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									                             Anne Frank - A History for Today

                          A Handbook for Exhibition Docents/Guides

Contents

Preface

1. Introduction

2. The exhibition

3. Taking groups around

4. Working with groups

5. The guided tour

6. Glossary of terms

7. Important dates

This handbook for docents/guides was prepared by
Arne Gillert
Menno Metselaar
Ruud van der Rol
Anne Frank House




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Preface

You will shortly be accompanying groups around the Anne Frank - A History for Today
exhibition. This exhibition was created by the Anne Frank House in 1996. Your help is
invaluable to us and, of course, to those you will be guiding through the exhibition.

We believe that people learn most effectively when they are asked to apply what they have
learned in discussion or debate. This applies particularly to an exhibition such as Anne Frank
- A History for Today which is not only informative but which also aims to be thought
provoking and to arouse curiosity. It is especially useful to have you as a guide for the group,
to set this process of awareness in motion.

This information pack is meant to give background information to the exhibition and to supply
a few tips and tricks for the successful guiding of a group. Even this modest aim presents
difficulties: you, the guides, are all very different people, some are school or university
students, others are contemporaries who witnessed the Third Reich or there may be those
who have worked with this subject for many years.

Our information pack may therefore seem oversimplified to some of you or obscure to
others. It is divided into three parts and has some useful appendices. In the first part we
introduce the Anne Frank House, part two describes the aims and contents of the Anne
Frank - A History for Today exhibition and the complementary panels; the third part
discusses how a guided tour of the exhibition might be conducted. There are various aids in
the appendices, e.g. a description of the fifteen main photographs with background material
and a glossary.

We should like to thank you in advance for the amount of time you will be devoting to the
preparation and guiding of groups and for your commitment to this work. We hope you will
find it gratifying.




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1.
Introduction

The Anne Frank House was established in 1957 to preserve and maintain the Annexe in
which Anne Frank and seven other Jews hid for over two years. Many people had read the
diary and came to the house at 263 Prinsengracht.

The Anne Frank House is a memorial which is not connected to as many incomprehensible
horrors as the concentration camp sites. It does not promote a view of passive acceptance
by the victims and it shows how Jews tried to fight the persecution to which they were
subjected. It shows collaboration with the Nazis because the people in hiding were betrayed,
but also resistance and humanitarian help because there were those who supplied the daily
needs of the Jews hidden in the Secret Annex.

The Anne Frank House exists to maintain the Annexe as a museum and to disseminate
Anne Frank's ideals as outlined in her diary. Anne Frank's life story encourages us to work
together for a free and democratic society, in which pluralism and equality are guaranteed
and anti-Semitism and racism are not tolerated.

Today the Anne Frank House serves as an educational center for both adults and young
people. We produce educational material and publications which discuss the Second World
War in relation to racism today and receive visits from school groups from home and abroad.




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2.
The exhibition

The exhibition 'Anne Frank - A History for Today' is the pivotal point of all international work
undertaken at the Anne Frank House. It was first shown publicly in Tokyo Japan on 3
November 1996. Why have an exhibition? As Anne Frank's diary became more and more
famous, interest grew in Anne and her family. The number of people visiting the house in
Amsterdam increases year by year, and we see this as an opportunity to stimulate them into
forming opinions about the society in which they live. We use the example of Anne Frank to
show people that it is up to each one of us to work for human rights. It is not our intention to
idealize Anne Frank, but to use her story as a symbol for the countless unknown stories that
cannot be told.

Our international work became firmly established in 1985 when the traveling exhibition 'Anne
Frank in the World 1929-1945' first went on tour. There were several reasons why we
decided on a traveling exhibition:

Unlike the Anne Frank House it was not to be located on one site, but was to reach as many
people in their home towns as possible.

Mounting an international exhibition can act as a catalyst for organizing associated events -
far more than a book or film could do.

The visiting exhibition is only of short duration, but it is accompanied by comprehensive
educational material, and its influence continues even after the exhibition has moved on.
We try to encourage local organizations to undertake projects in every town the exhibition
visits, so that there is long-term local benefit.
Our experience with the traveling exhibition since 1985 has shown that it is indeed possible
to reach an incredibly large number of people (approximately 6.3 million by 1995), and to
encourage them to think about the issues raised by Anne Frank's story, the Holocaust and
universal human rights.

