoes are polished. Check whether your best outfit needs to go to the cleaners or to the tailor for
repair. Select clothes that are appropriate for the industry and the company and make sure you are
comfortable in them.

Do not wear sweat pants, of course, just to be comfortable, but make sure that your clothing is
comfortable. Then you can put your entire focus on the interview. Be attentive to the interviewer and
make sure that your clothes do not make you worried.

6. Test drive. If you are unsure of the location of the interview, drive there. This way you can be
sure of the building, the time it takes to get there and the parking situation.




          TIPS FOR A SUCCESSFUL JOB INTERVIEW - PART 2
                                                                                                       91
THE DAY BEFORE YOUR INTERVIEW (continuation from last week)

7. Prepare your clothes. Check your clothing from head to toe. Prepare everything that you will
take to the interview with you: extra copies of your resume, references, a portfolio, a pad of paper, a
pen.

8. Watch the weather. Be prepared, in case the weather is bad. You might have to reconsider
your clothes or the method of transportation you plan to use.

9. Get a good night's sleep. You want to be fresh and alert for the big day.

THE DAY OF THE INTERVIEW

10. Work it off. You might consider excercising earlier, to get your blood flowing and to release
stress. You might also try to have a chocolate bar before your interview to slightly raise your blood
sugar – your brain will think better.

11. Get to the interview on time. Arrive 10 minutes early. Exactly.

12. Last-minute check. Take a look in a bathroom mirror at a location near the interview. Fix your
lipstick, pull the loose hairs off of the shoulder of your jacket, and make sure your shirt or blouse is
properly tucked in. Smile and check your teeth for any food particles. Then smile and show your
confidence. Get rid of your chewing gum and turn off your cell phone. Do not drink coffee before
your interview to avoid having coffee-breath.

WAITING FOR THE INTERVIEW

13. Look confident and busy. More than likely you will end up in a waiting room for at least a few
minutes. Do not get sloppy -- you are already being seen. Try to look busy, even if it is just writing
notes in a book. And sit up straight.

When the interviewer walks in, be ready to shake hands. Place your purse and briefcase in your left
hand.

DURING THE INTERVIEW

14. Pay attention. After all your preparation, you might think that the interview will be easy.
However, job interviews can still be nerve-wracking. Since you prepared, it will not be nearly as
difficult - but it is very important that you listen to the interviewer. You might not get exactly the
questions you practiced but different versions of them.

15. Relax. If you are nervous, try to keep your palms up. This should lower your blood pressure.




                                             JOB FAIRS
A job fair is an event where people meet potential employers, find out about career opportunities and
job requirements. When it comes to job fairs, preparation is crucial. Dress like you would for an

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interview since recruiters are usually dressed professionally at these occasions. Job fairs are meant to
be a quick on-the-spot-job-interview. First impressions last, so dress for success since recruiters tend
to remember people who stand out among the crowd, those who make a good impression. They
might not have the right opportunity for you at that moment but they might remember you for future
opportunities or pass you on to someone who is looking for someone with the same
skill-set that you have. What to bring to a job fair?

      Several copies of your resume. Imagine that you find the right employer and have only one
       resume left. You have to go out to get more copies! If you do run out of resumes, you can also
       ask for their business card and send them your resume via email.
      Although there may be pens that companies give away, make sure that you have your own
       that writes nicely and save the free pens for just in case.
      Note pad: to take notes of information and important things to remember.
      Kleenex, breath freshener and do not forget to look smart.

QUESTIONS YOU CAN ASK:

      Once you have given a recruiter your resume, ask how you can follow up. Listen carefully
       since different employers have different preferences for this. Resumes are usually distributed
       to other recruiters that are not there at the job fair so it will take time to reach the person
       responsible for hiring.
      Ask if you can also send them a copy of your resume via email as hard copies sometimes
       go missing in the pile. Electronic copies are easier to share with fellow recruiters and they can
       be kept in their database. Create a cover letter also and remind recruiters that you met at the
       job fair. Use this opportunity to customize your resume to aim it towards the company.
      Ask how soon should you expect a call and if you do not hear from them, whom should you
       call or e-mail.

Make sure you are familiar with the companies you are interested in that participate in the job fair. Go
to their websites and research them so you will be a step ahead of others applicants. Go to their
Careers section to see if there is anything that interests you, visit the booth at the job fair and express
interest in applying for that position. Often, they will advise you to also apply directly through the
posting as it goes directly to the person responsible for hiring.

Once you have reviewed your prospects and understand their prerequisites, be prepared to give
recruiters a brief synopsis of your background, expertise and experience that is aimed towards the
qualifications they are looking for to fill the position. Once you had the opportunity to learn more about
the company and the position ask for their business card to follow up regarding your conversation and
give thanks to meeting them at the Job Fair. This shows that you are diligent and interested in working
for them.




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                    PREPARING FOR A TELEPHONE INTERVIEW
Sometimes when you apply for a job, the company will invite you for a telephone interview called a
“telephone prescreen”. These can be tricky conversations when someone is calling regarding a
position you applied for or a resume you posted on a job board since the caller will judge you based on
your ability to articulate answers without the help of body language and facial expressions. Below you
will find some helpful tips to guide you in your prescreen telephone interview:

      Go to an area of your home where you can focus and concentrate without distractions.
      Have your resume, pens and note pad close to where you will have your telephone interview.
      Have a list of accomplishments and your work achievements also close to help you.
      Do not use a cellular phone. Use landline so you do not have to worry about the battery going
       dead or losing the connection.
      Check the batteries if you plan to use a cordless phone.
      Check your phone for static before the interview. Static is distracting and it will annoy your
       caller.
      Turn off the TV, radio and stereo so there is no background noise.
      If you have children, ask someone to look after them outside of your home or away from the
       area where you will be having your interview so you can prevent a break in your concentration.
      Dogs should be in an area where they will not be barking or causing a distraction.
      If you have call waiting, NEVER put your interviewer on hold to take another call. Better yet,
       turn your call waiting service off temporarily.
      Do not have visitors or repair people in your home during your scheduled interview.
      Ensure that all members of your household are aware of your interview and provide you with a
       quiet and uninterrupted time.
      Be ready to answer your phone “Hello, this is [your name here]” – this is a good way of showing
       the interviewer that you are expecting their call.
      Listen to the complete question before answering.
      Take notes if you need to remember anything.
      Be polite and concise with your answers, but address the entire question.
      In the end, thank the interviewer for inviting you for the telephone interview.
      Express confidence, stay calm, and show that you can do the job.

Telephone interviews can be nerve wracking. However, if you have posted your resume and started
applying for positions, it is important that you be prepared whenever you answer the phone. You
never know who might be calling, so always be ready. Remember, the success of the telephone
interview is in the preparation and the way your personality comes across on the phone so make sure
you create a positive, professional and upbeat image.




                      DRESSING FOR AN INTERVIEW
                                                                                                    94
You are sending a message with the way you dress

Whether you follow the latest fashion or you are someone who has been wearing the same suit for
years, you should know what message you send with your interview clothes. Your interview is not the
place to be making a fashion statement; it is to demonstrate your professionalism. The clothes that
you are wearing have to be appropriate and communicate that you are serious and mature and that
you don't take this opportunity lightly.

It is important for you to be in touch with corporate culture. Try to impress the employer with your
skills, knowledge and your great interpersonal abilities but make sure that your dress also shows that
you understand            what the company’s culture is all about.



Don’ts

A good rule to observe is to not wear anything that would distract the interviewer. Tight or form-fitting
clothing, for example, is inappropriate. Even though slim fitting clothes may be fashionable for both
women AND men, they do not belong in the office.

If someone comes in with a tight red dress showing curves, how seriously can that person be taken?
If you wear clothing that distracts from your intelligence and your capabilities, then you are doing
YOURSELF a disfavour. You do want to set yourself apart, but it should not be with your clothes.

Culturally oriented attire is not appropriate for a business interview. However, once you are on the
job, you can add more cultural elements into your style if you wish.

Do's

The suit is           an interview attire that will certainly not cause distraction. You cannot go wrong
with the basics, the classics—blues, blacks, grays and browns. It is very possible that someone in the
organization will be wearing that.

The appropriate attire for women is a skirt and jacket. You might feel plain in professional basics, but
choose wisely if you are looking to spice up your outfit. Using colors to make your outfit stand out can
be a good thing. For men, it can be a colourful tie. For a woman it could be a bright, beautiful fuchsia
blouse. Those are nice accent pieces, but remember that they only are accent pieces.

Visit the company if you can, even if you just stand in the lobby, to see how people dress there.


Lasting impression

When choosing the right clothes for your interview, consider how you may be viewed by the
interviewer. Your interview clothes can say a lot about you, but there are things you DO NOT you
want them to say about you. You do not want them to say, look at me for what I look like instead of
look at me for what is in my head.

It is important to mould yourself to the corporate culture and show that you are able to fit into the
organization and still deliver outstanding results with the work that you perform daily.

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I WANT TO LEARN A TRADE

Good jobs, wages and careers are available to people with the right training and
education. Apprenticeship is a method of training in which employers train workers to
become skilled tradespeople through a combination of on-the-job training and classroom
instruction. Apprenticeship training programs are available for many skilled trades in
Ontario.

How to become an apprentice

If you want to become an apprentice,              you must first find an employer who
wants to hire an apprentice. Then you or the employer must contact a training consultant
at the closest Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities apprenticeship office.

If you are not yet employed in a trade, the training consultants at the Ministry of
Training, Colleges, and Universities apprenticeship offices are available to answer
questions and provide information on how to become an apprentice.

If you are a foreign-trained worker, Academic Credential Assessment Services will help
you match your educational achievements to the needs of Ontario-based employers. Also,
"bridging" programs can help you acquire the additional education and skills that you
need in order to meet Ontario standards without repeating the learning you have already
gained elsewhere.

Training costs

Although apprentices are paid while gaining work experience, they may pay fees for
certain services. For details, talk to a training consultant at a Ministry of Training,
Colleges and Universities apprenticeship office at 285 Weber Street North in Waterloo,
Ontario. Telephone: (519) 571-6009 or 1-800-265-6180; fax number: (519) 571-6047.
The Working Centre also has apprenticeship supports. You can reach them at 519-743-
1151 ext. 101 or via e-mail: genmail@theworkingcentre.org

Financial assistance

New apprentices can access funds that will help them with the initial cost of the tools and
equipment they need during the early years of their training.

Trade certification

To be employed in certain skilled trades, you must have a Certificate of Qualification. This
certificate states that you have passed the provincial qualification exam that assesses
your knowledge of the skilled trade.

The Red Seal Program




                                                                                          96
The Red Seal Program allows qualified tradespersons to practice their trade not only in
Ontario, but also in any other Canadian province or territory where the trade is
designated. Ontario does not participate in all the Red Seal trades.




