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									  GOLD
  SEAL                          Flying High with Discovery Learning
 LESSON

Subjects                Rigor/Relevance
Physical Science,       Framework
English Language Arts

Grade Level
6-8


Common Core State       Reading
                        Read and comprehend complex informational texts independently
Standards               and proficiently.

                        Writing
                        Conduct short research projects based on focused questions,
                        demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
                        Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis,
                        reflections, and research.
Student                 Students will:
                              Work cooperatively in small groups.
Learning
                              Assume group roles and complete specific tasks.
                              Gather information from print and video sources.
                              Conduct short experiments and draw conclusions based on
                                 the results.
                              Create and modify designs based on observations and
                                 understanding of subject under investigation.
                              Summarize findings in well constructed paragraphs.
Performance             Overview:
                        Students will work in small groups to construct and analyze paper
Task                    airplanes to discover what – if anything – they have in common with
                        the way real planes work. Students will be assigned specific roles as a
                        “flight crew” member and be responsible for fulfilling those specific
                        duties. They will summarize their findings in writing as they answer
                        the focus question: How is the construction of a paper airplane
                        connected to the mechanics of a real airplane?

                        Description:
                        This hands-on activity encourages learning by discovery.




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Prior to the start of the activity, the teacher will need the following
materials:
     Plain paper for Entrance Ticket Activity
     Labels to identify roles for each group member
     Video clip to explain four forces of flight (website attached)
     Group Project Organizer (example attached)
     Directions for constructing a variety of paper airplanes
     Paper, scissors, rulers, markers to design the airplanes

When students enter the classroom on the day of the lesson, the
teacher will give them each a blank sheet of paper. On the board, the
teacher will have the following directions: Entrance ticket: Create a
“flying machine” out of a single sheet of paper.

Upon completing this introductory activity, the teacher may stimulate
a discussion by asking volunteers to share their “flying machines,”
including demonstrating how they work. The teacher will then
introduce the focus question for the day: How is the construction of a
paper airplane connected to the mechanics of a real airplane?

To introduce the four forces of flight and key terms for the lesson, the
teacher will ask students to work as small groups and arrange five
sticky notes in the center of the group. The notes should be labeled
as such: quick sketch of an airplane (in the middle); lift (with an arrow
pointing upward); weight (with downward arrow); thrust (with arrow
pointing away from front of plane); and drag (with arrow pointing
away from back of plane).

The teacher now shows a short video clip about the four forces of
flight. After the clip (2-3 minutes long), groups work together to list
ideas on the sticky notes to represent what they heard or saw about
each of the forces. The teacher repeats the video, giving the groups a
chance to add or revise ideas.

Next the teacher will assign students to a flight crew or cooperative
group of 4 to 5 students each. Each crew member will select a label to
represent a role (the teacher will have the list on the board and on
sheets at each table). Examples include:
    1. Captain – Discussion Director
    2. Air Traffic Controller – Timekeeper
    3. TSA Agent – Materials Manager
    4. Flight Attendant – Scribe
    5. Co-pilot – Peace Keeper (optional role if only 4 students in
        group).

The teacher will give each flight crew the following set of materials:
           a. Project organizer (see attached)



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            b.   Directions for LIFT experiment
            c.   Directions for DRAG experiment
            d.   Directions for paper airplane
            e.   Paper, scissors, & ruler for designing planes

Each flight crew will work together to complete the following tasks:

A. (2-5 minutes) Have one member of the flight crew stand in open
space and stretch out arms with one hand on top of plain sheet of
paper and one hand on the bottom. With thumbs pointed in the
direction of spin, group member should spin around continuously.
Once the spin is going strong, the member should remove hand from
under paper, but keep spinning. Others should record observation,
(the paper should not fall to the ground) and draw conclusion as to
which force kept the paper from falling. (The lift from the air rushing
over the paper keeps it in place.)
    Objective #1: Dramatize and draw conclusions about lift.

B. (2-5 minutes) Have a different member of the flight crew stand in
open space with arms stretched out as they clasp the piece of paper
vertically between hands and thumbs pointed up toward ceiling.
Once the spin is going strong, the member should remove hand in
front from the paper. Others should record observation, (the paper
should not fall), and draw conclusion as to which force is pushing the
paper against the other hand (drag). In addition, the crew should
note what role the spinning played. (It produces the thrust.)
    Objective #2 Dramatize and draw conclusions about thrust and
    drag.

