FGM Al Jazeera Siobahn Courtney Reporter 97

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					                Hi Folks,

                Yes, you may find some blank spaces because of the deleting and reformatting I had to do to transfer
                everything into something readable.

                FGM is a culturally created practice.

                The question for Sociologists is, obviously, do we act within the realm of Cultural Relativism, which says
                ‘My culture is OK, your culture is ok…” and accept it because culture is sacred? Or do we try to stop it
                because it is a Human Right violation in the WORST sense, especially when viewed through the lens of
                Feminist Theory???

                Writing Question:

                1page, 12 point, 1 ½ inch margins, double spaced, typed.

                Female Genital Mutilation…cultural right or human rights violation?
                Please answer this question AS A SOCIOLOGIST, using the theories from Chapter 1 and the ideas of the
                founders of Sociology (Comte, Martineau, Durkheim, Marx, Weber, Addams, DuBois) to answer the
                question along with the discussion material from the first lectures of this class to answer this question.

                Remember, this is not a PERSONAL OPINION PAPER, but an EMPIRICAL OPINION PAPER, based in

                We will discuss the article and your papers in class the day the papers are due

                SOC 101.17 Thursday Sept 27

                SOC 101.14 Wednesday October 3

                Email me with questions lsm49016@bhcc.mass.edu

Siobahn Courtney Reporter

The horror of female genital mutilation in the UK. An estimated 66,000 girls have been illegally mutilated in the UK, but
no one has yet been prosecuted for this practice.

Last Modified: 30 May 2012 15:50
Siobahn Courtney Reporter

The horror of female genital mutilation in the UK. An estimated 66,000 girls have been illegally mutilated in the UK, but
no one has yet been prosecuted for this practice.

Last Modified: 30 May 2012 15:50

According to UNICEF, female genital mutilation is most common in the western, eastern and north-eastern regions of
Africa, but also is still widely practiced in North American and European countries, such as the United Kingdom [AP]

**Advisory: Graphic language and descriptions of a sexual nature**

London, United Kingdom – "After the pain, it was the screaming that I'll never forget. It wasn't just mine and my sister's
screams, there were so many other girls there - all being cut. I've never heard screams like that again and I don't think I
ever will."

Aissa, from Mali, West Africa was just six years old when she and her one year-old sister were told: "We have to go
somewhere". The sisters were taken on a journey by the female members of their family, oblivious to the torturous
destination that was waiting for them. Aissa and her sister were then forced to endure a depraved ritual, scarring them
for perpetuity: female genital mutilation.

I ask Aissa, now 29 and living and working as a midwife in London, what she can remember of that day when she and her
little sister arrived at the place they were taken to by their step mother. "Isn't it ironic?" says Aissa, "That I can remember
everything so clearly, like it happened yesterday, but that is only because the memories of the blood, the pain, the
screaming will always haunt me, like a re-occurring bad dream".

Aissa describes how her sister was taken away by a woman to "wait for her turn" while Aissa's stepmother instructed her
to lay down on a bed. Aissa did as she was told, as four women stood over her pinning her to the bed and one woman
began to cut her. No anaesthetic was used to remove Aissa's clitoris with a razor blade. Aissa explains that it doesn't
matter how tightly you are held down, your body instinctively convulses, which results in deeper and longer incisions.

"The pain is, well, it's so difficult to describe to you what it is like. Imagine when you cut your finger, it's a million times
worse than that. But that doesn't even begin to describe the type of pain that takes over when the part of your body that
has the most nerve endings in it is cut away. Only girls who have been cut will ever know what that level of pain is like. I
honestly thought I was going to die, and then everything went black."

Aissa then tells me there is another reason why she will never ever forget that day. Almost whispering, she says: "It was
the first time I had ever slept in a real bed; we had always slept on the floor before. I can't remember how long I stayed
in the bed, maybe one or two weeks until I was able to walk again."

As you read this, vulnerable young girls (children in the majority of cases) across the world are being led to a place by
their mothers, stepmothers, aunts and grandmothers where they will be subjected to physical and emotional pain like no
other. That physical and emotional pain inflicted on them, on so many levels, will be and will stay at such an intensity,
there are just no appropriate words to attempt to describe the young girls' ordeals. To listen to another woman reflect
back to the time she was betrayed by those whom she loved and trusted the most, through the most invasive, barbaric
and brutal treachery, is only comparable to torture so extreme it just can't be real, except it is.

