Server Side Includes
You can insert the content of one file
into another file before the server
executes it, with the require() function.
The require() function is used to create
functions, headers, footers, or elements
that will be reused on multiple pages.
<?php require("header.htm"); ?>
How to create variables storing values
across php scripts’ calls?
• Client-server connection is not permanent
=> Cannot be saved in program memory
• There are many clients connecting simultaneously
=> Cannot be saved in file (you cannot identify
clients as well sometimes)
Different mechanisms of the
– Cookies are a mechanism for storing data in the remote
browser and thus tracking or identifying return users.
– Session support in PHP consists of a way to preserve
certain data across subsequent accesses. This enables
you to build more customized applications and increase
the appeal of your web site.
What is a Cookie?
A cookie is a small file that the
server embeds on the user's
computer. Each time the same
computer requests for a page with
a browser, it will send the cookie
too. With PHP, you can both create
and retrieve cookie values.
How to Create a Cookie
The setcookie() function is used to create
Note: The setcookie() function must
appear BEFORE the <html> tag.
setcookie(name, [value], [expire], [path],
This sets a cookie named "uname" - that expires after ten
<?php setcookie("uname", $name, time()+36000); ?>
<html> <body> …
How to Retrieve a Cookie
• To access a cookie you just refer to the cookie
name as a variable or use $_COOKIE array
• Tip: Use the isset() function to find out if a
cookie has been set.
echo "Welcome " . $uname . "!<br />";
echo "You are not logged in!<br />"; ?>
How to Delete a Cookie
• It will expire
• Cookies must be deleted with the same
parameters as they were set with. If
the value argument is an empty string
(""), and all other arguments match a
previous call to setcookie, then the
cookie with the specified name will be
deleted from the remote client.
What is a Session?
• The session support allows you to
register arbitrary numbers of variables
to be preserved across requests.
• A visitor accessing your web site is
assigned an unique id, the so-called
session id. This is either stored in a
cookie on the user side or is propagated
in the URL.
How to Create a Session
The session_start() function is used
to create cookies.
How to Retrieve a Session Value
• Register Session variable
– session_register('var1','var2',...); // will also create a
– PS:Session variable will be created on using even if you will not
• Use it
$_SESSION['count'] = 0;
How to Delete a Session Value
How to destroy a session: