Macroinvertebrates by 5HGlR37b

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									                         Macroinvertebrate
                         Photographs and Descriptions

                         Developed by Big Sandy Resource Conservation and
                         Development Area

                         Courtesy of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
                         the Kentucky Division of Water, and the Mountain
                         Association for Community Economic Development



WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                           1
                                          Aquatic Worms
Water Quality Indicators of Poor Water Quality (Group Three)

    • Aquatic Worm
            –    They are either red, brown, or black
            –    They have a circular, thin, segmented body
            –    They can possibly be up to five inches
            –    They often have short bristles or hairs that help them
                 move
                                                                             Aquatic Earthworm
            –    (They are usually not visible to the human eye)
            –    Measure 1 to 30 mm in length, but sometimes over 100
                 mm
            –    Clear whitish to pink in color
            –    Body consists of 7 to 500 segments
            –    Segments often have bristles or hairs
            –    Tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations
            –    Found in silty substrates and among debris or detritus in
                 ponds, lakes, streams and rivers
            –    Dense populations of aquatic worms can often be
                 found in organically polluted rivers
            –    Approximately 200 species in North America
                                                                             Aquatic Earthworm
WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                                           2
                                           Leeches
                         Indicators of Poor Water Quality (Group Three)

    • Measures 1.0 mm to 5.0 cm in length
    • Typically flattened from the back to the belly
    • Always have 34 segments
    • Suckers at both ends
    • Leeches are common in warm protected waters of
      lakes, ponds, streams, and marshes.
    • Leeches usually avoid light by hiding under rocks or
      among aquatic vegetation or detritus
    • Silty substrates are unsuitable for leeches because
      they cannot attach properly




WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                    3
                                            Midgeflies
                         Indicators of Poor Water Quality (Group Three)




          Midgefly Larvae             Midgefly Larvae            Midgefly Larvae



    • Midge Larvae
            –    Measures up to ½ inch in length
            –    Body small, cylindrical, and slightly curved
            –    Occasionally deep red in color, otherwise variously colored
            –    Two small prolegs just posterior to head
            –    Frequently found in bottom sediments of lakes, streams, and ponds
                 where they feed on deposited organic material

WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                               4
                                        Pouch Snails
                         Indicators of Poor Water Quality (Group Three)



    • Pouch Snail
            – Shell opens to the left
            – Presence of a fleshy “foot” indicates the
              snail is alive
            – Snails in this category can be distinguished
              from “other snails” by the opening of the
              shell
            – To identify a snail, hold it with the tip of the
              shell pointed up and the opening facing
              you (as pictured). If the opening is to the left
              side, you have a pouch snail
            – Do not count empty shells
                                                                 Pouch Snail



WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                         5
                              Other Snails (Including Gilled)
                         Indicators of Poor Water Quality (Group Three)

    • Other snails (Class Gastropada)
            – Shell opens to the right
            – On most, a covering, called the operculum,
              indicates the snail is alive; If no operculum is
              present look for a fleshy “foot”
            – Snails in this category can be distinguished from
              pouch snails by the opening of the shell
            – To identify a snail, hold it with the tip of the shell
              pointed up and the opening facing you (as
              pictured); If the opening is to the right side, you
              have a snail that falls in the “other snails”
              category, also referred to as “gill-breathing”
              snails
            – Note: The flat, coiled snails also fall into this
              group
            – Do not count empty shells

WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                    6
                                          Blackflies
                         Indicators of Poor Water Quality (Group Three)

    • Blackfly Larvae
            – Measure to ½ inch in length
            – Body cylindrical and widest at the
              posterior
            – Abdomen terminates in an attachment
              disc
            – Head usually possesses fan-like
              appendages
            – Blackfly larvae prefer cold running
              water and are usually found attached
              by the end of their abdomens to rocks,
              woody debris, or vegetation in the
              currents of rivers and streams




WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                    7
                                Aquatic Beetle
                 Indicators of Moderate Water Quality (Group Two)

    • Head more slender than that of the dobsonfly
    • 6 legs
    • Some with lateral appendages
    • Size range: ½” – 1”
                                                           Water Beetle
    • Beetle larvae look somewhat similar to dobsonfly
      larvae, but are generally smaller in color and
      more slender and tapered that the dobsonfly
      larvae
    • Often the head is darker in color than the rest of
      the body
    • Beetle larvae will not have pronounced pincers
      that the dobsonfly larvae possess
    • The appendages on the back section
      (abdomen) of this organism, if present are called
      “lateral appendages” and should not be
      mistaken for legs
                                                           Beetle Larva

WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                    8
                                        Craneflies
                 Indicators of Moderate Water Quality (Group Two)