    CANADA PENSION PLAN: WHAT HAPPENS IF I LIVED
         OR WORKED IN ANOTHER COUNTRY?
Canada has agreements with other countries, which can help you get pensions or other social
security benefits from either country. If you did not live or work long enough in one of these
countries to qualify, the time you spent in the other country may be added to meet the
requirements.

You may qualify for these benefits:

   if you have lived and worked in a country which has a social security agreement with Canada, and
   if you have paid into the social security plan of that country

You might qualify for the following benefits:

   retirement, disability or surviver benefits from the other country,
   Canadian Old Age Security Pension or Allowance,
   Canada Pension Plan disability or surviver benefits.

CANADIAN BENEFITS

Old Age Security: If you have lived in Canada for ten years after the age of 18, you may qualify
for Old Age Security Pension or Allowance. If you have lived in Canada for at least 20 years after the
age of 18, you may collect the Old Age Security Pension outside Canada.

Canada Pension Plan: If you have contributed to the Canada Pension Plan for a certain number of
years (between 3 and 10, depending on the type of benefit and your age), you may qualify for a
disability pension, and the members of your family may qualify for surviver or child benefits.

Minimum requirements: Perhaps you have not lived and worked in Canada long enough to qualify
for Canadian pension. If so, Canada counts your pension credits from the other country to help
you qualify for it.

Pension amount: Once you qualify, your pension will be based on your residence or your
contributions in Canada. This applies to both the Old Age Security Program and the Canada Pension
Plan.

BENEFITS FROM ANOTHER COUNTRY

Perhaps you now live in Canada after having immigrated or returned from a country with which
Canada has a social security agreement. If so, you may qualify for a pension from that other country.



                                                                                                     97
Minimum requirements: To receive pension from another country, you must have lived and paid
contributions to the pension plan of that country for a certain number of years. If the other country
has a social security agreement with Canada, it may consider the time you lived and worked in
Canada to help you qualify for a pension from that country.

Pension amount: Once you qualify, your pension will be based on your residence or contributions
in that country.

For info sheets and a list of countries that have agreements with Canada go to:
http://www1.servicecanada.gc.ca/en/isp/pub/ibfa/toc-i.shtml#aa

For more information, please contact:

Revenue Collections, Ottawa Tax Services Office
Canada Customs and Revenue Agency (CCRA)
Ottawa, ON K1A 0L9
Tel: (613) 598-2408 (collect calls); Fax: (613) 952-1982

LIST OF COUNTRIES THAT HAVE SUCH AN AGREEMENT WITH CANADA:

Antigua and Barbuda                                   Jamaica
Australia                                             Japan
Austria                                               Jersey and Guernsey
Barbados                                              Korea
Belgium                                               Latvia
Chile                                                 Lithuania
Croatia                                               Luxembourg
Cyprus                                                Malta
Czech Republic                                        Mexico
Denmark                                               Morocco
Dominica                                              Netherlands
Estonia                                               New Zealand
Finland                                               Norway
France                                                Philippines
Germany                                               Portugal
Grenada                                               St. Kitts and Nevis
Greece                                                Saint Lucia
Hungary                                               Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Iceland                                               Slovakia
Ireland                                               Slovenia
Israel                                                Spain
Italy                                                 Sweden


                                                                                                    98
Switzerland
Trinidad and Tobago
Turkey
United Kingdom - Consolidated
Arrangements
United Kingdom - Convention
United States
Uruguay




                                99
   WHO CAN ASK FOR MY SOCIAL INSURANCE NUMBER (SIN)?
Your SIN is a confidential number that is restricted to income reporting purposes. There are a
select and limited number of federal government departments and programs authorized to
collect the SIN. An employer also can collect an employee's SIN to provide them with Records
of Employment and T-4 slips for income tax purposes and so can provincial or municipal
agencies to report financial assistance payments for income tax purposes.

Institutions from which you earn interest or income, such as banks, credit unions and trust
companies, must also ask for your SIN.

Legislated uses of the SIN (or legislation that regulates its use) include:

      Canada Pension Plan, Old Age Security and Employment Insurance contributions or
       claims (the original purposes for the SIN);
      Income Tax identification;
      banks, trust companies, caisse populaires and stock brokers when they sell you
       financial products (GICs or Canada Savings Bonds) or services (bank accounts) that
       generate interest. They declare your interest to Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) for
       income tax purposes;
      various Veterans Affairs benefit programs;
      Canada Student Loans or Canada Student Financial Assistance;
      Canada Education Savings Grants;
      Gasoline and Aviation Gasoline Excise Tax Applications;
      Canadian Wheat Board Act;
      Labour Adjustment Benefits Act;
      Tax Rebate Discounting Regulations;
      Race Track Supervision Regulations;
      Garnishment Regulations (Family Orders and Agreements Enforcement Assistance
       Act);
      Canada Elections Act;
      Canadian Labour Standards Regulations (Canada Labour Code);
      Farm Income Protection.

Programs Authorized to use the SIN:

      Immigration Adjustment Assistance Program;
      Income and Health Care Programs;
      Income Tax Appeals and Adverse Decisions;
      Labour Adjustment Review Board;

                                                                                          100
      National Dose Registry for Occupational Exposures to Radiation;
      Rural and Native Housing Program;
      Social Assistance and Economic Development Program

For more information about privacy and your SIN, call toll free 1-800-282-1376.

                         LEARN WHILE YOU WORK
It is often difficult for newcomers to Canada to find a job. You sometimes
think that if you could just show employers that you are a good worker,
they would give you a chance. There is a way for you to do that.

Some agencies offer co-op or internship programs for newcomers. Co-op is short for
“cooperative”, which means “working together”. An intern is an “advanced student
gaining supervised practical experience in the workplace”.

These programs give you a chance to learn a new job by actually working at that job,
usually for no or very little income. You may think that you cannot afford to work for
free, but if you can manage to survive for a little while, this experience can pay off.

Along with gaining Canadian work experience, you will learn valuable skills and get an
inside view of the industry in which you are trying to find employment. You can
network with people in the field (networking is a word for getting to know people), so
that if the company you are working for does not hire you, your co-workers may
recommend you for another job in the industry. Your temporary employer will
probably give you a letter of reference, which is a very good tool for finding another
job.

The Working Centre’s Job Development program offers a four-month paid internship
program that aims to help newcomers gain the Canadian work experience that is
often required by potential employers. The Practice Firm also helps jobless individuals
gain work experience; however, this is not paid. For more information and referral
you can come to the YMCA’s Newcomer Employment Centre (519-579-9622 extension
244).

Even if you cannot get into the Internship program or the Practice Firm, there are
other ways you can gain Canadian experience. Volunteering is an excellent way for
newcomers to gain experience and learn about Canadian culture. A volunteer is a
person who works for no pay, usually helping out at non-profit agencies that need all
the help they can get in order to help other people.

Volunteering allows you to use whatever skills you already have while learning new
ones. You will probably have to speak English, which is good practice. You will get a
chance to network with fellow volunteers, some of whom may even work in your
field. You will gain practical experience working in your new country. And volunteer

                                                                                    101
work looks good on a résumé, showing that you care and are willing to donate your
time and skill to a worthwhile cause.



Good Luck!


   THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT JOB SEARCH METHODS




                                                                               102
What are Ontario's public holidays?

Ontario has nine public, or statutory, holidays:

              Holiday                                   2010
          New Year's Day             Friday, January 01
            Family Day               Monday, February 15
            Good Friday              Friday, April 02
            Victoria Day             Monday, May 24
            Canada Day               Thursday, July 1
            Labour Day               Monday, September 6
         Thanksgiving Day            Monday, October 11
           Christmas Day             Saturday, December 25
            Boxing Day               Sunday, December 26




Family Day is a statutory holiday that takes place on the third Monday of February. It
was established on October 11, 2007.

According to the Canadian Labour Standard Code, whenever New Year's Day, Canada
Day, Christmas Day or Boxing Day fall on a Saturday or Sunday, the employer must
give his or her employee a day of holiday with pay. This should happen on the
working day immediately preceding or following the holiday, providing that the
holiday is a provincial requirement. If a statutory holiday is worked on a regularly
scheduled day then the employee must receive either their regular pay plus time and
a half (2.5 times the regular pay) or for a business like a gas station which is
continuously open, the employee must receive their regular pay plus be granted a
day off with pay on a later date.

Some employers give their employees a holiday on Easter Sunday, Easter Monday,
the first Monday in August, or Remembrance Day. However, these days are not public
holidays under the Employment Standards Act.

Ontario has no legislation regarding Remembrance Day as a statutory holiday.

Civic Holiday in Canada is not a statutory holiday. A bill has been attempted to be
passed in the House of Commons but it has always been unsuccessful. If an employer
wants you to work, it is a work day.




                                                                                   103
                     ASSESSMENT OF YOUR CREDENTIALS

Assessment of your credentials for immigration purposes is different than assessment for
licensing / working purposes.

Your education and professional experience was assessed as part of the immigration process
and you may have been told that your skills match what is needed in Canada in your field.
However, this assessment process does not replace the assessment process that professional regulatory
bodies conduct in Ontario for the purposes of granting you a license or certificate to practice here.
Some new immigrants have been disappointed by this two-tiered process. While immigration officials
have told them that they are likely to be able to practice their profession in Ontario, the professional
regulatory body has a different set of standards. They may ask you to complete upgrading courses or
reject your application entirely.

For more information about assessing your creditials, please visit the Canadian Information Centre for
International Credentials web site: http://www.cicic.ca/en/index.aspx.

For Information on Labour Market Information in Canada please review this website from
Settlement.org: http://www.settlement.org/downloads/CdnLabourMarketOnline.pdf


Here are some credential assessment services in Ontario that you can contact:

World Education Services-Canada (WES Canada)
      45 Charles Street East, Suite 700
      Toronto, Ontario M4Y 1S2 Canada
      Tel.: +1 416 972-0070
      Fax: +1 416 972-9004
      Toll-free: +1 866 343-0070 (from outside the 416 area code)
      E-mail: ontario@wes.org
      Web site: http://www.wes.org/ca/

Comparative Education Service (CES)
     University of Toronto
     315 Bloor Street West
     Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A3 Canada
     Tel.: +1 416 978-2190
     Fax: +1 416 978-7022
     Web site: http://www.adm.utoronto.ca/ces/

International Credential Assessment Service of Canada (ICAS)
      Ontario AgriCentre
      100 Stone Road West, Suite 303
      Guelph, Ontario N1G 5L3 Canada
      Tel.: +1 519 763-7282
      Toll-free: +1 800 321-6021
      Fax: +1 519 763-6964
      E-mail: info@icascanada.ca
      Web site: http://www.icascanada.ca/



                                                                                                    104
       USING REFERENCES EFFECTIVELY IN YOUR JOB
                       SEARCH

References are a critical part of your job search. They give a potential employer information
about your past work history, your skills, and your abilities.

Who should be a reference? It is best to have a range of people you have
worked with at a previous job. Ask someone you worked with closely, like a colleague or a
team member, and others that you worked for, like supervisors and managers.

