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Nutrition Powered By Docstoc
 – Chapter 4, Lesson 3 -
   Creating a Healthy
   Eating Plan (pp.116-121)
 – Chapter 4, Lesson 4 -
   Digestion and Excretion
   (pp. 122-127)
 – Chapter 4, Lesson 5 -
   Body Image and Healthy
   Weight (pp. 128-130)
 – Chapter 4, Lesson 6 -
   Maintaining a Healthy
   Weight (pp. 131-135)

– This unit will focus on making healthful food choices at
  and away from home. Students will participate in class
  discussion and activities that cover topics such as
  media messages, fast food choices, and social and
  cultural influences.
Essential Questions
  1. What is the right weight for me?
  2. What is the importance of energy balance?
Enduring Understanding
  1. Being overweight or underweight can be
  2. Your weight is affected by the amount of calories
     you consume and use for energy.
  3. A healthy weight can help you avoid many
     serious health problems.
     Anorexia Nervosa
     Binge Eating
     Body Mass Index
     Bulimia
     Digestion
     Digestive System
     Eating Disorders
     Enzyme
     Excretion
     Excretory System
Healthful Eating Habits

Tips for creating healthful eating habits include:
  Eat a variety of food from all the food groups in the
  recommended amounts.
  Pay attention to your portions.
  Keep the amount of high-fat or sugary foods to a
  Don’t skip meals.
Begin the Day with a Healthful Breakfast

By the time you wake up in the morning, you may
have gone 10 to 12 hours without eating.

If you start your day with a healthful breakfast, you
will have energy for later in the day.
Begin the Day with a Healthful Breakfast

  Eat foods that are high in complex carbohydrates
  – Oatmeal with fruit and milk, or eggs and toast
  Consider a bean burrito
  – Beans are high in protein and fiber
  Drink a glass of low-fat milk and orange juice
  Take breakfast with you if you are in a hurry
  – String cheese, yogurt, fruit, whole-grain bagel
Packing a Healthful Lunch

 If you eat a sandwich, use whole-grain bread
 Consider a salad and choose fat-free dressing
 Cheese sticks or yogurt will give you protein and
 A cereal bar will give you carbohydrates
 Eat fruit
 Drink unsweetened fruit juice or bottled water
Smart Snacking

When snacking, choose foods that are nutrient

           Nutrient dense Having a high amount of nutrients
                          relative to the number of calories

You can tell if a snack is nutrient dense by looking at
the MyPlate food groups.
Keeping Foods Safe

   Keep your          Separate raw,
 hands, utensils,      cooked, and        Cook foods         Chill when
  and surfaces         ready-to-eat       thoroughly.        necessary.
     clean.               foods.

                                                  When in doubt,
            Serve safely.    Follow directions.
                                                   throw it out.
How Your Body Digests Food

Digestion begins in your mouth.

      digestion The process by which the body breaks down food into
                smaller pieces that can be absorbed by the blood and
                sent to each cell in your body
How Your Body Digests Food

Food is processed in your body by the digestive

      digestive system The group of organs that work together to break
                       down foods into substances that your cells can use
The Meaning of Digest

The word digest comes from a
Latin word meaning “to separate.”
Where Does Digestion Begin?

When you crush food with your teeth, saliva mixes
with the food. Amylase, an enzyme in saliva, begins
breaking down carbohydrates in the food.

      saliva A digestive juice produced by the salivary glands in your mouth

      enzyme A substance that aids in the body’s chemical reactions
Where Does Digestion Begin?
Your Digestive Organs

After you swallow, food moves into your esophagus,
then into your stomach, then into the small

         small intestines A coiled tube from 20 to 23 feet long, in which
                          about 90 percent of digestion takes place
Your Digestive Organs

The liver and pancreas are two important organs in
the digestive system.

         liver A digestive gland that secretes a substance called bile,
               which helps to digest fats

         pancreas A gland that helps the small intestine by producing
                  pancreatic juice, a blend of enzymes that breaks down
                  proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
Your Digestive Organs

The colon is the last stop for solid food the body
can’t digest.

          colon A tube five to six feet in length that plays a
                part in both digestion and excretion

Any water, vitamins, minerals, and salts left in the
food mixture are absorbed by the colon.
Removing Wastes

Excretion is a process of the excretory system.

         excretion The process the body uses to get rid of waste

         excretory system The group of organs that work together
                          to remove wastes

The excretory system also controls the body’s
water levels.
Removing Wastes

The kidneys help in the production of red blood cells
and the regulation of blood pressure.

          kidneys Organs that remove waste material, including
                  salts, from the blood

The bladder stores urine until it is ready to be
passed out of the body.
Removing Wastes

Your body’s solid wastes are called feces, which are
stored in the colon until that organ becomes full.