    • Cranefly Larva
            – Measure 1/3 to 2 inches in length
            – Plump caterpillar-like segmented
              body
            – Head is usually retracted into the
              body
            – Milky green to brown color
                                                     Cranefly Larvae
            – Four finger-like lobes at back end
              of body




                                                     Cranefly Larva



WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                 9
                                     Damselflies
                 Indicators of Moderate Water Quality (Group Two)

    • Damselfly Nymph
            – Measures between 0.5 to 2.0 inches in length
            – Nymph has large eyes, (or larva) two pairs of
              wing pads and a large round or oval
              abdomen                                         Damselfly Nymph
            – Abdomen terminates in three small pointed
              gills
            – Can be readily distinguished from other
              species by the presence of a large jaw, which
              is modified for grasping and covers the
              underside of the head
            – Prefers still water, often found among
              vegetation and leaf packs




                                                              Damselfly Larvae

WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                           10
                                      Crayfish
                 Indicators of Moderate Water Quality (Group Two)

    •    Measures up to 6 inches in length
    •    Has 5 pairs of walking legs, the first pair with large pinchers
    •    Resembles a small lobster
    •    Some crayfish are usually active only at night
    •    During the day they hide in burrows or under rocks
    •    Crayfish are omnivorous, eating both plants and animals




                Decapoda (Crayfish)




WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                     11
                                     Fishflies
                 Indicators of Moderate Water Quality (Group Two)

    • Mouth has large, chewing pinchers
    • Retractable breathing tubes extend from top
      of abdomen (not visible without
      magnification)
    • Smooth underside                                    Fishfly Adult
    • Abdominal segments with many strand-like
      appendages extending from each side
    • Three pairs of legs on middle section of body
      with tiny pinchers at the end of each
    • Back end is forked with two short tails and two
      hooks on each tail
                                                          Fishfly
    • Light colored
    • Often confused with hellgramite (dobson fly
      larva) but does not have fluffy gills on
      underside


WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                    12
                                            Sowbug
                 Indicators of Moderate Water Quality (Group Two)

    • Sowbug (Class Crustacea, Order
      Isopoda)
            – Segmented flat body
            – Many legs
            – Dimension range: ¼” to ½”
            – Sowbugs are gray and segmented with
              an “armored” appearance
            – They look very similar to terrestrial
              sowbugs, also known as pill bugs
            – They have a sort of rectangular shape
              and many small legs
            – Sowbugs are most easily found along
              the stream’s edge


WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                              13
                                       Scuds
                 Indicators of Moderate Water Quality (Group Two)

    • Measures 5 to 20 mm in length
    • Clear whitish to pink in color
    • Laterally flattened (top to bottom)
    • Seven pairs of legs, the first two are modified for grasping
    • Found in shallow freshwater springs, streams, lakes and ponds
    • Most species feed on debris
    • Scuds are an important food source for many fishes




WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                14
                                   Dragonfly
                 Indicators of Moderate Water Quality (Group Two)

    • Measures between 0.5 to 3.0 inches in
      length
    • Large eyes
    • Two pairs of wing pads
    • Large round or oval abdomen
    • Abdomen terminates in three small
      pointed structures
    • Can be readily distinguished from other
      species by the presence of a large jaw
      which is modified for grasping and
      covers the underside of the head
    • Prefer still water, often found among
      vegetation and leaf packs or burrowed
      in sediment

                                                    Dragonfly Larva
WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                15
                                        Dobsonflies
                         Indicators of Good Water Quality (Group One)

    •    Commonly called hellgrammites
    •    Measures ¾ to 4 inches in length
    •    Body is elongate and somewhat flattened
    •    Large pinching jaws
    •    Lateral appendages along the length of the
         abdomen
    •    Cotton-like gill tufts on underside of abdomen
    •    Abdomen terminates in two small prolegs, each
         bearing two claws
                                                               Close-up of Dobsonfly
    •    Short inconspicuous antennae                           Larvae Mandables

    •    Feed on other aquatic insects
    •    Usually found on the underside of large rocks in
         cool, slow-moving streams
    •    Handle hellgrammites carefully, larger individuals
         may deliver a painful pinch!                             Dobsonfly Adult

WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                                 16
                                          Alderfly
                         Indicators of Good Water Quality (Group One)

    • Measure to 1 inch in length
      (including tail)
    • Abdomen terminates in a single tail
    • Lateral filaments along abdomen
    • Often pale to deep reddish-brown
      in color
                                                             Alderfly Larva




                                                             Alderfly Adult




WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                        17
                                                  Caddisflies
                         Indicators of Good Water Quality (Group One)

