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Focus Question: What factors
 helped Richard Nixon win the
       election of 1968?
Richard M. Nixon (68-74)
 New   Federalism – distribute some
  federal power to the states.
 Pursued Conservative
   Little government spending

   Cuts to programs that cost money
 Did   not get along with Congress
  Refused to spend money on
   programs he didn’t like
  Used the FBI, CIA and IRS to harass
   those who opposed him. (Liberal
   Democrats, Anti-War and Civil
   Rights Advocates)
 Clashedwith the Supreme Court
 on nominees. Wanted
 conservatives on the bench.
  They   rejected two of his nominees.
      The economy wasn’t
 1973-
  Inflation and Unemployment rose =
  Vietnam War had drained the
   government’s money
  Reduced  supply of oil by Arab
  nations in the US because of our
  support of Israel
 Environmental  Protection Agency
 (EPA) – power to research, set and
 enforce pollution standards. Still
 exists today
 The   Watergate scandal is named
  for the Watergate hotel and office
  complex in Washington D.C.
 It is what eventually ruined Richard
 June 17: Five men were arrested at
  Watergate during a pathetically
  bungled break-in at the Democratic
 The purpose of the break-in was to
  plant listening devices in the phones
  of democratic leaders and to obtain
 Sept 15: Eventually seven men are
 Nov 7: Nixon crushes George
  McGovern in the 1972 election
 Dec 8: The wife of one of the seven
  arrested men dies is a plane crash
 She  is carrying $10,000 (all in
  $100’s), to be delivered as “hush
  money” to someone in Chicago
 April 30, 1973: Nixon shakes up
  his White House staff in an effort
  rid himself of any wrong doing
 June  25: Nixon is accused of
  authorizing “hush money” to be
  delivered to the seven men arrested
 July-Oct: Vice President Spiro
  Agnew resigns after being found
  guilty of tax evasion. Gerald Ford is
  chosen the new VP
 Oct 30: Nixon is forced to hand
  over Oval Office tapes. Two tapes
  are missing.
 Nov 21: Investigators learn that
  one tape has an 18 minute gap
 Jan 4, 1974: Nixon refuses to turn
  over 500 additional subpoenaed
 March 1: Seven former White
  House staff members are indicted
  for obstructing justice
 April 29: Nixon offers a 1,200 page
  transcript of the tapes that have
  been subpoenaed
 July 24: Supreme Ct. rules that the
  tapes must be turned over
 July 27: The House Judiciary
  Comm. Approves 2 articles of
 Aug 5: Nixon admits he ordered a
  halt to the Watergate investigation
 Aug  8: Nixon announces that he
 will resign at noon the following
 day. He does so because
 republican congressmen told him
 he will likely be impeached and
 Aug  9: Nixon
  formally resigns.
  Gerald Ford is
  sworn into office
 Sept 8: Ford grants
  Nixon a full
Discussion Questions
 1. Explain Nixon’s New
 2. Why did the “President’s
  Men” break in to the
  Democratic Headquarters?
Focus Question: What were the
 results of the Watergate scandal?
Mark Felt – “Deep Throat”
 Assistant
  Director of the
 Revealed himself
  in May of 2005.
 Died in
  December of
Gerald R. Ford (74-76)
 Ford  was likeable and
  honest but he
  pardoned Nixon
 The poor economy
  didn’t help
 His efforts to help the economy
    “Whip Inflation Now” (WIN) –
     encouraged Americans to cut back
     on oil and gas
 Intwo years he vetoed 50 pieces
 of legislation that would have put
 more money into the economy.
 Forddid negotiate with China and
 the Soviet Union and signed the
 Helsinki Accords (along with 35
 other nations) which would
 promise greater cooperation
 between nations in Eastern and
 Western Europe.
  Jimmy Carter (76-80)
 Carterwas an outsider
  Not involved with
   scandalous Watergate affair
  He was a peanut farmer
   with a nuclear physics
  Governor of Georgia
 Carterpromised to “never lie to
  the American public.”
 He won a close election over Ford
  Many had not forgiven Ford for his
   pardon of Nixon and of draft-
 Carter   faced an energy crisis
  Oil prices were high because of the oil
   cartel (Org. of Petroleum Exporting
   Countries) who were controlling prices.
  New sources of energy were expensive