Most interviewers will want work references only. Aim for at least 4 references and add a few
as backups in case any of those cannot be reached.

Of course, you will want to ask people that will be positive about their work experience with
you. Ask those you had a good working relationship with, those who have a good idea of the
work you did, and those you got along with well.

Make sure you ask permission: Ask people to be your reference if they can
assist you in your job search. By being courteous and asking their permission,
you will likely end up with more favourable references. Decide on a few people
you would like to use as a reference, from among those you worked with. Also
provide these people with a copy of your resume, so they have a good
understanding of your work history and have your important information at their
fingertips when they are called for a reference.

                   Have your list ready: Avoid putting your list of references on your
                   resume.         Adding the line "References available on request" is a good
                   way to let potential employers know that you have a ready list of people
                   who can vouch for your skills.

It will likely be after the interview that your potential employer will ask for a list of references.
Have one ready with you that has current and accurate information with references that are
ready to speak on your behalf. You can either present it to your interviewer when requested
at the interview, or you can fax or email it as soon as possible.

It is important that your list be thorough and accurate. List the person's name, their job title,
their contact phone numbers and email, etc. Make sure you ask your references which
contact information you can list. You do not want to make your references uncomfortable by
listing their home number when they would rather be contacted at work, or vice versa.

Stay in touch: Let your references know when you go on a job interview and to expect a
call. They can then be prepared if the interviewer calls. They will appreciate the notice.

After you have used a reference, thank them, since they are assisting you in your job search.
You also might need them again in the future.



                                                                                                105
                                    Cover Letter
If you think that you do not need a cover letter to send along with your resume, then
you are mistaken.

A cover letter is a business letter directed to a prospective employer. This letter expresses
your interest in a position with their company and should ALWAYS accompany your resume.
It should be an introduction of you and your resume. Employers rarely read resumes that are
not accompanied by a cover letter. If you do not have it, the employer may think that you are
not familiar with proper business etiquette. Therefore, you should think of your resume and
your cover letter as a team.

The cover letter is a very important element in your job search in connecting with prospective
employers. Most employers are busy receiving many resumes, so it is a good idea for you to
find a way to make your cover letter stand out so that it makes them interested in you. Your
cover letter should be a brief summary of your education, skills and experience. Its purpose
is to help you grab recruiters’ attention so they will be interested enough to read your
resume. Cover letters should be one page in length.

Here are some examples:

Dear Madam/Sir,

As requested in our telephone conversation, I am sending you a copy of my resume. As I
briefly mentioned over the telephone, I have many years of experience in several areas of
sales and promotion that could be useful for your organization.

I would like to meet with you to discuss present or future positions in person. Please,
contact me by telephone at 416-733-5698 or by writing to me at the above address.

Sincerely,
George Costi
----------------------

Dear Madam/Sir

I am writing to apply for the Network Administrator position advertised in the Kitchener-
Waterloo Record on Monday, September 26th, 2007.

Among my qualifications for this position is three years experience as a Network
Administrator for a 32 station Novel network. I recently completed the CNE designation and
am currently completing a Microsoft certification. On a personal level, I am hard working and
extremely conscientious as demonstrated by my willingness to work long hours on-call and
weekends. My previous employers have appreciated my dedication to never missing
deadlines.

An opportunity to meet with you and learn more about your network and the Administrator’s
position would be appreciated. I will call you in a few days to arrange for an interview.


                                                                                            106
Should you wish additional information, I am available at 905-888-9811 from 4-8p.m. daily.
Thank you for accepting the attached resume.

Best Regards,
John Wayne




HOW TO USE EMAIL AS A POWERFUL COMMUNICATION TOOL
There are some rules you can apply to make sure that your emails are not only read but are
also useful to the recipient.



E-mail subject lines should be like newspaper headlines
The headline in newspapers has two functions. First, it grabs your attention; second, it
informs you what the article is about so you can decide whether you want to read it. Email
subject lines should have the same purpose. Therefore, you should tell the reader in your
subject line what the topic of your email is.


Address different topics in separate emails
If you need to discuss several items with someone, write a separate email on each topic. If
you do this, your correspondent can reply to each e-mail / topic separately while deciding
which one is more urgent and which one is less. While one subject could require a short reply
that can be completed right away, another topic might require some thought and research.
By writing separate emails, the answers you get will also be clearer.

Just like a traditional business letter, your email should be clear and concise, with its purpose
explained in your first paragraph. You should keep your sentences short and to the point. The
body of the email should contain all important information.


Specify the response you expect
Make sure you specify the action you expect, such as a phone call or a follow-up
appointment. You should also include your contact information, your name, title, and phone
number(s).


Be a good correspondent
If you regularly communicate through email, clean out your inbox once a day by answering
all the mail in it. This is an act of courtesy while it also encourages the recipients to answer
you quicker.

If a longer response is needed to one of the emails you receive but you do not have the time
to get all the information, send a reply telling the other person that you have received their
message and indicate when you will send a complete response.


                                                                                              107
Inter-office email
You should check your internal email regularly during the day and reply reasonably quickly
since it might involve projects, updates, meeting notes, and the like. Internal emails, just like
other emails, should not be informal. Remember, these are written forms of communication
that can be printed out and viewed by others than the recipient. Always use the spell
checker, and avoid slang.
                         RESEARCHING EMPLOYERS
Why research information on employers?              - Researching an
employer during your job search can help you determine more about that
organization and your potential place in it. Some important information you can look for is:
what activities are carried out by the employer; how financially stable the organization is; and
what types of jobs exist with them. Using available resources, you can gain a better
understanding of what career potential exists with a particular employer.

Preparing for an interview is essential for success! One of the most frequently asked
interview questions is: “What do you know about our organization?” Therefore, before
meeting your interviewer, find out what they do; how they do it; their financial state (if they
are expanding or downsizing); the expectations they have of potential employees in terms of
skills, education, and previous experience; and what YOU can offer them.

Where do you find information on employers? - The following types of resources can
give you information on employers:

Internet company profiles -They have detailed descriptions on an organization's
       history, their services, products, and other details.

Annual reports - These reports and other materials are available from an organization's
public relations/information office. Most large organizations produce a report, which presents
an outline of the organization's successes, growth, history, goals, and financial status.

Directories - These are geographic, business, occupational, professional, industry, and
financial status directories available in your library. These directories may provide
information about an organization's products or services, number of employees,
principal executives, and location(s).

Trade associations - These organizations produce membership directories, journals (which
provide information about trends and issues in the field), and information briefs. They also
hold annual conferences for your networking, information gathering, and professional
development purposes. Remember, almost every type of field or industry that exists has a
trade association.

                       Newspapers - The business section of most papers contain numerous
                       articles about local companies and their executives. Articles about
                       non-profit organizations often appear in a newspaper's local interest
                       section.


                                                                                             108
Fellow professionals - Other professionals in the field can provide "word-of-mouth"
information about organizations of interest.

Competitors -                  Often an organization's competitors offer excellent insight
                               about the inner working of that organization.
                   [Type a
Public documents - Government and semi-government organizations have records that are
                   quote
made available to the public.
                   from the
                   document
Computer databases - Special sources for researching companies and organizations may
                   or the
be available in your library.
                   summary
                   of an
THE STRUCTURE OF A JOB INTERVIEW
                   interestin
                   g point.
                   You offer,
Before receiving a job can you will most likely have a series of interviews with an employer.
The first interviewposition
                    is a screening interview that is done over the phone or at the place of
                   the text
employment. Screening interviews are brief, usually lasting 30-60 minutes. During that time,
                   box
the employer will ask you to explain your experiences that you outlined in your resume or
                   anywhere
application. He or she will also describe the organization and the available position. If the
                   in the
employer is impressed with your performance in this interview, you will be invited to a second
                   document
(and sometimes third or fourth) interview.
                   . Use the
                   Text Box
The second interview process is longer. It lasts anywhere from two hours to a whole day. It
                   Tools tab
could include testing, lunch or dinner, a facility tour, as well as a series of interviews with
                   to change
employees. You should come away from the second interview with a thorough understanding
                   the
of the work environment and job responsibilities and have enough information to decide on a
                   formatting
job offer if extended.
                   of the pull
                   quote text
The warm-up phase  box.]

Each interview follows a predictable communication pattern of warm-up, information
exchange, and wrap-up. During the first few minutes of the interview, or the warm-up, the
employer will be formulating a first, and perhaps lasting, impression of you. How you greet the
employer, the firmness of your handshake, the way you are groomed and dressed, will all be
a part of this initial impression. To help you feel at ease, an interviewer might ask common-
ground questions about shared interests or your travel to the interview. Some interviewers
might start by saying, "Tell me about yourself," an opening for you to describe your
background, skills, and interest in the position in a few minutes.

The information exchange

The information exchange is the                   most important part of the interview. At this
part, you will be asked the most questions                  and learn the most about the
employer. In screening interviews, many employers will spend more time describing their
opportunities than asking you questions. The opposite will be true in second interviews.
Interview questions may range from "Why did you choose to get a degree in ...?" to "What are
your strengths/weaknesses?" and "What are your long-range career goals?" If you are
prepared for the interview, you will be able to explain your qualifications effectively as you
respond to their questions. With practice, you will gain confidence and become more
practiced in your presentation.

                                                                                             109
The wrap-up phase

Eventually the employer will probably ask, "Do you have any questions?" This is the sign that
the interview is ending, moving to the wrap-up stage. Always ask questions because this
demonstrates your prior research and interest in the job. Your questions might be direct ones
such as, "When can I expect to hear from you?"; a question to clarify information the
employer has presented; a question regarding the employer's use of technology or practices
related to the career field; or a question to assess the culture and direction of the organization
such as "Where is this organization headed in the next five years?"

DO NOT ASK SPECIFIC QUESTIONS ABOUT SALARY OR BENEFITS unless the employer
brings it up. The employer may also ask you if you have anything else you would like to add
or say. You can use this opportunity to thank them for the interview, summarize your
qualifications and reiterate your interest in the position. If you want to add information or
emphasize a point made earlier, you can do that, too. This last impression is almost as
important as the first impression and will add to the content discussed during the information
exchange.


                       CHARACTER REFERENCES
A character reference letter is usually written for you by someone you know outside of work.
This can be a friend, neighbour or relative. It can also be business acquaintances,
professors/academic advisors, customers, and vendors.

Also known as a personal reference or personal recommendation, a character reference
documents your positive personal attributes. The main purpose is to indicate that you
possess specific character traits that make you ideally suited for the position.

A character reference letter is different from an employee reference letter. Letters of
recommendation prepared by employers focus more on the specific talents or skills you have
to offer. By contrast, a character reference letter is more likely to address such issues as the
degree of honesty and integrity you express in relationships and in your activities in the
community.

Because of the purpose of a character reference letter, the tone is often much more casual
than a formal letter of recommendation. When written by family and friends, the letter is
likely to include specific examples that help to illustrate the character traits that make you
qualified for the position. For example, if you are applying for a job as a day care provider,
the letter may provide one or two examples of how you interact successfully with children.




Here is a sample character reference letter written by an acquaintance:

 To Whom It May Concern:

 I have known Tasha Yar in a variety of capacities for many years. She has been my
 daughter's kung-fu instructor for the past several years. In addition, she is my partner in
 a small business enterprise where she is responsible for writing and editing articles.

                                                                                               110
Tasha is organized, efficient, extremely competent, and has an excellent rapport with
people of all ages. Her communication skills, both written and verbal, are excellent.

In summary, I highly recommend Tasha for any position or endeavour that she may seek
to pursue. She will be a valuable asset for any organization.

If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact me.

Sincerely,




Jean-Luc Picard


                                                                        Good luck!




                                                                                        111
                                        Using Action Words in your Resume
Action words describe and emphasize your skills, accomplishments, and experiences that are needed in the job market today. It is really
important that you advertise yourself in a way that your resume stands outs. Action words define, emphasize, draw attention to, and highlight
your skills, accomplishments and experiences therefore, when you write a resume, it is important to use them. In the following table you see
a list:

accelerated               conceptualized            established              instrumented             prevailed                 shipped
accomplished              conciliated               estimated                insured                  printed                   shored up
accounted for             concluded                 evaluated                integrated               processed                 showed
achieved                  conditioned               examined                 interpreted              produced                  sifted
acquired                  conducted                 executed                 intervened               profited                  simplified
acted                     confronted                exercised                interviewed              programmed                sketched
activated                 conserved                 exhibited                introduced               prohibited                smoothed
adapted                   consolidated              expanded                 invented                 projected                 sold
added                     constructed               expedited                inventoried              promoted                  solved
addressed                 consulted                 experienced              investigated             proofed                   sorted
adjusted                  continued                 explained                joined                   proposed                  sought
administered               contracted               explored                 judged                   protected                 sparked
adopted                   controlled                expressed                kept                     proved                    spearheaded
advertised                convinced                 extracted                laboured                 provided                  specified
advised                   coordinated               fabricated               launched                 publicized                spoke
aided                     copied                    facilitated              lectured                 purchased                 started
aligned                   corrected                 familiarized             led                      qualified                 stated
alphabetized              correspondence            figured                  licensed                 quoted                    stimulated


                                                                                                                                             112
analyzed      counselled     filed        located      raised          stopped
anticipated   counted        filtered     looked       ran             straightened
applied       crafted        financed     made         rated           streamlined
appointed     created        fixed        maintained   realized        strengthened
appraised     critiqued      forecast     managed      reasoned        stripped
approved      dealt          foresaw      mapped       received        structured
arbitrated    debated        formulated   marketed     recognized      studied
argued        deferred       forwarded    mastered     recommended     submitted
arranged      defined        fostered     maximized    reconciled      suggested
ascertained   delegated      found        measured     recorded        summarized
assembled     delivered      founded      mediated     recruited       supervised
assessed      demonstrated   gained       mentored     reduced         supplied
assisted      designed       gathered     met          referred        supported
assumed       detailed       gave         modelled     rehabilitated   surmounted
assured       detected       generated    moderated    reinforced      surveyed
attained      determined     governed     modified     related         synthesized
attended      developed      grabbed      monitored    rendered        systemized
audited       devised        graded       motivated    renovated       tabulated
authored      diagnosed      greeted      moved        reorganized     talked
authorized    did            grossed      named        repaired        targeted
awarded       digested       guided       navigator    replaced        taught
began         diminished     handled      negotiated   reported        tended
bolstered     directed       hastened     netted       represented     tested



                                                                                    113
boosted      discovered    headed          observed       rescued       tightened
bought       dispensed     heightened      obtained       researched    timed
briefed      displayed     helped          opened         resolved      took
brought      disproved     highlighted     operated       responded     took over
budgeted     dissected     hiked           ordered        restored      totalled
built        distributed   hired           organized      resulted in   toured
calculated   diverted      housed          originated     retrieved     tracked
calibrated   drafted       hunted          overcame       returned      trained
catalogued   dramatized    identified      oversaw        revamped      transcribed
caught       drew          illustrated     paid           revealed      transferred
caused       drew up       imagined        painted        reviewed      transformed
chaired      dropped       implemented     participated   revised       translated
changed      drove         improved        perceived      rewrote       transmitted
charted      earned        improvised      perfected      routed        traveled
checked      edited        included        performed      said          treated
chopped      educated      incorporated    persuaded      saved         tutored
chose        effected      increased       photographed   saw           typed
classified   elected       indexed         piloted        scheduled     uncovered
cleared up   electrified   indicated       pioneered      scouted       unearthed
closed       eliminated    indoctrinated   placed         screened      unfurled
coached      employed      influenced      planned        scrutinized   unified
collected    encouraged    informed        played         selected      updated
combined     enforced      initiated       policed        sent          vitalized



                                                                                     114
communicated   enjoyed       innovated    predicted    served     welcomed
compared       enlarged      inspected    prepared     serviced   won
compiled       enlisted      inspired     prescribed   set up     worked
completed      ensured       installed    presented    set        wrote
computed       entered       instituted   preserved    sewed
conceived      entertained   instructed   presided     shaped




                                                                             115
         EIGHT SALARY NEGOTIATIONS TIPS
1. You will find some employers and recruiters in your job search that will not let you
pass "Go" if you do not state your salary range. Therefore, be prepared and figure
out your salary strategy before you contact an employer.

2. Here is an easy and impressive way to support your salary request: Provide
written materials. You could bring salary statistics for comparable work in your field,
your previous performance evaluations, and your letters of recommendation.

3. Never lie to a prospective employer about your previous salary. It can be
grounds for termination after you are hired.

4. If you have received another job offer, you can increase your perceived value by
telling the employer about it.

5. Wear your salary range: Dress the part, and let your body language speak to your
professionalism. These outer extras will have an influence on how valuable you appear
to your potential employer.

6. While negotiating your employment arrangements, be sure to figure out the
reporting structure of your new job. Once you are on board, you do not want any
surprises about where you fit into the hierarchy.

7. Ask your interviewer about the company's policy for awarding raises. That way
you will be able to calculate what starting pay will work for you in the long run.

8. Talk to an expert or lean on a business-savvy friend to get objective support
throughout the bargaining process. There may be times when you will need to
brainstorm about your strategy, or get a boost for your self-esteem.




                                                                                      116
  MENTORING PROGRAM FOR FOREIGN-TRAINED
              PROFESSIONALS
Some agencies offer a service based on a three-way partnership between the agency,
foreign-trained professionals and Canadians working in your career area. You will
generally need to be "job-ready" and have adequate English skills to be referred to such
a program.

Mentors work one-on-one with you to help you achieve your employment goals while
you are seeking work. The main idea behind mentoring is that if you can find someone
who is already successful in your career area, they can help you understand what you
need to do to to be successful. There is no work placement in this program, instead you
will learn one-on-one from someone who can help you with your very specific needs.

Having a mentor is a crucial key to success—one that many new Canadians simply do
not have. Be open-minded about potential mentors. A good mentor can be a man, a
woman, a person of a different color, or even your boss. A mentor can be anyone in
your field—ideally, someone with more industry experience than you, although a peer
mentor with a background slightly different from your own can also provide useful
perspective.

A mentor can help you understand company or industry cultures and teach you how to
navigate around office politics, among many things. The most important factor is that
you and your mentor can comfortably exchange feedback and ideas.

What a business mentorship program can offer you:

      A nonthreatening learning opportunity;
      Improved self-confidence;
      Developing business expertise and technical knowledge;
      Support, listening and reassurance;
      Networking and partnership opportunities;
      Understanding Canadian workplace culture;
      Identifying skills required by market demand;
      Improving your professional terminology;
      Advice on proceeding with accreditation, if applies;
      Mastering self-marketing techniques and confidence building;
      Identifying technical skills, upgrading programs, and resources;
      Locating publications and workshops on recent development in their fields;
      Establishing professional networks;
      Gathering information on local industries and potential employers;
      Identifying and seizing employment or job training placement opportunities;
                                                                                     117
       Supporting and encouraging efforts to become professionally established;
       Other issues as identified by mentor and mentee.

The K-W YMCA’s Host Program also offers a mentorship program for new
Canadians. For more information, please contact Marilena or Mehmet at 519-
579-9622 or e-mail mentorship@ckwymca.ca.



                 DEFINITIONS IN APPLICATION FORMS

 Here are some definitions of words and phrases you can see on application forms:

         Surname:            What is your last name?
 Permanent address:          Where do you live?
                             What job are you applying for? (for example, sales clerk,
 Position applied for:
                             shipper)
   Salary or wages           How much do you want to be paid? (If you are not sure, you
      expected:              can write “Open” or “Flexible”.)
                             When can you start work? (If you can start right away, write
       Date available:
                             “Immediately”.)
  Will you relocate?         Would you move to another city if asked?
                             What did you do at your last job? (for example, assisted,
Duties/responsibilities:
                             assembled)
                             Bondable simply means that you can be trusted to work with cash
  Are you bondable?
                             money without taking it. If you are such a person, answer “YES”.
           Skill:            The ability to do something.



 A question that is often hard to answer is “Why did you leave your last job?” Here
 are some examples you can use as reasons. You can choose whichever applies to
 you:

        Returned to school
        Looking for more challenge
        Looking for better position
                                                                                          118
       Job completed
       Health reasons
       Maternity leave
       Relocated
       Business closed
       Temporary work
       Laid off




      JOBS ADVERTISED IN THE NEWSPAPER OR ON THE
                       INTERNET
Two usual places where you can find advertised jobs are newspaper classifieds and job
postings on the Internet. These can be important in your job search. However, since
less than 20 per cent of jobs are actually advertised, it is important that you also use
other job search methods.

Because it does not take a lot of work to access advertised positions, it is not only less
work for you but also for your competitors. Competition for these few advertised
positions is greater than for jobs you can find in the hidden job market.

Classified advertisements

Non-creative job search means reading the classified sections of newspapers. Although
they can be a valuable source in your job search, they also have disadvantages. Many
times these ads leave out valuable information, such as the name of the employer and
the location of the job.

Here are some points that can help you evaluate and respond to newspaper ads.

9.     Avoid delays. Read the newspaper every day first thing in the morning.
10.    Read every job posting. New postings are printed daily. Some may even be
       placed in the wrong section, so read all the help wanted ads.
11.    Write down ads that interest you.
12.    Do not downplay your qualifications. Employers are looking for the ideal
       candidate. At the same time, job seekers can learn new skills or improve existing
       ones through on-the-job training or experience. If you think you would like the

                                                                                        119
          job, consider if you could handle this job with a few weeks of experience or if you
          have done something similar in the past.
13.       Do not skip over the advertisements that seem to have little information.
          When you are looking for a job, you should give a chance to every listing and
          follow up, even if the ad does not give you a lot of information. For example,
          employers often leave out information about salary, hours of work and duties,
          because these are negotiable.
14.       Beware of ads that appear too good to be true. They probably are.
15.       Tailor your resumé and cover letter. List your specific skills that relate to the
          announcement.
16.       Do not include references but take your references list with you for your
          interview.