Why this exhibition?

'Anne Frank in the World', which toured from 1985-1995, has demonstrated:
. That her famous story 'opens doors' and motivates people to think about current human
   rights issues.
. That people often make the link between then and now and are interested to see this
   reflected in an exhibition.
. That interest in Anne Frank's personal story arises curiosity about the underlying historical
   facts.
. That the exhibition engenders discussion and debate, even though it sometimes shocks.

Ten years after its launch, we felt it was time to mount a new and enlarged exhibition. We
have learned from our experiences and wished to include new social and political
developments in the world today. We also wished to make use of the great advances in
exhibition techniques.




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Aims of the exhibition

1. To inform visitors about the history of the Holocaust from the perspective of Anne Frank
and her family. We show the historical facts and events which governed the lives of the
Frank family, thus demonstrating the effects of National Socialism on a German-Jewish
family.

2. To show visitors that differences between people exist in all societies (cultural, ethnic,
religious, political or otherwise). In many countries, however, there are people who consider
themselves superior to others, and deny them the right to equal treatment. To show also that
these ideas might lead to discrimination, exclusion, persecution, and even murder.

3. To encourage visitors to analyze the concepts of tolerance, mutual respect, human rights,
democracy, etc., and their meaning for us.

4. To convince visitors that a society in which differences between people are respected
does not come about unaided. In addition to laws (and their implementation), it is imperative
that each individual is committed to the best of his or her ability. Individual actions often have
unexpected repercussions.




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Contents of the exhibition

The history of Anne Frank is the leading thread running through the entire exhibition. The
family's story reflects world events during and after the Nazi dictatorship. The exhibition
juxtaposes photographs of the Frank family with those of historical events of the time, and
shows how persecuted people such as the Franks were affected by political decisions and
by the actions of individuals. This history is shown in five pavilions. In each of these pavilions
a theme which still has relevance for us today is discussed in depth.

Opening panel

Anne Frank's diary has been interpreted and assessed in many different ways. Some see
Anne as a symbol for the incomprehensible suffering of millions, others see Anne primarily
as an author and some are inspired by the thoughts and ideals expressed in her diary. We
have taken all these viewpoints on board and aim to stimulate visitors to find out more about
this young girl.


* Period I: 1929-1933 (Panel 1-4)

Anne Frank was born on 12th June 1929. Germany in the 1920s was a country suffering
severe economic crisis. Nazis promote the view that it is the German people's mission to use
Jews and other minorities as a scapegoat for their desperate financial situation. Many
Germans accept this escape into nationalistic feelings of arrogance and oppression.
The Frank family are fully aware of these changes but Anne's early years are nonetheless
happy. Photos from that time show the Franks' 'normal' family life in Frankfurt am Main.

In contrast to the historical events of Anne Frank's early years, we show a portrait of Otto
Treumann, a German-Jewish boy who grew up in Nuremberg and who commented on the
rise of Nazism and nationalism from his own point of view.


* Period II: 1933-1939 (Panel 5-8)

In 1933 Otto Frank decides to emigrate to Holland with his family. He has the opportunity to
build a new life in Amsterdam. He is worried by the rapid rise of the Nazis after 30 January
1933, and hopes to bring his family to safety, away from ever-growing discrimination and
persecution. Whilst they live safely in Amsterdam, persecution continues apace in Germany,
culminating in the Kristallnacht pogrom of 1938. In her diary Anne describes the carefree
times that she is able to experience in Holland. At this period of her life we again contrast the
life of another young person: Hans Massaquoi was born in 1926 to a German mother and a
Liberian father. He tells of the ludicrous Nazi school subject of 'Racial Studies' and of the
'Cleansing of the Aryan Race' with its obvious threat to all minorities.


* Period III: 1939-1942 (Panel 9-12)

Start of the Second World War; Germany invades Poland on 1 September 1939. Although
the Frank family is concerned by this turn of events, there are no direct consequences for
them or for other refugees in Western Europe. The situation only becomes serious for them




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when Germany invades Holland in May 1940. It would have been difficult enough to flee
before this date, but it is now virtually impossible. The Nazis begin their persecution of Jews
and other minorities throughout Western Europe. But this is only a first step - deportations
and systematic murders follow increasingly.