  National Energy Act – taxed gas-
   guzzling cars
   Nuclear Disaster at Three-Mile Island
     PartialCore Meltdown in a Nuclear
      Generating Station
     Reactor overheated after cooling system
     Release of radioactive gases
     No one killed or injured
     Debate over Nuclear Power
 Economic   Problems of the 1970’s
  Caused   by automation
  Few manufacturing jobs

  Caused by more foreign competition

  Led to a 26% approval rating for
   Carter, lower than Nixon
 Foreign   Policy
  Carter  arranged a peace agreement
   between Israel and Egypt
  The U.S. has been providing assistance
   to Iran since the 50’s. In 1979,
   religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini led
   a rebellion against the Iranian gov’t.
  The   U.S. supported the Shah of Iran
 Muslim fundamentalists seized
 power in Iran
  Took control of the American
   embassy and held 52 hostages for
   444 days
  The U.S. banned all trade with Iran
Hostages were freed just
 minutes after Ronald Reagan
 was inaugurated on Jan 20,
Carter signed an agreement
 that would return control of
 the Panama Canal to
 Panama on Dec. 31  st, 1999.
Discussion Questions
1. Why didn’t American’s
 support Ford from the
2. What happened at Three
 Mile Island?
Focus  Question: What are
 some topics that remain a
 constant source of focus for
 Presidents over time?
 American history has been marked
 by swings between liberal and
 conservative policies.
  Liberal   – 30’s New Deal, 60’s Great
  Conservative – Roaring 20’s, 50’s
 Conservatives   took more control in
  High Inflation
  Most thought their taxes were too
  The gov’t was involved in their life
 “New    Right” was born
 Goals
  Reducing   the power of government
  Cutting expensive programs

  Mainstreaming Civil Rights
    No preference towards any groups
     minority or majority
 Ronald  Reagan wins the presidency
  in 1980 on these beliefs
 Reagan’s goal was to cut the federal
  government down to a minimum and
  grant large tax cuts to free money for
  personal investment
 Increase   defense spending
  StrategicDefense Initiative – SDI –
   system to keep Americans safe from
   enemy missiles. Nicknamed “Star
Attempted Assassination
                John Hinkley Jr.
                March 30, 1981
                 Attempted to
                 assassinate President
                It was an attempt to
                 impress actress Jodi
                 Foster whom he was
                 obsessed with.
                Found not guilty by
                 reason of insanity.
 Result   of Reagan’s Administration:
  Did fuel economic growth
  Tax revenues did not increase and the
   government had to borrow money
  National debt doubled
 Reaganomics  – large tax cuts to
 increase private investments, which
 he thought would increase the
 supply of goods and services.
 Passed a 25% cut in federal income
 Reagan’s policies won support with
 business people, southerners and
 westerners, and many former
 democrats. These voters combined
 to re-elect Reagan in 1984 and elect
 George Bush in 1988.
Issues of the 80’s
 Schools  became a hot issue: Many
  believed public schools were
 AIDS (Acquired Immune
  Deficiency Syndrome) is a fatal
  disease that spread rapidly
 Inner cities deteriorated: Funding
  was cut along with welfare
 1984: First woman on the
  Presidential ticket; Geraldine
  Ferraro (Mondale)
 Iran-Contra  Affair: The government
 secretly sold weapons to Iran then
 used the money to fund the Contra’s
 fighting in Nicaragua against an
 illegitimate government thought to
 support communists. This was in
 violation of Congressional ban on
 military aid in the region.
Oliver North
   Member of National
    Security Council – key
    role in aiding the
 National   debt soared from
 $900 billion in 1980 to $4
 trillion in 1992 making the U.S.
 the world’s leading debtor
Gulf War and Bush
 Iraq  seized oil rich Kuwait in 1990.
  President Bush led a UN effort to
  fight and liberate Kuwait.
 If Iraq conquered Saudi Arabia and
  Kuwait it would threaten U.S. oil
 Operation Desert Storm was
  launched on January 16, 1991.
 On Feb. 28th – a cease fire was
 Following the war, Bush had a
  90% approval rating
 Despite his campaign promise,
 Bush did raise taxes because of
 rising deficits and a recession.