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), also referred to as Female Genital Cutting (FGC), is recognised internationally as a
violation of the human rights of girls and women. The World Health Organisation says FGM also violates a person's rights
to health, security and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment,
and the right to life when the procedure results in death. The United Nations, Amnesty International and UNICEF are just
three of many organisations across the world working tirelessly to 'consign FGM to history'.

The World Health Organisation has classified FGM into four types:

1.Clitoridectomy: partial or total removal of the clitoris, and in very rare cases, only the prepuce (the fold of skin
surrounding the clitoris).

2.Excision: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia (lips) minora, with or without excision of the labia majora.

3.Infibulation: narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and
repositioning the inner, or outer, labia, with or without removal of the clitoris. (The seal is then cut open and stitched up
again to allow for sexual intercourse and childbirth; hence the woman goes through repeated opening and closing
procedures, increasing immediate and long-term risks.)

4.Other: all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes

Latest figures show around 140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of FGM.
The latest statistical exploration from UNICEF states it is most common in western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of
Africa. It is also prevalent in many countries in South-East Asia, Europe, North America and Australia. Despite it being
illegal in Canada, Australia, Belgium, Denmark, Italy, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, France, Sweden, Switzerland, the US,
Kenya, Egypt and the UK, Female Genital Mutilation is still widely practiced.

An utterly useless UK government

The Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003, introduced to close the loophole of the Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act
1985 (which permitted parents to take their daughters out of the UK to undergo FGM abroad ) does not scare or stop
those who intend on mutilating our future generations. This act tragically fails to uphold the UK's zero tolerance to FGM.
There has not been one single prosecution of FGM in the UK, despite this abhorrent crime being outlawed in 1985.

Like any illegal practice, thriving ferociously deep and dark underground, it is impossible to be precise regarding the
number of girls in the UK who have suffered and are currently suffering at the hands of this brutal ritual. The UK charity
FORWARD estimates from their research that 66,000 girls in the UK have been mutilated, while 24,000 girls under 16 are
at risk from the most severe form of FGM in England and Wales. One would assume that, faced with this alarming
calculation, the British Government would swiftly take action and address this matter of uttermost urgency. Sadly, the
British government, whose duty it is to protect its citizens, has adopted what can only be described politely (for the sake
of editorial guidelines) as a pitiful and pathetic 'attempt' to safeguard and protect the thousands of children at risk in the
UK. Utterly useless bureaucrats deprive people desperately gasping for it from vital funding, resources, information, care
and support.

If you search FGM on the Home Office website, the search results give little comfort or re-assurance to its victims,
merely facts, figures and three telephone numbers. The Home Office re-directs most of the responsibility for the charity
FORWARD to deal with. On the Department of Health's website there are just seven search results for this ignored and
neglected crime - none of which have been updated for over a year. The Home Office and the DofH refused to put
anyone forward for interview to answer my questions on what exactly the British government's approach is in dealing
with the illegally practiced and prevalent FGM in the UK. They also refused to provide details on what measures have
been and are being put in place to safeguard and protect the victims, how the illegal underground networks plan to be
broken and how much funding has and is being allocated to fight FGM in the UK.

Why no minister is able to speak out to re-assure British citizens that the government is doing everything in their power
to tackle the illegal practice of FGM in the UK remains a mystery. A standard statement was sent from both departments
to attempt to provide a response. From the Home Office, Minister for Equalities and Overseas Champion for Tackling
Violence Against Women and Girls, Lynne Featherstone says: "Female Genital Mutilation is an abhorrent crime and we
are very clear that those found to practice it should feel the full force of the law. As a government, we are also working
with UK and international agencies on the ground to help prevent women and girls being subjected to this practice."

From the Department of Health, a spokesperson says: "We have written to the Royal Colleges of Midwives and
Obstetricians and Gynaecologists about making sure we are doing everything possible together to eliminate this abusive
and abhorrent practice and protect future generations of girls and women from harm. The current professional guidance
highlights that NHS professionals have a clear duty of child protection if a doctor is approached to perform a mutilating
procedure or if it becomes known to them that a child is to be taken abroad for that purpose." Neither the Home Office
nor the DofH provided details about the type of work they say is happening to protect future generations of girls and
women in the UK from harm.