Margot Frank is the first member of the Frank family to be ordered to be available for work
abroad in July 1942. This prompts the entire family to go into hiding; they move to the
Annexe of the building occupied by the company which Otto Frank owned.

The portrait used to illustrate the events of 1939 to 1940 is that of Miep Gies, Otto Frank's
secretary. It would not have been possible for Jews hiding in the annexe to have survived
without the help of Miep Gies and others. Miep Gies has always been shown as a heroine,
but she herself stresses that one does not need to be heroic to help others.


* Period IV: 1942-1945 (Panel 13-23)

Eight people lived in hiding in the annexe at 263 Prinsengracht from 1942 to 1944. In
addition to the Frank family, there were Mr and Mrs van Pels with their son, Peter, and the
dentist, Dr Pfeffer. In her diary Anne gave them all different names - she called the van Pels
family van Daan and Dr Pfeffer became 'Albert Dussel'. In the exhibition we try to recreate
the atmosphere of Anne's room - the claustrophobia and the oppressive, dim, light. Relevant
quotations from Anne's diary underline these feelings. In August 1944 the Jews in the secret
annex were betrayed to the Nazis and were deported, first to Westerbork and then to
Auschwitz. Survivors of the Holocaust tell how impossible it was to evade the deportations;
they tell of the systematic efficiency of the murder of Jews in the extermination camps and
they describe what the camp liberators ultimately found.

With the exception of Otto Frank all the people hidden in the secret annex died in various
extermination camps.


* Period V: 1945-today (Panel 24-28)

There is widespread jubilation when Europe is freed from Nazi tyranny. However, there is
also a great deal of pain: hopes of finding loved ones alive at the end of the war are dashed.
Furthermore, little consideration is given to all that the Jews suffered - everyone wants to
forget the recent past.

Miep Gies, who found Anne's diary in the annex, gives it to Otto Frank when it becomes
clear that Anne has not survived. Otto Frank finally take the painful step of having the diary
published. Since then many people associate the persecution of Jews in the Second World
War with Anne Frank's diary.

After the cessation of hostilities there is a determination all over the world that never again
should there be any more wars. The United Nations comes into existence and promulgates
the International Declaration of Human Rights. However, racism and discrimination persist
despite all the good post-war intentions. The exhibition not only shows that it is the duty of
the state to battle against racism and discrimination - but that this is also the responsibility of
each individual.




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The final section shows pictures and quotations from people who have visited the Anne
Frank House, as we aim to show the effect that a visit to the Anne Frank House has had on
others.




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3.
Taking groups round

What is your role?

Your task is to add meaning to the exhibition, by giving your groups a learning experience
beyond the confines of the exhibition itself. Without a guide, visitors to the exhibition cannot
engage in a dialogue. We all know from personal knowledge that we remember best those
things which we ourselves say or do and forget soonest those things which we only hear.
For this reason, we hope always to have group guides but we do not want formal guided
tours by someone who merely regurgitates a written text; the aim should always be to allow
visitors to make their own contribution to the discussion.

Your role as guide is a very varied one and leaves scope for ideas of your own; you should
be thought-provoking and instrumental in enlarging on the themes of the exhibition. The
following guide-lines may be useful to you:
. The more opportunities you can give visitors to do or say something themselves, the
    more likely they are to absorb the information.
. The more you are able to refer the exhibition to events experienced by the visitors, the
    more likely they are to understand the information you give them.
. The more you can assist your group in understanding how historical events affected the
    lives of people like the Frank family, the more visitors will be able to grasp the implications
    of events which happened long before most of them were born. You will be able to show
    them that historical events are of no significance in themselves, but take on meaning only
    through the effects which they have on individuals.

Practical suggestions

We make the following suggestions for a guided tour of the exhibition:
. Duration: Most school groups allow a maximum of 1½ hours to visit the exhibition, which
  includes the showing of a 25 minute video.
. Time of Visit: Each group comes to the exhibition at a specific time. The visitors will be
  influenced by what they have already experienced on that day, or by what they have seen
  on the news. This can give you the opportunity to take up an item of current affairs, or it
  might restrict you in that the interest of the group is focused elsewhere at that moment.
. Group size: The scope of your tour is controlled to some extent by the size of your group.
  12-15 is the ideal number for a group but this is not always possible.
. Venue: The venue of the exhibition is relevant to your work. For instance, if extra rooms
  are available, and additional time, these can be used for supplementary work with your
  party or for discussions in small groups.
. Location: The exhibition is located on a particular site which probably has a history of its
  own. Your group will be affected by this, according to whether you are acting as a guide in
  for example a cathedral or a school building.
. Volume: Many factors will govern the volume at which you should speak e.g. the number
  of other visitors to the exhibition at the same time as your group, the lay-out of the venue,
  the behavior of the visitors, etc.

Preparations

You can prepare yourself for your task even before you ever see the exhibition. For instance,




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it would be worthwhile to re-read Anne Frank's diary; and watch the video of the
documentary Anne Frank Remembered.

The same applies to the history of the Second World War: if you no longer feel sure of some
of the facts concerning the period 1930-1945, look them up in a history book or ask
acquaintances who might have more detailed knowledge. Remember though, we do not
expect you to be a professional historian.

There are also other ways of preparing yourself: if you have the opportunity, try to visit
another historical exhibition and imagine how you would present the subject matter to a
group. If a guided tour is in progress you should take part in it and make a mental note of
how you feel whilst being conducted round the exhibition; also, watch and observe the tour
guide at work.

Finally, shortly before your first time in front of a visiting group it would be a good idea to
make out a little check-list to remind yourself of the things you want to include in your
conducted tour. You will find many useful ideas in this information pack.




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4.
Working with groups

As a guide you will be working with groups of people, mostly schoolchildren; these groups
will have formed bonds of their own before you ever meet them.

Group structure/group dynamics: Subconsciously, people take on their accustomed roles
in daily contact with each other. Each one asks himself: What is expected of me? How can I
show that I am competent and self-assured? In existing groups people take on roles which
have become fairly well established.

Group influence: In groups where the members' roles are already firmly established certain
norms of behavior become apparent. Almost all groups have such norms. It is important for
you, as the guide, to define the meaning of the tour for your group and for each individual in
it. A successful introduction to your presentation will indicate to the group what is expected of
them and how they can best understand the subject matter of the exhibition (more about this
later).




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5.
The guided tour

Structure

Taking into account all that has been said so far, you will see that it is impossible to set out
an exact plan for a guided tour. The object of your work is specifically to pick up on the
unexpected reactions of individual visitors. A tour should be governed by the ideas and
feelings of its participants. Nonetheless, there are some basic points for conducting guided
tours.

Your actual time to take groups round the exhibition is one hour or less. Make sure you pace
yourself properly to complete the tour in the time allocated. Do not get side-tracked. You
may want to spend a little longer on things you consider important. Be aware of the attention
span of the group. Remember that not only for the children but for a number of the teachers
these events happened many years before they were born.

In order to show the relevance of the exhibition today try to present parallel events in our
own time of the treatment of minority groups, whether abroad or in our own country. Your
presentation should continually go back to the past and forward to the present.

Make sure that you use words that are not too difficult for the age and ability of your group
and fully explain unusual words such as scapegoats.

The subject is a moving one but the guides own emotions must be kept strictly under control.

The tour should come full-circle, so that what was said at the beginning has relevance at the
end e.g. your theme may have been choice - the choice the Germans had, the choice the
Jews had and, finally, ones own choices today.

In the first part you should ascertain what the group already knows and explain what you
intend to do in the course of the tour, i.e. you should create an atmosphere which enables all
the members of the group to come to terms with the subject matter and with the exhibition.

The main section deals with the salient points of the exhibition: the group members are no
longer concerned with their own feelings but with the questions which the exhibition poses
and which you, as guide, interpret for them.

The closing section gives an opportunity for reflection: the group members may relate what
they have learned to their own lives. The aim is to find a common meaning for all the group
members - and perhaps to offer thoughts for after the exhibition.

The following three chapters form the main part of this information pack. They deal with the
three phases of your guided tour and give suggestions for its structure.

Opening phase

A lot will have happened before the group comes to you: the teacher will have learned of the
existence of the exhibition and will have made a booking for his class to go on the guided
tour; he may even have prepared his pupils for the visit. It is the last session of the day, the




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pupils have finished their lessons of biology, math, sports and now they have Anne Frank for
a further two periods. Over to you!