      “Read my lips, no new taxes!”
 When    the recession hit, his support
  went away
 Bill Clinton, a skilled campaigner,
  won the 1992 election.
 Clinton was a breath of fresh air to
  a beaten Democratic party
Discussion Questions
 1. What were Reagan’s goals?
 2. What were the results of
 Focus:How was Operation Desert
 Storm different from today’s war in
Bill Clinton

 Clinton  was the Governor of
 First Baby Boomer President

 Americans questioned his
  patriotism and character.
 Clintons   Goals
  Health  insurance for all Americans –
   did not succeed.
  Reduce the national debt by
   increasing taxes and cutting
   spending. Resulted in the first
   balanced budget since 1969.
 NAFTA    (North American Free
 Trade Agreement)– lift trade barrier
 between the US, Canada and Mexico
  Trade with Mexico increased, but
   some plants moved to Mexico
   costing people jobs.
 Clinton  battled with republicans in
  1994, losing some support, but
  won the Presidency again in 1996.
  (Only 49% of voters participated)
 Instead of forcing China to protect
  human rights, he protected their
  trading status.
George W. Bush
 Wins   the Election of 2000, 2004
 Governor of Texas
 No Child Left Behind – sought to
  raise standards in schools.
 9/11 Attacks
  War on Terror
  Department of Homeland Security
 Economic      Recession
  Government     Stimulus Package
  Tax   Cuts
Barack Obama
 Wins  the Election of 2008
 Facing a serious economic
  Stimulus Package
  Industry Bail Outs
 Terrorism    has been a part of
  American life since the late 1970’s
 Following the end of the Cold War
  the US has not been completely
  opposed to another nation since
  the fall of the USSR
 However,   US troops around the
 world have been a target of rogue
 terrorist groups
  In Lebanon a marine barracks was
  attacked and 350+ marines were
  killed while they slept
 The  USS Cole was
  attacked in 2000 and a
  number troops were
 The terrorist group, Al-
  Qaeda has declared a
  war on the United
Terrorist attacks at home
 Oklahoma   City 1995
  Some  citizens oppose the
   governments right to have any
   control over them
  Timothy McVeigh drove a truck
   loaded with explosives in front of the
   Murray federal building in OKC
 The  explosives destroyed the front
  half of the building
 200+ people were killed in the blast
  including 22 small children
World Trade Center
 When  fundamentalist groups took
 over in Iran in 1979, the United
 States froze their assets
   Didn’t   allow them to access their
 The Chase Manhattan Bank in NY
 issued bonds from the frozen
  TheChase Manhattan Bank also
  funded the building of the World
  Trade Center
 March 1993: a bomb exploded in
 the garage below the WTC
 3  Fundamentalists were arrested
  Their goal was to topple one tower
   into another
 September  11, 2001: Terrorist
  hijacked four commercial planes
 Two planes flew into the WTC

 One flew into the Pentagon

 One was brought down by
  passengers in rural Penn.
      9-11 there have been many
 Since
 warnings of terrorist attacks, but luckily
 none of come about.
 Focus on the economy, creating jobs,
  avoiding foreclosures
 New Technology to reduce dependence on
  foreign oil
 Health Care

 Education

 Etc…………………….
Discussion Questions
 1. What is NAFTA?
 2. When was the first attack on the
  World Trade Center? Why?

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