Saria Khalifa, the Youth Programme Officer for FORWARD, tells me the charity is extremely concerned about the British
Government's patchy approach to tackling FGM, which is failing to safeguard all children at risk of FGM who reside in the
UK. She says: "The UK government has a duty to develop effective primary prevention measures particularly in London
where FGM has become a growing concern. Additionally there is need for protection strategies that offer safety nets and
specialist support to women and girls. There is no national action plan on FGM nor a strategy in place to engage key
communities and key opinion makers on ending FGM. More importantly, the Government funding cuts which have hit
the women's sector very deepy, coupled with lack of a comprehensive strategy is making our work even more difficult
and a greater struggle."

The poisonous power of patriarchy

Female Genital Mutilation is without a doubt powered by the poison of patriarchy. In a FGM affected community, there
is a fundamental belief that mutilation is the only way to initiate a girl into becoming a "good woman" ready for marriage
and childbirth. The bitter irony is that the very process of FGM is achieving the exact opposite. Removing part of a girl or
a woman's anatomy, disturbing and forcefully changing the way her body is intended to function not only takes away her
femininity, but biologically changes the composition that makes her into the woman that she naturally is intended to be.
Women across the world are torturing other women to accommodate and appease an ideology and disorted history of
male supremacy. FGM is practiced to satisfy the wishes of a patriarchal family structure, but in reality the men distance
themselves from the procedure of the practice, maintaining a dominating presence in the "background" and are not
concerned enough with the consequences to stop inflicting this depravity onto their daughters.

Despite the "cultural justification" that FGM "turns a girl into a woman" there is also the assumption that when she does
become a "good woman" she needs to be appropriately controlled and oppressed. It is widely believed that removing
parts of her genitalia reduces her libido and in turn makes her less sexually demanding, supressing the level of pleasure
she is "allowed" to receive and sustain. It is not uncommon in some cases for a woman's vulva to be stitched up, leaving
just a small opening for urine and menstrual blood to pass through, before the woman is then re-opened for sexual
intercourse and childbirth.

Aissa says it is not only the damaging physical effects that victims are forced to endure for the rest of their lives:"I still
need to work on myself psychologically because of all the feelings of self-loathing I have towards my body. I am different
and I look different - for a very long time I didn't even feel like a woman. It was impossible to have sex, the pain was
horrific and I have suffered with lots of urinary infections. Still now I find it so difficult to have any medical appointments,
which is part of the reason why I wanted to become a midwife to help others who are like me."

There are no cultural or religious justifications ever for mutilating another woman's body. There is no endorsement of
FGM in the Bible, the Tanakh or Quran. Charity Forward has published a research on FGM and Islam as many Muslim (as
well as non-Muslim) communities tend to associate FGM with Islam. "Words like 'sunna' and 'tahur' used for FGM by
Muslims erroneously endorse the link of Islam to FGM and brings the great religion into disrepute. All religions say God
created human beings in the best forms and wanted them to keep the nature in which they were created. It is forbidden
to make changes in God's creation unless there is a compelling reason ie for medical reasons."

Aissa recently returned to Mali to take the brave step of explaining to her father how the life she dreamt of living was
cruelly snatched from her through the destructive and devastating consequences of the Female Genital Mutilation she
endured. She tells me she wanted to make the visit to protect future generations of her family - to make sure they never
ever have to suffer like she has. After many difficult and emotional discussions with her father, he has now promised
Aissa that no other girls in her family will ever be mutilated again.

"And do you believe your father's promise?" I ask.

 Aissa pauses, then responds slowly: "Yes I do, what other choice do I have, but to have faith in those whom I love and
trust the most"?

Siobhan Courtney is a British freelance broadcast journalist and writer. She is a former BBC World News presenter and
BBC News journalist who has reported and written for BBC Newsnight.

The views expressed in this article are the author's own and do not necessarily reflect Al Jazeera's editorial policy.


Al Jazeera



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                          John Goodrich     Top 50 9 hours ago

                Lets have a bit of tit for tat and have those same groups who practice FGM have all their males undergo
                operations that remove the nerves responsible for male sexual feeling .

                That should put a swift end to the incredibly primitive thinking that goes with the MALE ENFORCED
                concept of FGM .


                       alborz and 12 more liked this Like ReplyReply
            TomSolomon       8 hours ago in reply to John Goodrich

I am not familiar with the male equivalent of this barbaric practice. You certainly couldn't be referring
to circumcism, which is the removal of the foreskin, and does not affect sexual pleasure, but does
reduce STD? The two practices are completely unrelated.


       Dan Bernard and 5 more liked this Like ReplyReply

                  poyani    Top 100 3 hours ago in reply to TomSolomon

He was not talking about circumcision. He said the equavalent would be males undergoing "operations
that remove th enerves responsible for male sexual feeling".

Sounds like an accurate description to me.


       ANSLQ32 and 1 more liked this Like ReplyReply

                  Pho Bos    2 hours ago in reply to TomSolomon

Solomon your very wrong.

First of all circumcism DOES affect sexual pleasure. Secondly, yes circumcism does reduce STD's but the
same could be argued for woman having they're inner labia trimmed for the reason. The two practices
are VERY related.

Finally, you sexist, you completely ignored the equally if not MORE severe practice of testical

Maybe you should stick to just reading and not typing while you look up the morning news?


Like ReplyReply
                  jonas c    2 hours ago in reply to TomSolomon

Even circumcision can go wrong and is not decided by the child: it's forced on him! In times of
worldspread serious STD, removal of your foreskin protects you against nothing - as it didn't against
syphilis in the past. Rabbis without any medical knowledge often perform this operation, many boys are
harmed by it. There are several accounts of that in medical literature, when real doctors have to
reconstruct some boy's genitalia which have been destroyed in one way or another.


Like ReplyReply

                  adam      4 hours ago in reply to TomSolomon

spot-on Tom, well said thanks


Like ReplyReply

       ANSLQ32      Top 100 9 hours ago

It is true the cooooran does not state FGM is required, the man known as a prophet stated it is allowed.

Just a slight change of attitude by mohammmed, and millions of women over centuries would have not
had to endure this.

The Forward charity is wrong not to call Islam to change this. If the leaders of Islam stated this is no
longer allowed, then those countries would start to see a decrease in FGM. The opposite is happening
in Egypt. A few candidates for office there are saying the ban on FGM should be overturned and the
practice made legal.

Forward charity needs to recognise this, and respond.


       Truth Hurts and 6 more liked this Like ReplyReply

            Goyah     Familiar Face 8 hours ago in reply to ANSLQ32
Oh, really? The prophet stated that it is allowed? I would just love for you to prove that - but you can't,
because it's not true. You are seriously misinformed, or just a liar. All forms of mutilation are forbidden
by Islam, including genital mutilation. And it's just as prevalent, or more so, and the type of mutilation is
more severe, among non-Muslim Africans, so even if Islam could eradicate it (which all Muslims should
try to do), that wouldn't be the end of it. But I guess any facts that don't support your Islamophobia are
irrelevant to you. Alcohol is also forbidden by Islam, by the way, but there are still Muslims who drink.
But by your logic, the fact that there are Muslims who drink alcohol must mean that it's endorsed by


       Dan Bernard and 15 more liked this Like ReplyReply

                 Shah_Massoud      Top 100 3 hours ago in reply to Goyah

I wonder why we are not hearing anything about this from human rights organizations.
No demonstrations on campuses. No proposed boycotts. No Flytillas. no Flotillas.

I guess they are too busy bashing Israel, while annually thousands of civilians get butchered by Assad
and Muslim women are genitally mutilated. Goes to show what hypocrites they really are.


       ANSLQ32 and 1 more liked this Like ReplyReply

                     poyani     Top 100 1 hour ago in reply to Shah_Massoud

List of Human Rights Watch news releases on FGM (I was going to post Amnesty International reports
first, but they number in the hundreds):
Fighting Female Genital Mutilation News - Aug 30 2010Iraqi Kurdistan: Girls and Women Suffer the
Consequences of Female Genital Mutilation News - Jun 16 2010Female Genital Mutilation in Iraqi
Kurdistan Special features - Jun 15 2010Questions and Answers on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in
Iraqi Kurdistan News - Jun 16 2010Q&A on Female Genital Mutilation News - Jun 16 2010“I Am Not
Dead, But I Am Not Living” Report - Jul 15 2010“They Took Me and Told Me Nothing” Report - Jun 16
2010Policy Paralysis Report - Feb 11 2009A free Egypt’s first task is to rein in the army News - May 25
2012The Paradox of Losing Life While Giving Life in Africa News - May 25 2012A Fatwa on FGM Could be
Part of the Solution News - Sep 18 2010The Plight of Women in Northern Iraq News - Jun 17 2010Iraqi
Kurdistan: Law Banning FGM a Positive Step News - Jul 25 2011Comments on the EBRD's Technical
Assessments for Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia News - May 17 2012The Unfinished Revolution
Special features - Mar 7 2012Tunisia: Free Speech Double Standards News - Mar 6 2012“They Took Me
and Told Me Nothing” Report Synopsis - Jun 16 2010Unfinished Revolution Embed - Mar 2 2012FGM in
Iraqi Kurdistan Audio - Jun 15 2010World Report 2012: Iraq World Report Chapter - Jan 22 2012"How
Come You Allow Little Girls to Get Married?" Report - Dec 8 2011Iraqi Kurdistan: FGM Fatwa Positive,
but not Definitive News - Jul 17 2010Universal Periodic Review of the United Kingdom: November 2011
News - Nov 25 2011Submission to the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights News - Dec 20
2011Fast-Tracked Unfairness Report Synopsis - Feb 23 2010Twenty Years of Women's Rights Audio -
Mar 7 2011Protecting Women from Domestic Violence News - Sep 1 2011Nice Sentiments from Obama,
but the Immigration System Needs Fixing Now News - May 23 2011Europe: Landmark Domestic
Violence Treaty Launches News - May 9 2011Women in the Crossfire News - Jun 8 2011Male
Domination in Egypt is Only Half a Revolution News - Mar 14 2011Abusing Patients World Report
Chapter - Jan 20 2010Only Half a Revolution? News - Mar 9 2011A Vote to Help Women Around the
World News - Dec 2 2010Letter to African Union Commission Chairperson Jean Ping on Developing an
AU Human Rights Strategy News - Dec 14 2010Africa Rights Day: Halting Threats Against Rights
Defenders is a Top Priority News - Oct 22 2010Yemen World Report Chapter - Jan 13 2009Torture in
Health Care News - Jan 22 2010World Report 2011: Egypt World Report Chapter - Jan 24 2011World
Report 2011: Chad World Report Chapter - Jan 24 2011World Report 2011: Iraq World Report Chapter -
Jan 24 2011Women, Asylum and the UK Border Agency News - Mar 2 2010World Report: Stop Torture,
Cruel Treatment in Health Settings News - Jan 21 2010Fast-Tracked Unfairness Report - Feb 23
2010“Welcome to Kenya” Report - Jun 17 2010


       ANSLQ32 and 2 more liked this Like ReplyReply

                           ANSLQ32      Top 100 24 minutes ago in reply to poyani

Good work. The US media barely covers honor killings. Then only a small portion. Getting attention to
a problem of FGM is even harder. Especially among the type of person and media that lives to say
nothing bad about Islam practicing people.



                           poyani    Top 100 1 hour ago in reply to poyani

I actually had more - but this is as many as I can fit here without getting flagged.


                      John Goodrich      Top 50 2 hours ago in reply to Shah_Massoud

FGM is a cultural thing and not a religious rite as is male circumcision among Jews and Muslims. That
said, I have not read nor heard of any fatwa or other Islamic orders from on high forbidding or
condemning the practice.

The removal of the clitoris ensures a future lack of sexual feeling and that supposedly ensures female
fidelity in the thinking of primitive, insecure, misogynist males.

One more evil that totalitarian thought has given our human society.

Democracy in the form of equal rights for women is the solution.


2 people liked this. Like ReplyReply

                            poyani     Top 100 1 hour ago in reply to John Goodrich

"That said, I have not read nor heard of any fatwa or other Islamic orders from on high forbidding or
condemning the practice"

Really? Not one? Because a simple google search would inform you that there are hundreds (translated
to English no less).