Beginnings are important. The more you know about the group before they arrive the better.
Try to find out from the organizers whether the subject has ever been taught at school and if
so, when and how. Is there anything special you should know about the group? How old are
the pupils? What is their ability? Are there any with learning difficulties?

When the group arrives it is advisable to have a few words with the teacher; on the one hand
you can find out whether anything has happened that day which might impinge on the pupils'
concentration; on the other hand the teacher can reassure himself that you are the sort of
person to whom he can safely entrust the class. And, of course, most importantly, you will
find out how much time the group has to spend at the exhibition.

Many groups are reserved and distant at first. Even so, it is vital that you give the
participants an opportunity to say something (no matter what!) very early on; at this point the
only priority needs to be that the group members feel sure of themselves. Experience has
shown that people who have no opportunity to speak at the beginning of a tour often say
nothing at all for its entire duration.

There are several ways of opening the discussion after you have greeted your group and
introduced yourself. You could ask them what they have done so far today, what they think
of Anne Frank, what particularly interests them about her. Some pupils may have read the
diary and remember something about it. Do any of them keep a diary themselves? If so, how
does it differ from Anne's diary? Is there anything unusual in reading someone else’s diary?

In this way you will give the group an opportunity to adjust to the situation in which they find
themselves. At the same time you will be able to assess the level of the group and how to
pitch your tour. You will only fully be able to get under way with the real subject matter once
you have removed the groups early inhibitions. In the first instance the members of the
group are preoccupied with their own affairs and so you must allow time in the opening
phase to get over these obstacles.


Discussion: An introductory discussion is undoubtedly one of the best ways of embarking
on your tour. You should aim to stimulate the pupils' interest and draw on their experiences.
Therefore direct the discussion, and try to find points of reference that can then be used in
the subsequent guided tour.

For example: you ask the group what they know about the Second World War. Were their
grandparents involved? One of the questions which could then arise might be about their
inability to understand how anyone could have voted for Hitler in 1932. How was it possible
that so many people were taken in by him?

Discussion should take place not only at the beginning but also from time to time as new
issues arise during the course of the guided tour.

Main section

Some children may have encountered the Holocaust through their own family background,




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but most will not have that connection. Many have learnt about it at school. You will be
confronted by different pupil reactions - interest, skepticism, dismissal, boredom - some of
which you will have already noted in the opening session. Now is the time to get to grips with
these attitudes. Before deciding how you intend to work with the visitors, it would be helpful if
you clarified in your own mind how you feel about the subject in hand. What makes it
important and interesting to you? Your reasons might give you a point of reference for your
work with the pupils - what is of interest to you could be equally so for them. In this way you
will achieve an additional goal: your group will realize intuitively why you wish to act as their
guide and this will give you added authority in your work.

So now you begin your tour of the exhibition. And after 30 or 45 minutes (depending on the
pupils' powers of concentration) you will slowly come to the end of your presentation. During
this time it will be up to you to arouse the participants' interest in the history of Anne Frank,
to teach them about the Holocaust and to set them thinking about their own attitude to
Human Rights.

Questions, not monologues: Monologues should always be avoided, irrespective of how you
conduct your guided tour. You should accompany your pupils round the exhibition rather
than lead them. The more the group decide which aspects are of interest to them the better.
Naturally, you will have to go into greater detail when answering some of the questions but
don’t be side-tracked too frequently into giving lengthy, detailed answers.

Working with photographs: Make use of the photographs, the objects and even the
atmosphere created by the exhibition. These are the things which make the exhibition
interesting for the pupils. If the group were there only to read the texts you would not be
needed as a guide.
On occasion it could, of course, be useful to choose a quotation from the exhibition for
discussion purposes, but this should only be done sparingly.

.   Try to let the group discover that the Franks were a perfectly ordinary German family.
    There was absolutely no reason to persecute them (there is never a reason to persecute
    anyone).

.   Try to let the pupils see that the Nazis were also quite ordinary people and that many
    ordinary Germans believed the Nazi promises. However, you should also point out that
    there was an alternative to joining ranks with the Nazis. Many people opposed them in all
    sorts of ways. Return frequently to the subject of what these historical questions signify to
    us today.