Strong muscles in the wall of the colon begin to
contract, which is a signal that the colon must be
Caring for Your Digestive and Excretory Systems
    Tips for Caring for Your Digestive and Excretory Systems

          Eat a balanced
                                          Drink plenty
          diet with low-fat,
                                           of water.
          high-fiber foods

      Brush your teeth at least
                                          Get regular
     twice a day, floss, and get
                                        physical activity.
    dental checkups twice a year.
The USDA’s MyPlate

Good nutrition allows your body to grow and
function in a healthy way.

         nutrition The process of taking in food and using it for
                   energy, growth, and good health
The USDA’s MyPlate

The USDA created the MyPlate food guidance
system to help you make healthful food choices.

        MyPlate food guidance system A guide for developing a
                                        healthful eating plan
How to Meet Your Nutrient Needs

MyPlate makes recommendations on calorie

             calorie A unit of heat that measures the
                     energy available in foods

The MyPlate suggestions are based on your age,
gender, and level of physical activity.
How to Meet Your Nutrient Needs

                    How Many Calories Do You Need?

             Sedentary               Moderately
Gender/Age                                                   Active Lifestyle
             Lifestyle               Active Lifestyle
             1600 calories per day   1200 calories per day   2200 calories per day
Age 9–13

             1800 calories per day   2000 calories per day   2600 calories per day
Age 9–13
How to Meet Your Nutrient Needs
                 What Are Your Food Group Needs Based on Calories?
Your Calorie Level    1600      1800       2000         2200       2400         2600

Fruits               1.5 cups   1.5 cups   2 cups       2 cups     2 cups       2 cups

Vegetables           2 cups     2.5 cups   3 cups       3 cups     3 cups       3.5 cups

Grains               5 ounces   6 ounces   6 ounces     7 ounces   8 ounces     9 ounces

Meat and Beans       5 ounces   5 ounces   5.5 ounces   6 ounces   6.5 ounces   6.5 ounces

Milk                 3 cups     3 cups     3 cups       3 cups     3 cups       3 cups

Oils                 5 tsp.     5 tsp.     6 tsp.       6 tsp.     7 tsp.       8 tsp.

Extra Calories       132        195        267          290        362          362
Eat a Variety of Foods

You can’t get all the nutrients your body needs
from just one food group.

Try to get 45 to 65 percent of you food calories
from carbohydrates, especially from low-fat,
nutrient-rich foods.
Influences on Food Choices

                     Influences on Food Choices

                       Familiarity    Culture        Peers

     Climate             Media         Cost       Convenience
 Local Agriculture
Getting the Nutrition Facts
• You have been hired by a nutritional company to examine
  what kids are eating . Your role is to record everything
  you eat for breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks for TWO
  days. They are looking at calorie totals, fat totals,
  carbohydrate totals, protein totals, and two
  vitamins. is where you will
  complete this task.
• Keep Track of what you eat by writing the foods you eat
  on the myplate picture in the correct food groups for day
  1 and day 2. Do this before you enter your day of food for
  both days on (keep this and turn it in
  with the assignment, each day has one plate worksheet)
  Make sure to enter Day 1 online, then Day 2 online on
  different days; otherwise you will not have two separate
  days to print out. You have to print the day you enter the
  meals for that day’s nutrient intakes.
 If you do not have access to the internet at home, please
  let me know I will arrange time for you to use a school
                       How to Track a Meal
•   Go to
•   On the right hand side in the blue box click on analyze my diet
•   Next click on assess your food intake
•   Log in by creating an account, it is free and easy
•   Then click save
•   Next click proceed to food intake
•   Enter food items by searching and then clicking on the food and the add button
•   After the food is added click select quantity under the food item
•   On the next screen go to the drop down bar and click the serving size you ate
•   Next to it is a small box labeled serving number: add the number of servings you ate
•   Next click enter food
•   Keep entering your foods until the whole day is put in
•   Then click save and analyze for day 1
•   Then click the box that says nutrient intakes
•   Click file, then print so that you have the page for day 1 to turn in
•   Look at the day and highlight the number of calories, fat, carbohydrates, protein, and pick two vitamins.
•   You will have to enter day 1 and day 2 on different days online to get both print outs…if you enter it all in
    one day you will only have one print out.
•   Turn in: Day 1 nutrient intakes, Day 2 nutrient intakes and both myplate hand tracking tools.
                Lunch Analysis Rubric
You have been hired by a nutritional company to examine what
kids are eating for lunch. Your role is to record everything you
eat for breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks for two days. They
are looking at calorie totals, fat totals, carbohydrate totals,
protein totals, and vitamins. is a source to
help you accomplish this task. You will present your research to
the “nutritional company”.