This includes one which was issued by the Grand Mufti of Egypt a few years ago which reads (in part)
"female genital circumcision practiced today harms women psychologically and physically. Therefore,
the practice must be stopped in support of one of the highest values of Islam, namely to do no harm to
another – in accordance with the commandment of the Prophet Mohammed “Accept no harm and do
no harm to another”. Moreover, this is seen as punishable aggression against humankind"


2 people liked this. Like

                      poyani    Top 100 1 hour ago in reply to Shah_Massoud

"I wonder why we are not hearing anything about this from human rights organizations. "
Both Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have entire divisions in their Women's Rights
departments dedicated to Female Genital Mutilation.

Another swing and another miss, eh Shah?


1 person liked this. Like ReplyReply

                     poyani    Top 100 2 hours ago in reply to Shah_Massoud


It's good that you are finally getting where Israel fits. You are accurately comparing Israel to people who
practice Female Genital Mutilation. In terms of ethics, I think you have definately found the right place.


Like ReplyReply

                     romesh3815        3 hours ago in reply to Shah_Massoud

Depends who pays them to do what. Moreover, these HR orgs have to work with muslims; so they are
too scared to criticise them lest some idiot issue fatwas for their heads or are refused entry into muslim
countries, etc. Self preservation is very important.

Romesh Chander


Like ReplyReply

                          poyani       Top 100 2 hours ago in reply to romesh3815


They get all their money from "The Protocals of the Elders Human Rights".


                            Shah_Massoud    Top 100 3 hours ago in reply to romesh3815

Its all about the money! I would love to have a law obligating them to disclose where they get their
money from.

That would be a real eye opener.



                  ANSLQ32    Top 100 2 hours ago in reply to Goyah

Here are some famous last words:

Fatwas published:
Fatwas are published opinions by Muslim religious scholars. They are non-binding in law. But Muslim
believers are expected to follow them. In Egypt, a number of Fatwas have been issued by the influential
Egyptian Fatwa Committee on FGM:
1949-MAY-28: They decided that it is not a sin to reject female circumcision.
1951-JUN-23: They stated that female circumcision is desirable because it curbs "nature" (i.e. sexual
drive among women). It stated that medical concerns over the practice are irrelevant.
1981-JAN-29: The Great Sheikh of Al-Azhar (the most famous University of the Islamic World) stated that
parents must follow the lessons of Mohammed and not listen to medical authorities because the latter
often change their minds. Parents must do their duty and have their daughters circumcised.


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        _LilyMonroe 17 minutes ago

   From twitter

The horror of female genital mutilation in the UK - Opinion - Al Jazeera English http://t.co/Fs9X4Pxi via
@ajenglish << I HATE THIS SHIT

        Yumnaolivia 25 minutes ago

   From twitter

The horror of female genital #mutilation in the #UK. An estimated 66,000 girls have been illegally
mutilated in the UK http://t.co/ploN2PDy

        TabithaStevens8 26 minutes ago

   From twitter

The horror of female genital mutilation in the UK - Opinion - Al Jazeera English http://t.co/LCM5ujjf

        cindeeelouhoo 56 minutes ago

   From twitter
RT @brielansmie: The horror of female genital mutilation in the UK: http://t.co/v38OxgvV wow... blows
my mind how much this still occurs #femaleoppression

        MilitantSous 1 hour ago

   From twitter

The horror of female genital mutilation in the UK http://t.co/w0q5dsrI via @ajenglish @forward_youth

        MilitantSous 1 hour ago

   From twitter

Al-Jazeera English article on FGM in the UK - interviewing FORWARD (me!) http://t.co/1FUHk5kN

        sleepywizard 2 hours ago

   From twitter

The horror of female genital mutilation in the UK - Opinion - Al Jazeera English http://t.co/ZgGpSCJu via

        brielansmie 2 hours ago
   From twitter

The horror of female genital mutilation in the UK: http://t.co/v38OxgvV wow... blows my mind how
much this still occurs #femaleoppression

        jeczaja 3 hours ago

   From twitter

The horror of female genital mutilation in the UK - Opinion - Al Jazeera English http://t.co/tH3KUEUu via

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