In devising the exhibition we drew particular attention to 15 main pictures. As they are so
large and high up they are immediately visible to a group of, say, 25 schoolchildren.

.   Chronological tour of the exhibition. Pupils will usually expect to be shown the exhibition in
    chronological sequence. The difficulty is that in that case it will not be possible to see
    each panel (let alone every picture) in the time available. In our experience a
    chronological tour works best if you choose a maximum of 30 photographs to show your
    visitors. Even if your tour lasts 45 minutes this still only means less than 1½ minutes per
    picture (allowing for moving from one panel to the next). Concentrate on these
    photographs (unless your group is particularly interested in some of the other pictures)
    and pass all the others with just a few explanatory words. Do not be tempted to stop at




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    each panel - your time will have expired before you even reach the fourth pavilion.
    Nonetheless, a shortened tour as described above can be very stimulating for your pupils,
    especially if you are able to involve them actively in the final phase of the program (more
    about this later).

.   Guided tours on specific topics. Exhibitions can be viewed not only chronologically but
    also by subject matter. Again, you should choose a maximum of 30 pictures but this time
    your choice will be governed by a theme, e.g. National Socialism. Explain your choice to
    the group - it may be a good way to introduce the subject. What do the pupils understand
    by the term? What comes to mind when they hear the word Nationalism? Why? The most
    accessible subjects are those shown on the outer ring (nationalism, ethnic cleansing,
    helpers) but other themes can be found in various sections of the exhibition.

Closing section

The closing section forms a link between the exhibition and everyday life. It also rounds off
the program so that everyone realizes when the guided tour is over.

The first requirement of a closing section is that you leave enough time for it. At the
beginning you asked how much time the group had available. However, circumstances could
arise which might alter the timescale; for instance the group might become unruly and their
concentration begin to flag in the course of the presentation. Rather than persisting in the
face of such odds, you may like to draw the program to a somewhat earlier conclusion and
salvage what remaining interest the group can still muster. In such a situation there is no
harm in asking the teacher whether you should finish early and then asking the pupils to stay
only another 10 minutes so that you can round your program off.

This also applies if you find that the group is so interested that they would really like to stay
much longer; simply ask the teacher and the pupils whether they want to end at the
prearranged time or whether they would like to go on.

You must allow sufficient time for whatever form of closing phase you choose but all
programs must end with an expression of thanks to the group for having listened attentively;
this will indicate that the tour is now really over. If you wish, you can also thank the teacher,
from whom you may well get an idea of how your presentation came over. Also ask them to
send in any further work they may undertake.

We give a few examples of how to end your guided tour; again, if you have ideas of your
own feel free to use them.

Rounding off your program verbally. The most common way of ending the tour is to say a
few words. When the group has finished going round the exhibition ask them what their
impressions were, whether there are any other questions, make suggestions for additional
work on the subject (e.g. reading the diary). This ending can develop into a lengthy
discussion or it can be terminated in 5 minutes, depending on what you say and how the
students react.

Ending the program with tour-related tasks. If you allow enough time you could end the
program by asking the pupils to work individually or in small groups. You will undoubtedly be
asked to let them go round the exhibition once more to find the photograph which impressed




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them most. You could suggest that students do a piece of written work: a synopsis of the
exhibition or a piece on one of the topics raised during the tour or an item on what the
exhibition meant to them. Some participants might like to write a letter to Anne or to
someone else mentioned in the exhibition.

Then again, other pupils may prefer to express themselves artistically: ask the group to
make a collage or a painting on one or more of the themes raised by the exhibition, to take
some photographs, etc.

In the closing section you could make suggestions for additional work at school (e.g. a class
project on contemporary testimonies or group work to trace events of the period in their own
hometown). After the tour of the exhibition the group can make arrangements for such
projects, for instance they could formulate the questions which would need to be asked of
eyewitnesses.

It would be very good if you could encourage the students to continue the work they began
at the exhibition for instance, the group could compile a list of questions or topics they would
like to work through in class. (However, you should first discuss this with the teacher and not
spring it on him unexpectedly). Whichever way you conducted your tour, we thank you for
your commitment to the task and for bringing the exhibition to life.