 I AM NEW TO CANADA AND I CAN'T GET A JOB BECAUSE I DON'T
             HAVE ANY “CANADIAN EXPERIENCE”

Starting over in a new country is not easy. There are a number of challenges; learning
a new language and understanding a different culture are a big adjustment. Adding to
the difficulty, job opportunities may seem hard to pin down.

Employers want to ensure the smooth operation of their company. This concern may
raise a number of questions. How will a new Canadian fit into their organization? Will
there be difficulty communicating with an employee whose mother tongue is different?
Will it be easy enough for a newcomer to successfully join the company culture? Is
education or training from abroad comparable to Canadian training? Are work
environments and practices from abroad similar to a Canadian work experience?

Addressing these concerns is not easy, but here are some suggestions that may help
you:

         If your speaking and writing skills in English are not solid, consider taking a
          "Business English" course from your local community college.
         Even if your English language skills are fairly good, it is worth seeking help to
          improve those skills. Look for services that assist newcomers.
                                                                                              120
      Locate some expert allies. In almost every Canadian city there are societies and
       agencies that serve new Canadians. They can be helpful when adjusting to a
       new culture.
      Emphasize your skills. Research the companies that you are applying to and find
       out what skills they seek. Write a 'Functional' resume instead of a 'chronological'
       one - www.nextsteps.org/resume/resform.html
      Highlight your abilities on your cover letter -
       www.nextsteps.org/resume/coverlet.html
      Volunteer! Volunteering not only gives you Canadian work experience, but it
       also provides you with Canadian work references.

To convince a potential employer that they should hire you, emphasize that you have
the skills necessary to achieve the company's goals. Do not rely too heavily on the
prestige of former positions or training programs that may not be recognized by a
Canadian employer.




WHAT TO DO WHEN YOU LOSE YOUR JOB

   1. Set up and keep a daily schedule. Make sure you include time for
      daily job search.
   2. Set daily goals that you know you can reach. Go for walks, go
      swimming, go to the park or visit a friend.
   3. Get in touch with local employment agencies and employment
      counselling services and ask for information on job search programs in your community.
   4. Use your networks. Tell everyone you know that you are looking for work and what
      kind; ask if they know of any jobs or any companies that employ people with your skills.
      People that you know may not think of mentioning contacts to you because they do not
      have a clear idea of what kind of work you are looking for. Remember, a lot of people
      get their jobs through “word of mouth.”
   5.                        Read books or take a workshop on stress management
                      techniques. Being unemployed is very stressful. By learning to
              manage your stress, you could spare yourself and your family
              from additional emotional upset.
   6.                        Take a volunteer job or start a job search support group.
   7. Stay active outside your home. Isolating yourself at home will not get you a new job and
      it can also lead to additional emotional stress.
   8. Reward yourself when you accomplished something or reached goals, even if they are
      small.


                                                                                          121
   9. In the evening or late afternoon, prepare a list for your next day. It will give you a
       reason to get up in the morning and help you focus on your goal.
   10. Take up a hobby you always wanted to do but never had time for.
   11. Check into new career possibilities or the opportunity of continuing your education.
   12. Keep regular hours, and get regular exercise. It is important to
       keep your mind AND your body healthy.

Additional tips to survive unemployment:

1. Cut back on your living expenses if it is possible. Set up a plan on
how much money you spend on what.

2. Finding a job itself is a full-time job. Get up, get dressed like you would for an interview, get
on the phone or the Internet and make it happen — every day. Perfect your resume and go to
job fairs. Let friends, family and all of your professional contacts know that you are looking for
work.

3. Take night classes to improve your skills or learn new ones. You can never be
too smart or knowledgeable about different subjects. It will also boost your
self-confidence.

4. If your finances get below what is comfortable for you, look for part-time work.
Industries that have peak periods, such as retail businesses during the holidays,
always need good help.

Being unemployed for a long period is devastating, but it happens to most of us. It is your
chance to use this period of unemployment to better yourself and make yourself more
appealing to employers. This is the point in your life when you have free time to do it.




                                     GOOD LUCK!
                                                                                   u can
                                                                                   positio
AFTER THE INTERVIEW - THE THANK YOU NOTE                                           n the
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letter, be sure to summarize your conversation and re-emphasize the skills you would bring to
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the position. Thank them for their time and ask if it is all right to call later in thein
                                                                                   the
their search for a candidate is going. To get their contact information, ask everyone for their
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business cards at the end of your interview. Email is perfectly acceptable these days, but make
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                                                                                   Use
acronyms (e.g., TIA for thanks in advance). Whether you send thank you letters by fax, email or
postal mail, observe professional business-letter standards.                       the
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                                                                                   quote
 Be prepared to attend two or three interviews at the same company. If you are called back for
  another interview, it means that they are interested in you, but they are also narrowing the
  competition.
 Be patient. It is not unusual for interviewers to take weeks to narrow the competition. But if
  you do not hear from them in about a week or about 24 hours after they said you would hear
  from them, it is okay to send follow-up letters. (Do not call without permission. Interviewers
  might consider it rude when you interrupt their workday with unsolicited calls.) One follow-up
  letter per interviewer is sufficient. If they are interested, they will contact you.

                            A GENERAL THANK YOU LETTER

                                         7 Apple Court
                                    Palmerston, ON N5D 1R3
                                         519-555-0303

Mr. Archie Weatherby
Ontario Investments, Inc.
25 Walnut Street
Toronto, ON H0H 0H0

Dear Mr. Weatherby,

Thank you for taking the time to discuss the insurance broker position at Ontario Investments,
Inc., with me. After meeting with you and observing the company's operations, I am further
convinced that my background and skills coincide well with your needs.

I really appreciate that you took so much time to acquaint me with the company. It is no wonder
that Ontario Investments retains its employees for so long. I feel I could learn a great deal from
you and would certainly enjoy working with you.

In addition to my qualifications and experience, I will bring excellent work habits and judgment to
this position. With the countless demands on your time, I am sure that you require people who
can be trusted to carry out their responsibilities with minimal supervision.

I look forward to hearing from you concerning your hiring decision. Again, thank you for your
time and consideration.

Sincerely,

John Oakley

             MISTAKES YOU SHOULD AVOID WHEN APPLYING

                                        FOR A JOB
There are some major mistakes you should avoid when you are looking for work. Such as:


                                                                                                123
 Not researching the company before your interview: Researching the company's web
  site and the requirements of the job you are applying for is very important. You can contact
  and network with employees at your target company or call professional organizations the
  organization has memberships in. If you do your research, you can find out what positions
  are available and the type of people the company wants to hire. If you do not know much
  about the organization, it will be obvious in the interview.

 Not being able to articulate your needs and desires: If you do not understand what you
  can bring to the organization, you will not be able to present yourself and your skills
  accurately. Companies are hiring because they might need to solve problems or because
  they have opportunities and need more employees. The best applicants are those who can
  express how their experience fits for the particular position.

  Knowing exactly what you want to do is important. Some job-seekers have a general resume
  and they use it to apply for every job. Sometimes they do not even know what they applied
  for when they get a phone call for an interview. That makes the applicant look foolish.

 Not being professional in the interview: Be early to all interviews and do not bring food!
  Do not share personal information that is not relevant to the job, such as: you are tired today
  because you had a date last night or explaining that you are not feeling well because you had
  too much to drink on the weekend. Another unprofessional mistake is to speak badly of your
  current boss; it makes the interviewer think that you are the one with the problem.

 Not demonstrating well-developed communication skills: Make sure that you are able to
  talk with confidence and expertise about who you are and what you do best. Practice
  civilized communication before going to the interview, listening and responding, and NOT
  TALKING over the interviewer. Too many applicants talk too much and do not fully listen to
  the questions asked of them. However, do not be dull or be afraid to show enthusiasm
  either. Companies seek enthusiastic, focused, passionate employees.

 Not keeping the personal to yourself: With the popularity of Facebook, Hi5 and other
  social-networking sites, applicants often think they can include their social-network
  identification in their résumés or disclose it at an interview. However, what you post on those
  sites is too personal and makes you look unprofessional.

  Also make sure that your voicemail reflects a professional attitude. When searching for a
  job, keep the outgoing message simple, such as whom they have reached and that you will
  return their call soon.

  Your e-mail address should also reflect professionalism. E-mail addresses often describe
  people's personal attributes. The e-mail addresses you give to recruiters should simply state
  your full name.

Job interviews can be stressful. But if you conduct a proper research into the organization,
identify your own experiences and desires while exhibiting professional conduct, your chances
of being hired are greatly increased.




                                                                                              124
        UNLAWFUL QUESTIONS AT AN INTERVIEW
Did you know that there are laws that protect individuals from discrimination at a job
interview? It is important that you know your rights and be informed about what type
of questions asked at an interview can be “Unlawful Questions”.

HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF UNLAWFUL QUESTIONS:

   1. What is your maiden name?
   2. How many children do you have?
   3. Do you attend church regularly?
   4. What does your spouse do for a living?
   5. What is your native language?
   6. What is your social insurance number?
   7. Are you married, divorced, separated or single?
   8. Do you own or rent a car?
   9. What social or political organizations do you belong to?
   10. What is your sexual orientation?
   11. Were you ever arrested?



YOUR RIGHTS AT THE INTERVIEW
The Ontario Human Rights Commission (OHRC) considers the following categories to
have restrictions on what the interviewer can legally ask from you:

   1.   Birthplace, ancestry, ethnic origin, place of origin
   2.   Sexual orientation
   3.   Marital status, family status
   4.   Age
   5.   Race, colour
   6.   Religion, creed
   7.   Citizenship
   8.   Education
   9.   Record of offences
                                                                                     125
    10. Disabilities
    11. Memberships in organizations

NEGATIVE FACTORS EVALUATED BY AN INTERVIEWER

     Sloppy and / or unprofessional personal appearance

     Overbearing, overaggressive or egotistical behavior

     Negativity

     Lack of interest and enthusiasm -- passive and indifferent

     Lack of confidence and poise

     Overemphasis on getting paid

     Evasiveness; making excuses for unclear gaps in work history

     Lack of tact, maturity and courtesy

     Criticism of past employers, managers, projects or technologies

     Inability to maintain a conversation

     Lack of commitment to fill the position applied for

     Failure to ask questions about the position

     Only being interested in "What can this organization do for me?"

     Lack of preparation for the interview, such as not having researched the
      company, therefore not being able to ask intelligent questions



    YOUR EMPLOYER’S EXPECTATIONS OF YOU WHEN YOU
                  START A NEW JOB
What are your new employer’s expectations of you when you start your job? In the
following list you can see responses to a survey of employers in the trades,
government, service sector, and office environments. Consider each response carefully.
How can these help you keep your job?

