Spread of Islam by 0z8y0A

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									Spread of Islam
• Sufi movement within Islam incorporated
  mysticism with a trend toward evangelism
  – Less emphasis on strict interpretation of
    traditional texts and laws
  – Emphasized emotional religious experience
  – Healer
• Ulama
  – Stressed restrictive conservatism with Islam
     • Especially with religious schools
     • Especially concerning scientific inquiry
  – Emphasized strict interpretation of laws and
    religious text
• 1258 Baghdad invaded by Mongols
• Political center will change
  – Baghdad will take a back seat to
     • Cairo in the East
     • Istanbul to the North
Trade


• Master of vast trading network
• Abbasid Muslim traders will reestablish trade
  routes after fall of the Roman and Han
  empires
• With the collapse of the Abbasid dynasty-
  Egypt will become center of trade.
• Desire to protect trading interests was the
  excuse of the initial move into India during
  the Umayyad dynasty
                        South Asia
                          (India)
• Will first move into India when pirates attack
  and threaten Arab trade.
  – At first only along coast
     •   Brought little change
     •   Religious toleration
     •   Local officials retain titles
     •   Status of Brahman caste respected
     •   Arabs lived apart
     •   Little attempt at first of conversion
• Difference between Islam invasion of India
  and others
  – First time India will have a large scale group of
    invaders whose civilization is as sophisticated as
    their own
• Islam will be introduced to
  India through
  – Merchants
• Sufi mystics
  – Carry message of Islam
    during a time when
    Buddhism had decline
  – Trend toward evangelism
  – Appeal to lower caste
    because of egalitarian
• Under Mahmud Ghazi will move into
  interior defeat the disorganized              Delhi
  Hindus
   – Established their kingdom in
                                              Sultanate
     Delphi under rule of a Sultan
• Delphi Sultanate
   – Islam will spread throughout
     much of northern India for 200
     years.
   – Many Hindus will hold on to their
     beliefs
   – Sultan offended and will do best
     to convert
      • Non Muslims had to pay a tax
      • Also Sultans capable of religiously
        motivate destruction
• New Muslim rulers remained
  largely separated from Hindu
  subjects
• Hindus worked in
  administrative but lived
  apart from their rulers
• Social prejudice- found in
  caste system infiltrated
  Islam in India
  – Arabs considered “high caste”
• Muslim rulers violated the
  Quran by claiming to be of
  divine descent
• Islam will not be as accepted in India as it was
  in other areas.
  – Will treat Hindus and Buddhists as dhimmis-
    people of the book
• India will not convert to Islam in large
  numbers.
• Hindu will respond to Muslims by placing
  greater emphasis on devotional cults
• In India, Muslims will
  – Adopt the social stratification of Hindu castes
  – Attitudes toward women
  – Practices of Hindu rulers
  – Taste for India food and games
       Differences between Hindus and
                   Muslims
                Hindus                      Muslims
Gods            Polytheism                  Monotheism
Social System   Caste system                All equal under God
Cow             Sacred animal               food
Beliefs         Universal & exclusive       Tolerant of other beliefs
                                            and even mixed with
                                            other beliefs
Overall         Socially more restrictive   Religiously more
                                            restrictive
• Islam will stress egalitarianism of all believers
• Hinduism embraced the caste social system
• Despite difference between Hindus an Islamic
  cultures, amazing amount of progress under
  Sultans
  – Colleges
  – Irrigation systems improved
  – Mosques built with aid of Hindu architect & artists
• Many will convert-
  – some genuine, some because it may life easier
• More will convert to Islam in Northern India
  than in Southern India where a vast majority
  will continue Hindus customs
   Indian Influences on Islamic Civilization
• Indian Learning
  – Hindu mathematics- algebra
    /geometry
     • Use of numerals of Hindu scholars
  – Medicine to music
     • Physicians brought to Baghdad
     • Arabian Nights tales may be based on
       Indian stories
     • Game of chess
• Mongols will under Timur
  the Lane will invade India
  – Will destroyed just about
    everything in sight
  – Massacred thousands
  – Just as quickly swept out
  – The sultanate was destroyed
    but will eventually be
    restored
  – Islam had continued to grow
    in India next few centuries
    under Mogul Empire, even
    Hindu hung to their beliefs
                                  Timur the Lame
                   Southeast Asia
• Islam spread from
   – commercial contacts and conversions than from military
     victories
   – Sufi mystics and traders carried Islam to port cities in southeast
     Asia. From which spreads to other regions
• In Southeast Asia
   – New Faith did not gain widespread popularity in strong Buddhist
     and Hindu areas.
   – Did not make headway in areas away from the coast
• Islands of Indian Ocean were receptive to new faith
   – Familiar with Islam from trading contacts
   – Buddhism and Hinduism will remain popular but Islam will
     establish a stronghold in Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines

								
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