Guided tours for groups with special interests. This type of tour will be similar to the others,
with discussion and analysis of selected photographs, but you will allow yourself to be led by
the pupils. For instance, when you have seen the video with your group you should ask
whether there are any further questions. Somebody might then say they would like to know
what the secret annex actually looked like. You therefore suggest that you all go to pavilion 4
to see it. Once there, the question might arise as to how it was possible to survive and so
you will take your group to pavilion 3 to see the panel about Miep Gies. Why did Miep come
to Holland from Austria? You may like to say a few words about the situation which existed
between the two world wars, as shown in pavilion 1. And so on.

This kind of guided tour only works if your group is really interested - but if so it is amongst
the most effective methods of taking a group round the exhibition. You will need to be able to
draw questions from the students and to stimulate their discussion - and to be able to find
your way easily and quickly round the exhibition.

There are many ways of going round the exhibition - the foregoing are only a few examples.
If you have other ideas do try them out, provided always that they fall within the framework of
our stated aims. Ask your group how they felt about the tour you gave them - it will stimulate
you to ever-greater efforts!




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6.
Large photos

The exhibition has been designed to be suitable for groups to be conducted around it on
guided tours. There are, therefore, large photos which are clearly visible to all members of
the group. These photos form the leading thread that runs through the whole exhibition and
are particularly useful when conducting a guided tour, as they illustrate the various themes of
the exhibition.

* Choices
Guides will find it useful to be able to give additional information at certain points in the
exhibition. However you, the guide, will have to be selective in what you use, as there is far
more information in these notes than can possibly be used on any one tour.

* Portraits
We show portraits of eye-witnesses. The first three (Otto Treumann, Hans Massaquoi and
Miep Gies) and the last one (Tammy Williams) introduce various topics, all of which were
current then - and which are still relevant for us today.

The five portraits after the room (Anne Frank's room) are primarily meant to inform visitors
about the events of the Holocaust.




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Introductory Panel

Photo of Anne

A school photo dated 1941. Anne was given a diary on 12 June 1942 - her thirteenth
birthday. She kept up her diary entries for more than two years.

Quotations

Anne's diary is the most famous document of the Second World War. Why? What is it that
people particularly respond to? We see from the quotations that a diary means different
things to different people. What do the visitors know about Anne and her diary? How do they
see Anne Frank?

See also

.   Catalogue page 6 - 7
.   Anne Frank Journal: 'Anne Frank - a history for today' page 2/3
                         'On Robben Island we derived much encouragement from Anne's
                         diary' page 4/5




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Panel 1
Large photo: Anne and her Mother (see catalogue page 8, photo 1)
Date: June 12, 1929
Place: Frankfurt am Main

This photo gives the opportunity to discuss the Frank family's roots, as well as the position of
Jews in Germany and the economic, political and social conditions of the time.

Background Information

Otto Frank and Edith Hollander were married on 12 May 1925, which is also Otto's birthday.
In accordance with the wishes of Edith and her parents, the marriage takes place in Aachen
Synagogue. Both families come from a liberal Jewish tradition, but they are not strictly
observant. The honeymoon is in Italy. Their first daughter, Margot, is born on 16 February
1926 and Anne is born on 12 June 1929.

Topics for Further Discussion

.   Jews as a religious minority in Germany
.   The Frank family in the First World War
.   Treaty of Versailles
.   Weimar Republic
.   NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party)


See also

.   Catalogue page 8 - 11




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Panel 2

Large photo: Anne and Margot with neighborhood children (see catalogue page 12, photo 1)
Date: circa 1930
Place: Frankfurt am Main

Background Information

Large sections of the population are unemployed and demoralized and their poverty is made
worse by the world-wide economic crash of October 1929. The Nazis use these conditions to
gain votes. Support for democratic parties declines sharply whilst parties that offer radical
solutions are increasingly favored. Society becomes ever more polarized. Differences of
opinion are fought out on the streets. In the 1932 election the NSDAP (the Nazis) receive
37% of the vote and thus become the largest single party in Germany.

Otto Frank's banking firm is not severely hit by the crisis. The Frank family is quite well off,
compared to many other Germans. Anne and Margot's early childhood is a contented one.
They play with other children in the neighborhood; many of these children are from different
social or religious backgrounds. One of Margot's friends is Catholic and Margot is invited to
her first Communion.

