Study Guide Chapter 1—Introduction: Matter and Measurement Chemistry: the Central Science, Brown, LeMay and Bursten 1. What properties and changes do chemistry study? [1.1] 2. Matter is anything that has _________ and occupies _______. 3. How many elements comprise all matter? (Do you wonder why the text does not say exactly how many there are?) 4. What are the building blocks of matter? What can those building blocks form? 5. Distinguish the macroscopic realm and the submicroscopic. 6. In the Chemistry at Work article “Chemistry and the Chemical Industry”, what evidence is given that the chemical industry is important to the US economy? What ten chemicals are produced in the largest amounts? [1.2] 7. What are the characteristics of the three common states of matter? 8. What molecular characteristics account for the behavior of gases, liquids and solids? 9. What are the characteristics of a pure substance? What two main subclasses can pure substances be divided into? 10. If a bit of matter is not a pure substance, than what is it? What are two main subclasses of these? How do these differ in composition, properties, and appearance? 11. What three questions are outlined on the flow chart (Figure 1.7) that distinguish heterogeneous mixtures, homogeneous mixtures, elements, and compounds? 12. What kinds of mixtures can be separated, and how, using filtration? Using distillation? Using chromatography? 13. How many elements had been reported at the time of writing of this book? Is the number of reported elements likely to change? Why? 14. What five elements comprise over 90% of the earth’s crust? What three elements comprise over 90% of your body? 15. Make yourself flash cards with the correct spelling of the names on one side and the symbols on the other side for the 24 elements on table 1.2, p. 10. Learn them…you’ll be glad you did! 16. What is the law of constant composition? How does this differ from the law of definite proportions? How does this law apply to water? [1.3] 17. Which kind of properties of matter can be determined without changing the identity of the substance: physical or chemical? Give examples of physical properties and of a chemical property. 18. How do intensive and extensive properties differ? Give examples of each. Which type of properties are most useful in identifying substances? 19. How do physical and chemical changes differ? Give examples of each. 20. The chemical change between what two substances did Ira Remsen investigate? [1.4] 21. Can a quantitative property of matter be properly expressed with only a number? What else must be added? 22. In the reading “the Scientific Method” how can a hypothesis, a scientific law, and a scientific theory be distinguished? Which of the following three statements can best be described as each? A. All matter is made of atoms. B. Chemistry is the hardest course at DHS. C. The volume of a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. (answers: A = atomic theory, B= hypothesis, C= Boyles’ Law) 23. What system of measurement has been specified as the preferred system for scientific purposes world-wide? 24. What is the fundamental unit of mass? Of length? Of time? Of temperature? Of amount of a substance? 25. Is mass the same as weight? 26. Make flash cards with the SI prefix on one side and base ten exponential number on the other to memorize the prefixes for Mega, kilo, deci, centi, milli, micro, and nano. 27. Answer the practice exercise on p. 15. 28. Contrary to what many of us might think, temperature is not heat. What does temperature show, however? 29. What two temperature scales are used most commonly for scientific measurements? What is meant by absolute zero? 30. What is the mathematical relationship between Kelvins and degrees Celsius? Between Celsius and Fahrenheit degrees? 31. Try prac ex. p. 16. 32. What is the basic SI unit of volume? What are three related volume units of more convenient size? 33. Take careful note of the relationship between mL and cm3…that they are equal. 34. What is density a ratio between? What is the density of water? 35. Does iron weigh more than air? What is true about iron and air? 36. Try prac ex p. 17. 37. If you hate broccoli, what should you eat? What new form of carbon besides graphite and diamond is in the news? What technology may replace internal combusion engines for cars? Is ginseng’s reputation for health benefits based on scientific studies? What is new in the aspirin game? [1.5] 38. Are measured quantities ever exact? Can a counted quantity be exact? 39. How are precision and accuracy different? Can a measurement be precise but inaccurate? How? 40. What are the significant figures in a measured quantity? 41. Try prac ex. p. 21. 42. The five rules about significant digits may be tedious, but they are important. Learn them well. When are the zeros in a measured quantity that you read significant, and when are they not? Can scientific notation simplify identification of significant zeros? 43. Try prac. ex. p. 22. 44. What rule is used in rounding calculated quantities in multiplication or division? What about in addition and subtraction? 45. Try both the prac ex. on p. 23. 46. When a calculation involves several steps, should you round off to the correct significant figures every time, or wait until you reach the final answer? [1.6] 47. How are units used in dimensional analysis? 48. What is a conversion factor? What two conversion factors relate inches and centimeters? 49. Try prac. ex. p. 24. 50. Can more than one conversion factors be used sequentially? 51. Density can be used as a conversion factor between what two types of measurement? 52. Since 1 inch = 2.54 cm, is it also true that 1 in2 = 2.54 cm2? What is true? 53. What are the three steps involved in setting up a dimensional analysis problem? 54. Try p. 26 prac ex. and p. 27 and p. 28 prac. ex.
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