C. (10-15 minutes). Members of the flight team work together to
design a paper airplane using the directions provided by teacher.
Members then take turns flying the plane while others record
directional observations and measure distance flown. Teams make
and note modifications as plane heads off more to left or right or
dives then crashes.
    Objective #3: Design and fly a paper airplane. Evaluate
    performance with flight records, making modifications as
    needed.

For the closing activity, the teacher will ask students to work
independently to answer original focus question. (How is the
construction of a paper airplane connected to the mechanics of a real
airplane?) Students will use the T.A.G. method to answer question.

T – Turn the question into a statement.
A – Answer the question.
G – Give details.



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                                       Objective #4: Substantiate findings in a response to focus
                                       question using TAG method.

Essential Skills               E9    Organize supporting detail in logical and convincing
                                     patterns that focus on audience and purpose.
                               S15 Plan and apply real or hypothetical models and
                                     constructions to facilitate short- and long-term
                                     investigation, learning, and solutions to practical problems,
                                     including experimental design that incorporates variables
                                     and a method for collecting fair and adequate data.
Assessments                    Scoring Guide: See below.


Attachments/                   Flight Crew Project Organizer
                               Podcast from NASA kids site explaining forces of flight:
Resources                      www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/forces.html

Submitted by: Bernie Lambert




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                                              Scoring Guide



                                   Soaring                         Climbing              Waiting for Take Off
        Criteria
                                   3 points                        2 points                    1 point

                             Student indicates all          Student indicates some          Student indicates
 Dramatize and draw             results of and                   results of and         limited or no results of
conclusions about lift.    conclusions drawn from           conclusions drawn from      and conclusions drawn
                                 lift activity.                   lift activity.            from lift activity.
                                                                                            Student indicates
                              Student indicates             Student indicates some
 Dramatize and draw                                                                     limited or no results of
                           complete results of and               results of and
  conclusions about                                                                     and conclusions drawn
                           conclusions drawn from           conclusions drawn from
   thrust and drag.                                                                       from thrust and drag
                           thrust and drag activity.        thrust and drag activity.
                                                                                                 activity.
 Design and fly a paper     Student flight records           Student flight records      Student flight records
  airplane. Evaluate          are complete and                  are complete and           are incomplete and
performance with flight    he/she explains reasons          he/she explains reasons          provide limited
    records, making        and results for at least 3        and results for 1 or 2          explanations of
   modifications as         modifications to paper          modifications to paper      modifications to paper
        needed.                    airplane.                          airplane.                  airplane.
                                                                Student does not
                               Student restates                                         Student may or may not
                                                             restate question, but
Substantiate findings in      question and gives                                         restate question, gives
                                                              still gives substantial
  a response to focus         substantial details                                       limited details found in
                                                             details found in group
  question using TAG       found in group project                                       group project organizer
                                                                project organizer.
        method.               organizer. Exceeds                                           that does not meet
                                                                  Meets teacher
                            teacher expectations.                                         teacher expectations.
                                                                   expectations.
                                                                                        Student does not work
                                Student works
                                                                 Student works           cooperatively with the
                            cooperatively with the
                                                             cooperatively most of         group and must be
   Cooperation and          group in all aspects of
                                                             the time and makes a       reminded by teacher to
 contribution to group     the activity and makes a
                                                              good contribution to            stay on task.
                           positive contribution to
                                                                   the group.           Contribution to group is
                                    group.
                                                                                                 limited.




                                                        5
                                            Flight Crew Project Organizer
                                                   (Total Time – 20 Minutes)

List names of flight crew.
      Captain                   Air Traffic              TSA Agent             Flight Attendant        Co-pilot
    (Discussion                 Controller                (Materials                (Scribe)         (Peace Keeper)
     Director)                 (Timekeeper)               Manager)




List the four forces
of flight with a
symbol to represent
each

Activity# 1: Select one member of the crew to dramatize while others record observations.
What happens to the paper when the hand is             Which of the four forces keeps the paper from
removed from underneath while the person is            falling? Explain.
still spinning?


Activity# 2: Select a different member of the crew to dramatize while others record observations.
Which force is pushing the paper against the             Which force is the spinning representing?
other hand?



Activity# 3: Work together to read and follow the directions to create a paper airplane for your flight crew.
Once the airplane is constructed, each member should fly it at least once while others record observations. Make
modifications to each flight to change the direction or time in the air. For each change, record what you did and
what resulted when the plane was flown again.
                                                      FLIGHT RECORD
Crew Member flying           How far did it fly?     Why did you notice         What did you       How did the change
     the plane                                       about its direction       modify or change?    impact the next
                                                      and time in air?                                   flight?




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