1.   Completed two days analyzing school lunch                    _____/30
2.   Calorie totals are present for each day                      _____/8
3.   Fat totals are present for each day                          _____/8
4.   Carbohydrate totals are present for each day                 _____/8
5.   Protein totals are present for each day                      _____/8
6.   AT LEAST TWO vitamins are present for each day               _____/8
7.   All foods eaten are listed for each day on myplate worksheet _____/15
     (Day 1 sheet filled out and Day 2 sheet filled out)
                                               TOTAL              _____/85
• Considering Food Choices
Body Image

Body image can be influenced by the attitudes of
family and friends and images from the media.

              body image The way you see your body

Trying to change your weight in extreme ways can
damage your health and be life threatening.
How to Develop a Positive Body Image

  Accept yourself.
  Remember that your growth stage affects your
  body shape.
  Set reasonable goals to gain or lose weight.
Finding Your Healthy Weight Range

The Body Mass Index (BMI) can tell you if your
weight is within a healthy range.

       Body Mass Index A method for assessing your body size by
                       taking your height and weight into account
Finding Your Healthy Weight Range

                     Calculating BMI

  1                  2                     3
                        Multiply your
   Multiply your                           Divide your answer
                      height by inches
  weight in pounds                           in step 1 by the
                          by 0.025.
      by 0.45.                              answer in step 2.
                      Square the result.
Finding Your Healthy Weight Range
Eating Disorders
The Benefits of a Healthy Weight

Being within a healthy weight range is important for
wellness and helps you have a positive body image.
The Benefits of a Healthy Weight

        Being Overweight             Being Underweight

  Increases risk of:           Increases risk of:
  •   High blood pressure      •   Slow development
  •   Cardiovascular disease   •   Fatigue
  •   Type 2 diabetes          •   Immunity problems
  •   Cancer                   •   Moodiness
  •   Bone and muscle damage
Eating Disorders

People who feel bad about themselves or are
depressed are more likely to develop eating

        eating disorders Extreme eating behaviors that can lead to
                         serious illness or even death

If you think that someone you know has an eating
disorder, discuss this with an adult whom you trust.
Anorexia Nervosa

People with anorexia nervosa believe they are
overweight even if they are very thin.

      anorexia nervosa An eating disorder in which a person strongly
                       fears gaining weight and starves herself or himself

Anorexia can cause blood pressure to drop and heart
Bulimia Nervosa

People with bulimia nervosa may purge themselves
by throwing up, using laxatives, or over exercising.

      bulimia nervosa An eating disorder in which a person repeatedly eats
                      large amounts of food and then purges

Bulimia can damage the colon, liver, kidneys,
esophagus, and teeth.
Binge Eating

Binge eating is also called compulsive overeating.

          binge eating A disorder in which a person repeatedly eats
                       too much food at a time

Binge eating can lead to weight gain, heart disease,
diabetes, and some types of cancer.
Calories and Weight
        The Weight-Loss Energy Equation
                1 pound = 3,500 calories
             To lose 1 pound in two weeks:
             • Eat 250 fewer calories a day
             • Burn 250 extra calories a day
               through physical activity

         250 calories
                      x 15 days = 3,500 calories
Tips for Maintaining a Healthy Weight

   Balance the calories
                               Choose healthful foods
     you eat with the                                       Drink plenty of water.
                              and stay physically active.
 calories your body burns.

 Eat larger servings if you   Eat smaller servings if you   Only eat when you are
   need to gain weight.          need to lose weight.              hungry.