                                                                                   126
On your first day

      be punctual
      follow the dress code
      be open to learn
      be enthusiastic
      show that you are energetic
      be prepared to complete paperwork
      ask questions
      take initiative
      show interest
      pay attention
      know where to go the next day

In your first month

      show responsibility
      know what you are talking about
      be willing to admit mistakes
      admit what you do and do not know
      be eager to learn from others; ask questions
      have an understanding of the company
      know how different people like to work
      meet the organization’s standards for performance goals
      show incentive
      show commitment to the workplace
      exhibit enthusiasm and excitement about working for the company

Showing what you know

      if you are experienced, new ideas are welcome immediately
      if you are not yet experienced, wait a month or two to present ideas in the
       appropriate manner




                HOW TO FIND A JOB IN YOUR FIELD
   Seek out specialty job boards: There are a lot of job opportunities online, and
 often, they are categorized by industry. Look for job boards specific to your industry.
The benefits to an industry specific job board are that you will not have to spend a lot
  of time searching through job advertisements only to see that they do not have any
                               jobs you are interested in.
                                                                                     127
Join a professional organization: If your chosen career field has a          professional
association or organization, join it. You will be informed about     developments in
your industry, new training initiatives, and maybe even find     out who is hiring. It is a
great way to stay updated on developments in your career field.

   Network: Along with joining a professional association, networking with others in
   your field is a great way to stay ahead of the game. By being in contact with others,
   they can offer you support and possible job leads when you are looking for work.
   Support will also help you when you are not looking for work. It is a good way for
   like-minded individuals to promote and develop their careers.

Consider an employment agency: Many employment agencies focus on certain
career types. By making your skills and resume available to them, you increase your
potential job opportunities. It is similar to looking for a job on a career-specific job site.
You want to maximize your potential job offers and have those that are looking for a
job for you understand your career and be focused on finding you a job in your field.

Think outside the box: An accountant does not only need to be working at an
accounting firm. Many companies in a wide range of industries look for accounting
professionals. The same is true or a lot of other careers. If you are willing to be
creative in your job search and expand your circle of opportunities, you increase your
chances of finding the job you want.

You have probably invested a lot of time and energy into finding the perfect career.
Consider the tips above to help you find a job in your chosen field. By being creative,
networking, and seeking out specific job search tools, you can help improve your
chances of landing the job you want.


                         GOOD LUCK!
                              EXIT INTERVIEWS
We all are aware that in order to get a job, we have to go through an interview
process. However, did you know that when you leave a job, many companies ask you
to take part in an exit interview? While a job interview is about you and your skills, an
exit interview is more about evaluating the company you are leaving. Below you see
questions of an exit interview conducted by an actual company:

      What factors contributed to your decision to leave our Company?
      What did you most like about our Company and its policies? Why?
      What did you like least about our Company and its policies? Why?
                                                                                           128
      b) What do you recommend that our Company do to correct these issues?
     Are there any specific changes that would have motivated you to stay at our Company?
     With respect to our Organization, what is your opinion of the following:
      a) working conditions?
      b) rate of pay?
      c) benefits package?
     Please describe associate morale within your own department.
     What did you appreciate most about the training that you received? Was there any
      training you requested but did not receive?
     Do you believe that appropriate opportunities for advancement were available? (explain)
     Would you recommend to your friends that they work here? If not, please explain.


NEW EMPLOYMENT:
     Have you obtained a new job?
        If yes, would you please tell us (optional):
          Employer's Name:
          City:
          Position title:
          Starting salary:
                                        [Type a quote
                                        about your new job?
      What do you see as most attractivefrom the
                                        document or
                                        the summary
                                        of an
                                        interesting
                                        point. You
                                        can position
                                        the text box
                                        anywhere in
                                        the document.
                                        Use the Text
                                        Box Tools tab
                                        to change the
                                        formatting of
                                        the pull quote
                                        text box.]




                                                                                             129
       Are our Company benefits and compensation competitive compared to those
        offered by your new Company?
       If the opportunity presented itself, would you be interested in working for our
        Organization again?
    Additional Comments / Questions:
How would you rate your supervisor on the following points?

                                       Almost         Usually         Sometimes      Never
                                       Always

Treats all associates equally          ______ _       ______ _        ______         _____

Delivers criticism in a
constructive manner                    ______ _       ______ _        ______         _____

Recognizes and
commends good work                     ______ _       ______ _        ______         _____

Readily accessible to
associates for consultation            ______ _       ______ _        ______         _____

Resolves complaints
grievances and problems
effectively and promptly               ______ _       ______ _        ______         _____

Develops /encourages
cooperation                            ______ _       ______ _        ______         _____

Available to help when
needed, was knowledgeable              ______ _       ______ _        ______         _____

Provides encouragement                 ______ _       ______ _        ______         _____

Was friendly and interested
in you (showed personal
interest and friendliness)             ______ _       ______ _        ______         _____

Follows policies and
procedures                             ______ _       ______ _        ______         _____




                                                                                          130
             STAYING MOTIVATED IN YOUR JOB SEARCH
Guess, what this job is: "Seeking hardworking person willing to invest blood, sweat
and tears into writing, typing, reading, revising, editing, printing, calling, researching and
presenting while alone and unsupervised. No expenses covered. No benefits. No
vacation. Hours: Indefinite. Start Date: Immediately. End Date: ? Salary: $0."
Like it or not, this is a "job" most of us will have several times in our lives--looking for
work. Facing a job search can seem bleak, especially if it happens suddenly after being
laid off or fired. To find a great job while trying to survive, personally and financially, is
not easy. The only way to do it is to stay motivated. Here are a few tips to help you:

      Treat your job search as a full-time job. Although you do not have to search
       from 9-5 every day, you will only get out of it what you put in. Have a plan.
       Research companies, go on informational interviews, network, analyze your
       skills.
      Stay healthy. Job search can be stressful. Do not let it affect your physical
       health. Eat well, exercise and practice relaxation and stress management
       techniques. If you have a spiritual life, put energy into that.
      Reconnect. Although it may be uncomfortable to have so much free time, use it
       to get in touch with your creative side. Start writing that book you have been
       thinking about. Finish those household projects that you have put off. Talk more
       with your children and family. You may find that the time you spend not worrying
       about a job will be the time when you make realizations about yourself that will
       lead to a better job in the end.
      Volunteer. Take a few hours each week to volunteer at your favourite church or
       charity. Not only will it give you something to feel good about, and remind you of
       what you do have, but you never know what contacts you might make.
      Create a "to-do" list daily or for the entire week. This list could include the
       networking calls you will make that week, the web sites you will review, the time
       you will spend at the public library doing research... Once you have completed
       the items on your list you can relax and worry less about what you should be
       doing because you know that you have a plan working toward your goal.
      Form a support network. Rely on your friends and family to encourage you and
       provide you with networking contacts. As long as you fulfill your responsibilities
       for your job search and do not expect others to do things for you that you should
       be doing for yourself, there is nothing wrong with seeking support and feedback
       from others.
      Find a part-time job. There is nothing wrong with waiting on customers in a
       restaurant or signing on with a temporary agency. Getting out of the house,
       working around other people, and being productive will help prevent depression.
       It also may lead to a permanent job, since you will increase your network and
       show potential supervisors your work ethic and skills on the job.
At some point in this process you will likely feel run down and need encouragement.
Remember that this period of unemployment might have a deeper meaning in your life,
which you cannot yet see.
Most people say that being unemployed was a positive thing for them. Often, it gave
people the chance to reassess what they really wanted and needed from life, to make
positive changes, and made them more resilient in the face of other crises.

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There are always jobs. If your job search method is not finding them, change it.
Remember that rejection does not make you unworthy or a bad person: things just did
not work out for you for that particular job.
Remember not to give up! There is a good job out there for you—and possibly, there are
many. Keep your head up, and you will find them. You never know what you can do
until you try!




            A GUIDE FOR FOREIGN-TRAINED
                   TRADESPEOPLE
  In Ontario, the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities helps trades
  people to obtain recognition of their foreign trade qualifications and
  experience. They also help them enter an apprenticeship. Tradespeople
  who have enough related work experience to meet Ontario standards and
  who pass a written examination, receive a Certificate of Qualification.

  There are two categories of trades: those for which certification is mandatory
  and those for which it is voluntary.

  Skilled trades for which certification is mandatory:
  You must have a Certificate of Qualification or you have to be a registered
  apprentice in order to work in the following trades in Ontario:

       Alignment and Brakes Technician; Autobody and Collision Damage
       Repairer (Branch 1); Autobody Repairer (Branch 2); Automotive
       Electronic Accessory Technician; Automotive Service Technician;
       Electrician (Construction and Maintenance); Electrician (Domestic and
       Rural); Fuel and Electrical Systems Technician; Hairstylist; Mobile
       Crane Operator (Branch 1); Mobile Crane Operator (Branch 2);
       Motorcycle Mechanic; Plumber; Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
       Mechanic; Sheet Metal Worker; Steamfitter; Tower Crane Operator;
       Transmission Technician; Truck and Coach Technician; Truck-Trailer
       Service Technician

  Skilled trades for which certification is not mandatory:
  Although employers and unions may ask for a Certificate of Qualification in
  these trades, you do not need a Certificate of Qualification to work in them:

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    Air-Cooled and Marine Engine Mechanic; Arborist; Assistant Cook;
    Automotive Machinist; Automotive Painter; Baker; Boat Motor Mechanic;
    Brick and Stone Mason; Cement Mason; Construction Boilermaker;
    Construction Millwright; Cook; Electronics Service Technician; Farm
    Equipment Mechanic; Fitter (Structural Steel / Platework); General
    Machinist; Glazier and Metal Mechanic; Nursery Greenhouse Worker;
    Industrial Electrician; Industrial Mechanic (Millwright); Industrial
    Woodworker; Ironworker; Junior Baker; Lather; Marine and Small-
    Powered Equipment Mechanic; Mouldmaker; Painter and Decorator
    (Commercial and Residential); Painter and Decorator (Industrial);
    Patissier; Pattern Maker; Printer; Small Engine Technician; Sprinkler
    and Fire Protection Installer; Tool and Die Maker

Steps in obtaining a Certificate of Qualification
1. Contact a Workplace Support Services office to book an appointment with
a training consultant (Workplace Support Services Office in Waterloo: 519-
571-6009).

2. Bring the following documents with you to your appointment:

       your Social Insurance Number card;
       letter(s) from current or past employers, written on company
        letterhead and dated, providing the company name and address, the
        exact dates of your employment, your job title, and a detailed
        description of your duties;
       letter(s) from the union(s) to which you have belonged (if applicable),
        with the same information as noted above;
       certificates, diplomas, or licences;
       official school transcripts from your training, containing course
        descriptions, if available.
If your documents are not in English, they must be translated and signed by
an official translator who has seen the originals. For assistance, contact the
Association of Interpreters and Translators of Ontario at 1-800-234-5030. In
Kitchener-Waterloo, you can contact the Multicultural Centre at 519-745-
2531.
3. The training consultant will look at your documents and tell you whether
you have the necessary skills and experience to write the Certificate of
Qualification examination. If your trade is a compulsory trade, you will be
given a Letter of Permission, which is a temporary licence. The Letter of
Permission, which is valid for 90 days, allows you to work until you write the
exam. If you do not have the necessary skills and experience to write the
examination, you will be advised to enter an apprenticeship training
program.

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  4. Pass the written examination. Note that the passing mark is 70 per
  cent.

  Apprenticeship
  If you do not have or cannot prove that you have enough related work
  experience in the trade in which you would like to work, you may be required
  to complete an apprenticeship. Apprentices receive a specific number of
  hours of on-the-job training in a skilled trade. Most of the time is spent on
  practicing skills in the workplace. The rest is spent on studying theory in a
  classroom, usually at a local community college.

  Apprentices are responsible for finding an employer who is willing to
  supervise their work throughout the apprenticeship. As an apprentice, you
  are an employee and, therefore, you will be paid for your work. What you
  receive will be a percentage of the wages of a licensed tradesperson.
  Apprenticeship applicants can find employers in the Yellow Pages, through
  newspaper or Internet ads, or through unions.

  To find out more about apprenticeship training, contact the Workplace
  Support Services office.

  Note: Most trades require that you have the equivalent of an Ontario Grade
  12 education before you enter an apprenticeship program. If you need to
  have your educational documents assessed, contact World Education
  Services through its website, at www.wes.org, or by telephone, at 416-972-
  0070.

  For more information, visit www.edu.gov.on.ca or contact
  aptinfo@edu.gov.on.ca. You may also call 1-888-562-4969 or 416-326-
  5656.




                 LABOUR MARKET INFORMATION
What is labour market information?

Labour market information, or LMI, is information about the supply and demand for
labour. It is the arena in which the exchange of those who need workers (employers)
and those who offer their skills for work (employees) takes place. However, it is not as
simple as it sounds because there are different factors which influence this market and



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keep it in a state of constant change. It is important to be aware of these influences in
order to have a better understanding of the world of work.

Labour market information can include skills or characteristics of individuals who are
employed or who are looking for work, as well as the skills or characteristics which
employers are looking for in workers. Thus it attempts to evaluate the supply and the
demand side of the market, both current and future.

There are many other elements, which affect this market, and these can include:

    The economic or political climate or situation
    Social issues
    Demographic characteristics of the population such as age, gender, level of
     schooling and labour force activity

By collecting and carefully analyzing this information over time, we are able to obtain a
more complete picture of the labour market. Therefore, this allows us to make future
projections of what the world of work will require from its labour force.

Why do we need it?

Labour market information is an important factor to consider when deciding which
career path to pursue. Imagine spending four years in university training for a job that
will be steadily declining for the next 10 years. Your job prospects will probably look
pretty grim. Having access to labour market information will help you make quality,
educated decisions about your job future.

Where do I find labour market information?

The Internet will provide you with an abundance of information on labour market
conditions, including occupational profiles, wage descriptions and future projections.
Check out these great web sites:


NOC: http://www5.hrsdc.gc.ca/noc/english/noc/2006/welcome.aspx
Essential skills:
http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/workplaceskills/essential_skills/general/home.shtml
National job futures: http://www.jobfutures.ca/en/home.shtml
Provincial job futures: http://www.jobfutures.ca/en/provincial.shtml
Wages by occupation:
http://www.labourmarketinformation.ca/standard.aspx?ppid=43&lcode=E
Labour force trends:
http://www.labourmarketinformation.ca/standard.aspx?ppid=43&lcode=E
Occupational profiles:
http://www.labourmarketinformation.ca/standard.aspx?ppid=85&lcode=E
Industry and job trends in Waterloo Region:
http://www.newwr.ca/employment/Pages/Industry.aspx
Industries in Waterloo Region:
http://newcomerswaterloo.ca/index.php?MenuItemID=230



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               TIPS FOR READABLE RESUMES
   It is important that you give priority to your skills on your resume because
    employers want to know what you can do and not just where you have been.
    This is the reason why scannable resume systems are set up to read skills. Place
    the important skills at the beginning of the resume where employers can see
    them first. Also, scannable database systems store a fixed number of skills so
    that those that come later may not be included in the database. Also make sure
    that your skills and occupation-specific keywords match your objective.

   Place your name, address, and phone number with area code in a block format
    below the top margin. This key information helps interested employers reach you
    and is the preferred format for scannable systems. Put your name on each page.

   Use generous margins and plenty of white space. One-inch margins enhance the
    readability of your resume. Balance the body of the resume so that the content is
    not compressed. For multiple pages, ensure that information is balanced over the
    pages. The final resume should be a high-contrast image - dark ink on white or
    light colored paper.

   Use vertical and horizontal lines sparingly and include a quarter inch of space
    around them. (Scanning systems can get confused by lines and characters.)

   Avoid graphics and shading. Shading reduces the contrast and that makes the
    text hard to read. Graphics may catch the human eye but might confuse
    scanning systems.

   Use a font size between 10 and 14 points. Do not use script, italic or underlining.
    Highlight information using bold or CAPITAL letters.

   Stapling or folding diminishes the visual appearance of the resume and affects
    scannability. Avoid fasteners and consider sending your resume flat in a large
    white envelope.

   Be sure your resume is high quality and professional. Use a laser printer for your
    final copy. Remember, this is how you advertise yourself to employers.

   Choose a font that is easily readable rather than decorative: Times New Roman,
    Univers, Arial, Courier New or Century Schoolbook.




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                     INFORMATIONAL INTERVIEWS
Informational interviews have the potential to give a lot of very helpful information by offering
you a direct look at people doing the job you would like to do, and by letting you further explore
the career.

What is an informational interview?
An informational interview gives you an opportunity to discover more about a career or job you
are interested in, or about a company that you would like to work for. For example, if you are
interested in becoming a mechanic, talking to someone who is working in that field is an
excellent way to find out details about that job and to see if this career is a good fit for you. This
type of interview is not intended for you to find a position at this time, but is simply to help you
gather more information about possible career paths or employers.

What is the purpose of an informational interview?
       To get information on the career(s) you are interested in.
       To do a reality check on what you have read, heard, and thought of a specific career.
       To gather information that is:
            o up to date;
            o specific and related to wherever you live;
            o personal and subjective;
            o reflective of the work atmosphere.
       To gain self-confidence and learn to be comfortable in interview and networking settings.
       To enlarge your circle of contacts, to get more referrals and to network.
       To establish links to your job targets.

Remember that this is not a job interview and you are not talking to these people to get a job. If
the other person realizes that you are using the opportunity to get work and not to get information
about the job, they will feel deceived and may not continue the interview. The reason for this
interview is to listen to the other person describe their job and not to market yourself.

Where do I find people to interview?
       Ask friends, family, neighbours, work colleagues and anyone else you know. They might
        know somebody who would be interested in helping you with information.
       Call community service agencies and trade organizations, such as professional
        organizations and the Chamber of Commerce
       Explore business directories and Yellow Pages.

Remember that people are interested in talking about what they do and how they do it and are
often interested in helping others. However, you must be prepared when you meet with someone
for an informational interview.

Being prepared means knowing what kind of information you would like to get. Complete
research prior to the informational interview so that your questions can be specific. It is important



                                                                                                   137
to look at materials at a career centre or library first, and to know your own interests, skills, and
values, and how they relate to the person you are interviewing.


How do I arrange an interview?
       Personal referral is the most effective. Have a mutual acquaintance be the connection to
        your contact.
       Walking-in, telephoning and emailing are the next best ways if you have no personal
        referral.
       Letters are not very useful.

If someone agrees to an interview, arrange a time and place that is convenient for both of you.
Make sure that you arrive on time and do not stay longer than the agreed-upon time unless the
other person suggests it. If someone you are approaching is not available for an informational
interview, ask if he or she knows someone else that could help you.

What should I ask?
 You should ask the person questions about the job, the company or their typical work day.
Gather information that you do not already know and that is not easily found elsewhere. Allow
the conversation to flow naturally while making sure you get the information you are looking for.
        Be sure to avoid asking personal questions or for personal information.


Here are examples of some questions you could ask:

       How did you decide on this career choice?
       How did you actually get into this field of work?
       What do you like best about your work?
       What do you like the least?
       What is a typical day or week like for someone in your occupation?
       What kind of skills, education, and/or training would I need to get into this area?
       What personal qualities are necessary for someone in this occupation?
       What is a typical entry-level salary? (DO NOT ASK what the person you are
        interviewing makes!)
       Whom else do you know that I could talk to about this job / company?
       May I leave my resume so you can critique it for me?
       Do you have any suggestions for my job search?

What should I do when I am done?
It is a good idea to send a thank-you note after your interview to show your appreciation for the
person’s time. In it you can mention the information given that you found particularly interesting
or helpful. Let them know that you appreciate their effort and time and that the information they
gave is important to you. If they agreed to look at your resume, follow up within a week and ask
them for their feedback. It never hurts to have a resume tailor-made exactly the way the
employer wants it after they gave you suggestions on it.


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Note: Informational interviews are especially important if you are new to the country or area.
People who grew up in the area, have their natural network of acquaintances they knew all their
lives, went to school with or lived nearby for many years. If you are new to the area, you do not
have that network because you left it at the place where you came from. Therefore, informational
interviews are a valuable tool of building up a network you lack and need at your new place of
residence.
          8 Questions You Should Not Ask in the Interview
The big day has come, and you have finally received a job interview, but are you
prepared? Have you researched the company? Have you considered what questions you
would like to ask the employer?
As a job interview is not a one-sided conversation, you should be prepared to ask the
employer questions or for clarification to show that you are truly interested in the
company and the position. Prepare any questions that you would like to ask the
interviewer, but be sure to avoid these questions:



        Salary: Do not ask what a position pays until the hiring manager has determined
        that you are a good fit for the position. Asking this question may send the wrong
        message to the employer and can affect or alter the final salary payment decision
        or job offer.

        Vacation Time/Benefits/Sick Days: Do not expect to receive an offer of
        employment if you suggest to the hiring manager that you will need time off. It is
        best to wait until the contract is signed before mentioning pre-planned trips and
        time off needed.

        Lieu Time/Overtime: Generally, the higher the salary, the more you will be
        expected to work overtime without compensation. If you would like to negotiate
        lieu time, wait until an employment offer has been given to you.

        Car expenses/Expense Accounts: Expense accounts are not usually discussed
        until an offer is accepted. Try not to think of expense accounts as extra income as
        these funds are also taxable.

        Health Issues: You are not obligated to discuss or disclose disabilities and/or
        health issues that do not pertain to the duties of the job. Therefore, do not bring
        these up unless absolutely necessary and relevant.