    • Up to 1½ inches
    • 6 hooked legs on upper third of body
    • 2 hooks at back end
    • May be in stick, rock or leaf case
      with it’s head sticking out
    • May have fluffy gill tufts on lower half




                                Caddisfly Larva                 Caddisfly Larva




WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                            18
                                        Water Penny
                         Indicators of Good Water Quality (Group One)

    • Measures ¼ inch in length
    • Flat disk-like body
    • Head and legs concealed from
      above
    • 6 legs and branched gills on
      underside
    • Water pennies prefer cold, fast
      moving streams
    • Their smooth, flattened bodies                                 Water Penny Larvae

      enable them to resist the pull of
      the current
    • Water pennies are usually found
      on smooth rocks where they
      graze on attached algae
                                                     Water Penny Larvae

WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                                    19
                                           Clams
                         Indicators of Good Water Quality (Group One)

    • Fleshy “foot” (not visible if shells are closed tightly)
    • Size range: 1/8” to 5”
    • Clams are easily identified by their two shells,
      which they will draw tightly closed when handled
    • Count only whole, live clams (those with both
                                                                 Piston Grip
      shells) in your assessment
    • Please do not force the shells open to see if you
      have a live clam; If the shell is tightly closed, you
      can assume the organism is alive
    • Note: Clams are usually buried in the stream
      bottom, so you should kick up the sampling area            Pond Mussel
      thoroughly; Also, as indicated by the size range,
      clams can be quite small and fragile, so look
      carefully and handle carefully
    • Do not count empty shells
    • Many clams are endangered so immediately
      return to the stream where you found them                   Fanshell
WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                         20
                                        Gilled Snails
                         Indicators of Good Water Quality (Group One)

    • Up to ¾ inches long
    • Shell opening covered by a thin plate called
      an operculum
    • With helix pointed up shell opens to right
    • Intolerant of pollution
    • Snails in this category can be distinguished
      from pouch snails by opening the shell; To
      identify a snail, hold it with the tip of the shell
      pointed up and the opening facing you
    • If the opening is on the right side, you have a
      snail that falls in the “other snails” category,
      also referred to as the “gill breathing” snails
    • Note: The flat, coiled snails also fall into this
      group
    • Do not count empty shells

WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                  21
                                           Mayflies
                         Indicators of Good Water Quality (Group One)

    • Mayflies
            – Mature larvae measure to ¼ to 2 inches in length (excluding tails)
            – Two rows of long hairs present on inside of front legs
            – 2 or 3 tails
            – Slender antennae
            – The conspicuous hairs growing on the inner front legs are used for
              filtering food particles from the water
            – Brush-legged mayflies may be minnow like with a vertically oriented
              head and three tails (as pictured) or may be more flattened with a
              horizontally oriented head and two tails




              Mayfly Adult          Brush-Legged Mayfly Nymph           Mayfly Nymph

WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                                 22
                                              Riffle Beetles
                         Indicators of Good Water Quality (Group One)

    • Riffle beetles measure approximately 1/16 to
      1/4 inch in length
    • Body small, adults usually oval
    • Legs are long
    • Antennae are usually slender
    • Riffle beetles walk slowly underwater; they                           Riffle Beetle Adult
      do not swim on the surface




                                                         Riffle Beetle Larvae
                                Riffle Beetle Adult
                                                               and Adults

WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                                            23
                                           Stonefly
                         Indicators of Good Water Quality (Group One)

    • Stonefly
            – Measure 8 to 15 mm in length (not including tails)
            – 2 tails
            – 2 sets of wing pads
            – Sometimes have branched gills between legs on            Stonefly Nymph
              underside of body
            – Yellow to brown in color; often patterned yellow
              and brown when mature
            – Superficially similar to certain flattened mayfly
              nymphs, however stonefly nymphs always have
              two tails, prominent antennae, and two claws at          Stonefly Nymph
              the end of each leg
            – Stoneflies are not tolerant to low levels of dissolved
              oxygen and therefore prefer cold, swift-moving
              streams; The streamlined, flattened bodies of
              stonefly nymphs enable them to move about the
                                                                          Stonefly
              rocky streambed in rapid currents
WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                                  24
                                        Watersnipe
                         Indicators of Good Water Quality (Group One)

    • Watersnipe Larvae
            – Measure 12 to 18 mm in length
            – Color varies from pale to green
            – Abdomen has well-developed pairs of
              ventral prolegs and short dorsal and
              lateral filaments
            – Posterior pair of processes
            – Widespread in well oxygenated
              streams and rivers; Some species
              burrow in soft sediments
                                                            Watersnip Larva
            – Carnivorous




WEF_Macroinvertibrates                                                        25

								
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