                                                            Use the MyPyramid as
  Chew food thoroughly.            Avoid fad diets.
                                                                 your guide.
            Nutrition Labels
What Nutrients Do You Need?

Your body needs the nutrients in food to perform the
activities of daily life.

             nutrients Substances in foods that your body needs to
                       grow, have energy, and stay healthy

                        Six Types of Nutrients

  Carbohydrates   Proteins    Fats    Vitamins     Minerals    Water

Your body uses carbohydrates as its main source
of energy.

          carbohydrates The starches and sugars found in foods

                 Two Types of Carbohydrates

           Simple                       Complex

Some fiber is found in the tough, course part of
plant foods such as the bran in whole-grain wheat
and oats.

                fiber A complex carbohydrate that the body
                      cannot break down for energy

Proteins are made up of compounds called amino

           proteins The nutrient group used to build and repair cells

                        Two Types of Proteins

           Complete                         Incomplete

Fats help build and maintain your cell membranes

           fats Nutrients that promote normal growth, give you
                energy, and keep your skin healthy

Fats carry vitamins A, D, E, and K to all parts of
the body.

Saturated fats are found in meat, poultry, butter, and
other dairy products.

       saturated fats Fats that are usually solid at room temperature

Over time, eating too many saturated fats can
increase the risk of heart disease and other diseases.

Your body makes two types of cholesterol.

       cholesterol The waxy, fat-like substance that the body uses to
                   build cells and make other substances

                       Two Types of Cholesterol

           HDL (“good”)                     LDL (“bad”)

Blood levels of LDL cholesterol can rise if you eat too
much trans fat, or trans fatty acids.

       trans fatty acids A kind of fat formed when hydrogen is added
                         to vegetable oil during processing

Some vitamins help your body fight disease, while
others help your body produce energy.

       vitamins Compounds that help to regulate body processes

Vitamins are either fat-soluble or water soluble.

Minerals are important to your health.

      minerals Substances the body uses to form healthy bones and
               teeth, keep blood healthy, and keep the heart and other
               organs working properly

 Mineral           What It Does                 Where to Find It

 Iron              Helps make red blood cells   Meat, poultry, beans

 Calcium           Helps build teeth and
                                                Milk, cheese, and other dairy
 Magnesium         bones and keeps them
 Phosphorus        strong

                                                Bananas, cantaloupe, fish,
 Potassium         Helps maintain the body’s
                                                vegetables, meats such as
 Sodium Chloride   fluid balance
                                                chicken and turkey

A person can only live about one week without water.

        Carries nutrients           Helps your body
          to your cells              remove waste

                                    Helps regulate
        Helps you digest
                                      your body
Guidelines for Good Nutrition

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the
Department of Health and Human Services have
developed the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
Make Smart Food Choices
 Eat a variety of nutritious foods every day.

 Choose to eat fruit instead of drinking fruit juices.

 Vary your vegetables and eat more of them.

 Half of the grains you eat should be whole grains.

 Eat enough calcium-rich foods.

 Eat a variety of protein-rich foods.

 Go easy on foods that are high in saturated fats.

 When you eat meat, choose lean cuts and dishes that are baked, broiled, or grilled.
Avoid Too Much Sugar and Salt

      Too Much Sugar…                 Too Much Salt…
 • Fills you up an makes you    • Can increase blood pressure
   less likely to eat healthy
 • Promotes tooth decay
 • Is stored as fat, causing
   weight gain
Reading Ingredients Lists

Keep this in mind: Corn syrup,
dextrose, and sucrose are all
types of sugar. If they are
among the first three items in a
product’s ingredients list, the
amount of added sugar is high.
               Nutrition Day 9
Discuss Calorie King/ My Plate homework
  – Why do you think the U.S. government requires a
    Nutrition Facts label on packaged foods?
  – How does choosing healthful foods show that you
    are taking responsibility for personal health
  – Why do you think it is often said that breakfast is
    the most important meal of the day?
              Nutrition Review
Students will know:          Students will be able to:
   Benefits of a Healthy         Calculate total caloric
    Weight                         intake for a day.
   Importance of Nutrients       Identify nutrient-rich
    to Good Health                 foods.
   USDA Tips on Healthful        Design a dietary plan
    Eating                         which is suitable their
   Steps to Keeping Food          energy needs.
    Safe                          Practice steps to keeping
   Content-specific               food safe.
    Vocabulary (see
    vocabulary list)

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