        Past Conflicts: Be sure not to speak negatively about past employers and
        positions. Keep the explanations of why you left a company as general as
        possible. You do not want the interviewer to think that one day you may speak


                                                                                             139
       negatively about them.

       A Higher Position: Remember that you are interviewing for a specific position,
       and all information that you share should pertain to this position. It is great to
       have ambitions, but focus on what you can contribute now, and what you can
       contribute to the position you are interviewing for. Never tell an interviewer that
       you would like to have their position eventually.

       Personal Things: Do not share personal information no matter how well you are
       bonding with the interviewer. Remember that the interviewer is not your friend,
       and they do not need to know all details about your life.


Focus on what you can do for the company, not what the company can do for you.


  10 Tips for Making a Successful Career
                  Change
   1. Start with the end in mind. This part of the process is about you, not the job.
      You will need to ask yourself some very important questions and try to figure out
      what career success means to you. For example:
                              What is your ideal work schedule?
                              How much would you like to earn?
                              Where, physically, would you like to work?
   2. Map you career landscape. Think back to all of the jobs you have had in the past.
      Focus on what has worked for you and what hasn’t. Create a list of positives and
      negatives to help give you a clear view of your career history.
   3. Find your “unfair advantage.” What talents and strengths do you bring into the
      labour market? What is the one thing that you feel that you can do better than
      most? Building your self-confidence is an important part of helping yourself and
      others to be believe you will be successful.
   4. Identify your passion. What makes you happy, and what makes you angry? Try
      thinking about what websites you regularly visit, or what section of the
      bookstore you head for to help you pinpoint your passions.
   5. Create your target list. What companies work in the areas you are passionate
      about? Start thinking about what companies you would like to work for as well
      as what role you would like to have within the organization.
   6. Do your research. When researching companies and jobs, keep an open mind.
      One of the biggest mistakes you can make is starting with pre-conceived notions.


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   7. Ask for help. This part is not about begging for a job or asking for a favor, it is
      asking people you respect for opinions and input into your job search. Start with
      people from work, school, volunteer and other communities. These people will
      be the foundation of your network.
   8. Put together your package. Make sure you have a resume and cover letter that
      will help you stand out from the crowd.
   9. Go to the market. This is the time to get out and make contacts. Set career goals
      30, 60 and 90 days away to help you stay on track. Focus only a small amount of
      your job search on jobs available through job search websites and newspapers
      and the majority of your time on job leads through your research and network.
   10.         Land on your feet. The way you handle the first 3-6 months in a new
       position is crucial and it is important that you manage your expectations.
       Remember that you may not feel comfortable right away as it takes time to
       adjust to new situations. Remembering this will keep you from panicking and
       questioning your decisions.




             Ways to Make a Good E-Impression
It is important to remember that your electronic image counts during your job search, as
this is often the initial point of contact with the employer. The following tips will help
you rise to the top of the inbox.



Use the Subject Line: When you are applying for a job, make sure you follow any
specific instructions regarding the subject line of your email. If there are no instructions,
try to be as specific and positive as possible.

Signatures: Use the signature file to provide contact information. While job searching,
remove cute or inspirational quotes from the signature file.

Check Your Settings: Try emailing yourself to another account, or emailing a friend to
ensure all settings are correct and your full name is shown.




                                                                                          141
Your Email is your Cover Letter: Remember that your email will be the first thing that
the prospective employer will read. Be specific and focused and make sure to proofread
before sending!

Clean up your Google Image: Type your name into the search bar on www.google.ca to
see what employers will find if they do the same. If you find anything embarrassing then
take the necessary steps to remove it.

You can also help your e-image rise by creating profiles on popular networking sites like
Linked In and Facebook. Make sure that content on in your profiles would be appealing
to potential employers.




        Using Social Media in your Job Search
 Most people know that one of the best ways to find a job is through networking.
You can attend networking meetings, ask friends who they know or tap into your
  own personal network. With the internet buzzing with social media, there are
many ways that you can also use social media sites to network and eventually find
                                     a job.



LinkedIn
If you are not already on LinkedIn, then you should join. This site allows you to
connect with people that you know in a professional manner. It also allows you to
see the profiles of other LinkedIn users and provides you with ways that you can
connect with them. Here are a few ways you can use LinkedIn while job
searching:
 Company Search: If you have a company in mind, you can search for the
    company and hopefully find people who are connected to people you know.
    Then you can ask the person you know to connect you, or if you pay $30 per
    month, you have an opportunity to email people you are not connected with.
 Job Postings: LinkedIn allows employers to post jobs on the site, and they are
    usually high quality, professional jobs.
 Email: You are able to email your LinkedIn network allowing you to inform
    others that you are job searching and what type of work you are looking for.
 Blog Link: Through LinkedIn, you have the ability to post your blog on your
    profile. This means that anyone looking at your profile can see what you are
    writing about.
 Twitter Link: This link pulls in your conversation from twitter allowing those
    who cannot see your twitter profile to see what you are tweeting about.

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   Status Updates: Update your status so that your connections will know what
    you have been up to.

Twitter
Twitter allows you to connect with others that you don’t know, based on your
common interests.
Here are a few ways you can use Twitter while job searching:
 Basic Networking: This is an easy way to connect with people who are
   involved with the areas that you are interested in. You can find job leads and
   also gather more information about jobs you have heard about.
 Job Postings: You can connect with people who know about jobs that you may
   have not known about otherwise.
 Connecting: When you follow someone on Twitter, you are able to read the
   Bio section. If it looks like they work for a company you are interested in, or if
   it looks like they can connect you with someone that does, you can contact
   them.
 Companies: The Twitter tool “Twellow” allows you to search through people’s
   bios and URLs on their bios. With this tool you can search for companies that
   you are interested in and see if anyone works for ta company of interest.
 What’s going on: By using Twitter, you can keep connections informed about
   your job search by posting updates. This keeps the fact that you are job
   searching fresh in other’s minds.
 Twitter Name: Make sure that you set your twitter name to your name so that
   it is easily found through search engines.

Facebook
Facebook allows you to connect with friends, people you know and people from
the past. It serves as an effective networking tool.
Here are a few ways you can use Facebook while job searching:
 Notes: While you do know everyone you are friends with on Facebook, you
   may not know or remember where they work for, and you also wouldn’t know
   where their friends work. Through the “Notes” section you can explain your
   situation to friends and keep them updated. A note tends to stay on people’s
   screens longer and allows you to write more.
 Status Update: Frequently update your status discussing your job search so
   your friends know/remember you are looking for work. Include links to your
   blog in your status if you have created a new blog entry.
 Notes for Blog Posts: Create a note for new blog posts. People are more likely
   to read the text if it easily accessible. Also, if they comment on it on Facebook,
   it becomes more viral
 Tag your Friends: If you create a blog post that includes a reference to a
   friend from Facebook, then tag them in it. Also remember to tag your friends


                                                                                 143
   in notes that you write. When you do this, their friends will be alerted to the
   post and the message will spread more quickly.



                   5 Ways to Battle Burnout
Many workers in today’s job market are tackling large workloads, long hours, and
relentless deadlines. Some are losing their drive at work, are experiencing low
morale, decreased productivity and reduced job satisfaction. If this sounds like
you, you may be experiencing burnout. The following are some other warning
signs that may indicate burnout:
     You have trouble getting out of bed when you have to go back to work.
     You frequently arrive to work late.
     You feel bad about your performance.
     You are withdrawn.
     You watch the clock excessively.
     Work stress affects other areas of your life.
     You are getting into frequent arguments with your manager or coworkers
        and you did not in the past.
     You feel that you aren’t making progress, despite your best efforts.

If these signs sound familiar to you, it may be time to start making changes. Try
the following strategies to help you get your career back on track:
1. Evaluate your role. If the company you work for is experiencing lay-offs, or
    has a hiring freeze, then you may have more responsibilities than in the past.
    Taking on new assignments can be a good career move, but taking on more
    than you can reasonably manage can lead to burnout. If you are feeling
    overwhelmed, don’t try to “tough it out.” Instead, speak with your supervisor
    and be honest about the situation. Work with him/her so that you can figure
    out ways to manage the work load.
2. Look at your schedule. The way that you manage your time can also play
    a role in how you bounce back from work exhaustion. Being overbooked and
    spending too much time on non-critical activities can create additional
    pressure at work. Keep logs of your tasks and then divide them into
    categories. Look at the categories and make sure you are spending adequate
    time on the activities with the highest priority.
3. Identify your stressors. Understanding what contributed to the decline in
    your motivation can help you to move in a more positive direction. Think
    about what has contributed to your stress and try to think about ways you
    can change that. Start with small changes, like asking your supervisor for
    help when you have too many projects on your plate because even small

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   changes can brighten your outlook. Once you have adjusted to the small
   changes, try to think of long term solutions to reduce stressors.
4. Ask for help. A common symptom of burnout, is feeling isolated. Remember
   that you are not alone and it is okay to let others know that you are facing
   difficulties and need their assistance. Asking for help can often bring a fresh
   perspective and can reduce the burden. Keep in mind that you won’t be
   perceived as a “complainer” if you objectively outline the issues that you are
   trying to address and ask for guidance.
5. Take a break. Make sure that you allow yourself time to recharge. If you
   are working long hours, try taking 5-10 minute breaks throughout the day to
   reduce stress and maximize performance. Stand up, stretch, go for a walk or
   eat lunch away from desk. When you are able to, use your vacation days.
   Getting away from the office for a day or two can help you to return with a
   new focus, energy and perspective.

A certain amount of stress can be expected in any job, but when it gets out of
hand, it is a good idea to act quickly. Burnout can not only affect your career,
but also your personal life. By taking steps to reduce the amount of stress you
are facing at work, you can regain your motivation and drive.




                          The Job Offer
Your time, energy and hard work have paid off, and you have received a
job offer. Job search efforts can leave you exhausted and you may be
eager to begin your new position. However, before you say “yes,” you
should gather as much information as possible and decide if this job is a
good match for you.
Take some time – Don’t rush your answer to the employer. You may want
to take some time to consider this position and how it fits with your skills,
education and experience. Ask the employer when they will need your
answer and take that time to make an informed decision.

Prepare – Whether you are offered the position during the interview, or
contacted some time after, be ready to ask questions and get the
information that you need.




                                                                               145
Considerations – Before you accept a job offer, there are many factors
that you should consider and information you should gather to be sure
that the position is right for you. Make sure you have specific information
about the job, including:
    Start date (also find out the end date if it is a contract position)
    Position title
    Responsibilities of the job
    Dress code policy and/or uniforms
    Scheduling and hours of work (including lunch time, breaks etc.)
    Wages, salary, overtime (starting wages and increases)
    Vacation time and sick days
    Benefits (medical, dental, life insurance and other benefits)
    Professional development and promotion opportunities


Be sure to examine the pros and cons of the position and the company.
Ask any questions that you may have because this is the time to do it.




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