PS134AA Session8 2012

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PS134AA Session8 2012 Powered By Docstoc
					WOMEN, GENDER, AND
  EMPOWERMENT
             RESOURCES

• Modern Latin America chs. 7, 11 (Colombia,
  Chile)

• Htun, “Women and Democracy” (CR #3)

• Video” “In Women’s Hands”
              STEREOTYPES

•   Powerless in a macho world
•   Passivity, docility
•   Focus on family, children
•   Lack of interest in politics and public sphere
•   Marianismo (a controversial concept)
       WOMEN’S INTERESTS
• Feminine or feminist?

• Practical interests = position within gendered division
  of labor

• Strategic interests = alternative social codes deriving
  from broad analysis of women’s subordination

• Difference from U.S. interests in economic equality
  (e.g., glass ceiling) and sexual liberation; emphasis on
  distinctiveness of womanhood
           WOMEN AND
        AUTHORITARIANISM
• Compliance: courtship by dictators
• Opposition: merger of practical and strategic
  interests
• Articulation of demands:
  – Mothers (and Grandmothers) of Plaza de Mayo in
    Argentina
  – Arpilleristas in Chile
  – “militant motherhood” in Brazil
  – Pro-democratic, left-of-center orientation
   WOMEN IN TRANSITIONS
    TOWARD DEMOCRACY
• Urgency of institutional agenda > concern for
  gender-related issues

• Backlog of impatient men

• Gender identity giving way to partisan
  affiliation

• Loss of solidarity
           SOURCES OF
          EMPOWERMENT

• Participation in labor force (23 % in 1970,
  35% by 2000)
• Education (half of university students)
• Significant share of electorate
• Desire for change (and attitudes about
  women’s superiority in selected issue-areas)
• International reputation (?)
       Women in Latin American Legislatures, 1990-2010

                            WOMEN (AS % TOTAL)*
      Country              1990   2000       2010

Argentina                    5        27           39
Bolivia                      9        12           25
Brazil                       5         6             9
Chile                        6        11           14
Colombia                     9        12            --
Ecuador                       7       15           32
El Salvador                  --       10           19
Guatemala                     7        9           12
Mexico                      12        16           26
Paraguay                     4         3           13
Peru                         6        20           28
Uruguay                      6        12           15
Venezuela                   10        10            --


                     — = not available.
                ON QUOTAS
• To be effective, must be:
  – Obligatory
  – Placement mandate
  – Cost for non-compliance
• Most congenial electoral systems:
  – Proportional representation
  – Closed party lists
  – Large districts (i.e., deputies per district)
               LEGISLATURES

• Gain of 35 %, from 14 to 19 % (2000-2006)

• USA = 17 %

• World average = 18.6%
        VOTING PATTERNS
• Traditional “gender gap”
  – More conservative than men
  – Chile 1999: Right garnered 51% of women votes,
    Concertación 49%; Right got only 46% of male
    votes, Concertación 54%
  – Right is now appealing to traditional family values
• Women’s issues
  – Rarely top-priority campaign platforms
  – Success in agenda-setting > policy implementation
  – “Women, in order to be important politically, can’t
    talk about gender issues”
               ABORTION
• Central issue on feminist agenda
• Still prohibited in several countries (including
  Uruguay and Chile)
• Common: permitted “if health or life of mother
  at risk” (as certified by…..)
• Available on demand:
  – Cuba
  – Mexico City (DF, under leftist PRD)
        WOMEN PRESIDENTS

• Generation I: Widows
   – Isabel Martínez de Perón (Argentina)
   – Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (Nicaragua)
   – Mireya Moscoso (Panama)
• Generation II: Self-Made Politicians
   –   Michelle Bachelet (Chile)
   –   Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (Argentina)
   –   Laura Chinchilla (Costa Rica)
   –   Dilma Rousseff (Brazil)
Comparisons with the United States?
        CONTRASTS WITH USA
• Issues: Feminism and Women’s Interests
    –   Glass ceiling vs. household survival
    –   Sexual liberation vs. domestic violence
    –   Power-seeking vs. pro-human rights
    –   Middle class vs. popular level

• Social Movements and Political Parties
    –   Stridency vs. incrementalism
    –   Autonomous social movements or established parties
    –   Gender gap in voting
    –   Confrontation with authoritarian rulers
    –   Ambiguities of democratic rule


• Representation in legislatures, cabinets, executive positions?

				
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posted:10/3/2012
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