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					Diabetes Info
Fast and Furious Facts …

    23 million have diabetes in the US
         5-10%Type 1
     1 in every 400 kids have Type I diabetes
     Type II diabetes is significantly rising in children

    CMS has about 400 children with Type1
    (unknown how many with Type11)

    Diabetes is the 5th leading cause of death

      Three types of diabetes
    1.     Type I (Insulin Dependent)
    2.     Type II (Diet Controlled)
    3.     Gestational (Pregnancy Onset)
            What Is Diabetes?
A disorder of the pancreas
    -The pancreas stops
 making insulin, an essential
 hormone in the body.
Insulin is the key that allows
 glucose to enter the cells.
Glucose is used by every cell
 in the body for energy
              Diabetes occurs when either:
   The body produces no keys (no         Or, the body produces defective keys
         insulin production)              that will not open, the cell door locks.




                                        (Type 2 Diabetes-Insulin Resistance)
       ( Type 1 Diabetes)
                    Is caused by the
                     body’s inability to
                     make insulin
                    Results in high
                     blood sugar levels
                    Can be treated only
NOT contagious      with a combination
                     of insulin, diet and
NOT caused by       exercise
 eating too much
 sugar
Type 1 Diabetes



   Auto-immune component
   Cannot be prevented
   Defect in carbohydrate metabolism
      Pancreas unable to make insulin
      Need insulin injections
    Type 2 Diabetes


    Accounts for more than 90% of the
     diabetes population in the world!
    Cells become resistant to
    insulin
    Usually because of insulin
    deficiency
    Can usually control with diet & exercise
    80% of Type 2 cases are preventable
Blood Sugar Monitoring
   Tips for assisting a child with blood
    sugar monitoring:
     Make sure the hands are warm, clean
      & dry
     Wear gloves (Universal Precautions)
     Set up meter with the test strip
      (most meters turn on when you place
      the strip in)
     Make sure the meter is coded for the
      test strip used
Treatment Options: Type 1
Currently most students are
 taking insulin by:
          syringe
          insulin pen device
         INSULIN PUMP

      Insulin pump is a machine
      that uses a small catheter
      under the skin to deliver
      insulin. (The pump is about
      the size of a pager)
Carbohydrate Counting

     Carbohydrate is found
     in the food we eat.
     When digested, carbohydrates breakdown into sugar.
     Examples of carbohydrate include breads, rice, cereal, potatoes,
      cake, fruit and many others!
     HIGH           Hyperglycemia
    (High Blood Sugar Is NOT A Medical Emergency)
   May occur if student:
     Isbecoming ill (even a cold)
     Eats too much
     Misses insulin dose
          Or not enough insulin on board
     Is under a lot of stress
      (exams, emotional, etc)
     Certain medications
     Can result in ketoacidosis
       Treatment of
HIGH
       Hyperglycemia

         Test blood sugar
         Check Health Care
          Plan.
         Notify parents if
          over 250mg/dL
         Drink water
         Insulin
  LOW          Hypoglycemia
                    (Low Blood Sugar)
 Most   likely to occur:
  When  meals or snacks are missed or
   delayed
  An insulin dose that is too high
  Extra exercise or activity
  When strenuous activity occurs just
   before lunch
  During a lengthy field trip or field
   day activity. (Remember to have a
   snack when going out for fire drills)
LOW SYMPTOMS OF LOW BLOOD SUGAR


   Weakness or tiredness

   Shaking

   Headache

   Anxious, Pale

   Personality Changes
          LOW
                        Treatment of
                        Hypoglycemia
1.       Conscious and able to swallow:

            Glucose tablets--start with 2-4
            4 oz. Juice (apple or OJ)
            Wheat Crackers & cheese or Ritz Crackers (with
             Cheese)
            Milk
            Regular soda (not diet) is an option though just like a
             candy bar it will spike up the BS quickly, but not last
                          Symptoms should improve within 10-15
                           minutes. If not, repeat.
                          If longer than 1 hour until next meal or
                           snack, give small snack containing protein
                           (cheese crackers or milk)
                          IF NO METER IS AVAILABLE & THE
                           STUDENT FEELS SICK, GO AHEAD &
                           TREAT AS IF STUDENT IS LOW
LOW       Treatment of Hypoglycemia

2.       Conscious, but uncooperative, or
         disoriented
          Give glucose gel, tube of clear frosting or
           packet of honey
          Lay student on side and squeeze into pocket
           of the cheek (just like Skol !)
 LOW     Treatment of
         Hypoglycemia

3.  Unconscious or having a seizure
Not enough sugar is getting to brain!
     Call 911 immediately
     Give Glucagon if ordered
     Give nothing by mouth
     Notify parents
 Hints for Success

 Develop good relationship with
  parents/guardians; they know your student’s
  health concerns well.
 Follow accommodations as listed in the health
  care plan &/or 504/IEP.
 Notify family early of field trip plans.
 Notify family of special events that may involve
  classroom treats or changes in the school lunch
  schedule.
 Don’t hesitate to ask questions about care.
...Please Remember

   Never allow student to walk
    alone when feeling low (to go
    check blood sugar)
   Allow free bathroom privileges
   Allow water bottle or access to fluids
   Allow snacks when feeling low &/or
    certain snack break
   Encourage BS testing prior to big
    exams (EOGs) or allow to re-test if it
    is felt BS affected the results

				
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