Topics For Further Discussion

.   The 1920s. Democracy in danger. Demonstrations against the NSDAP. (see catalogue
    photo 7 page 15)
.   Scapegoats.

See also

.   Catalogue page 12-15




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Panel 3

Large photo: Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor. (see catalogue page 16, photo 2)
Date: 30 January 1933
Place: Berlin

This photo gives you the opportunity to discuss Hitler's rise to power; discuss also their anti-
Jewish measures and the inexorable decline of democracy.

Background Information

In January 1933 the Nazis constitute the largest single party in Parliament and Hitler is
asked to form a Government. On 30 January 1933 Hitler becomes State Chancellor, the
highest political office in Germany.

Otto Frank describes 30 January:
By chance we were invited to friends on 30 January. We sat round the table and listened to
the radio. The first news filtered through that Hitler had become State Chancellor. Then
came a report of the S.A.'s torchlight parade through Berlin and we heard the shouting and
cheering. At the end Hitler said: Give me four years. Our host said light-heartedly: Lets see
what that man can do! I couldn't think of anything to say and my wife froze.

Topics For Discussion

.   Abolition of democracy and the end of a pluralist society
.   Emigration
.   Anti-Jewish measures

Margot Frank goes to a new school. At her old school her teacher is dismissed and replaced
by another man who is more willing to toe the party line.

A former class-mate of Margot tells the following story:

I proudly showed my new cardigan and said: We bought it at Emma Blums (a well-known
shop owned by Jews). Then the teacher shouts: By tomorrow you are to write out fifty times:
I must not buy anything from Jews. When I asked her why, she says: Be quiet. One just
doesn't, that’s all.
(Source: We used to live in Frankfurt, 1978)

See also

.   Catalogue page 16-19




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Panel 4

Otto Treumann

Otto Treumann's comments give you the opportunity to discuss the attraction that
nationalism had for many Germans and how difficult it can be to keep ones distance from
such movements; discuss also such feelings as Us and Them, which can often lead to the
alienation of one group.
Then and Now - discuss your own experiences and any that the members of your group may
have had.

Questions You Could Ask

.   Can you understand why so many Germans were fascinated by the rise of the Nazis?
.   What do you think nationalism means?
.   When does nationalism become extremist?
.   Are you proud of your country?
.   Can you name any countries in which there are extreme nationalists today?
.   Draw comparisons between Then and Now (differences as well as similarities).
.   Extreme nationalism often leads to exclusion of minorities (The Us-versus-Them
    syndrome). Can anyone explain why this should be so?

See also

.   Catalogue page 20-21
.   Video 'Eyewittnesses': Otto Treumann, part I
.   Anne Frank Journal: 'The dangerous power of nationalism' page 4/5




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Panel 5

Large photo: Anne at the Montessori School (see catalogue page 22, photo 1)
Date: 1935
Place: Amsterdam

This photo can be used to describe how Otto built a new life in Amsterdam.

Background Information

Later Otto Frank said of his new start in Holland:
After our experiences in Nazi Germany it was good to be ourselves again in Holland. Our
children went to school and life returned to normal, at least at first. We felt able to make a
new start and to feel free. (Source: Interview, Bassle magazine, 1979)

He sets up his new business - a firm specializing in pectins used in jam-making.

Further Discussion

.   Building a new life in a foreign country.
.   Contact with Germany.
.   Situation in Germany: Economic recovery and influencing young people.

See also

.   Catalogue page 22 - 25




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Panel 6

Large photo: Anne at a summer camp for city children (see catalogue page 26, photo 2).
Date: circa 1937
Place: Laren, not far from Amsterdam


Background Information

This picture of two Jewish children, Herbert Levy and his cousin Ellen-Eva, was taken by his
aunt in 1935. The photographic shop which develops the picture puts it on display in the
window with the caption Two Beautiful Aryan Children. The photograph travels all round
Berlin from one shop window to another.

Deze foto biedt de mogelijkheid om te vertellen hoe 'normaal' het leven van de familie
Frank eind jaren dertig geworden was. Anne ging in de zomervakantie naar een
vakantiekamp. In dit kamp ontmoet Anne veel andere kinderen die ook uit Duitsland
gevlucht zijn.

Maar tegelijkertijd wordt in Nazi-Duitsland de samenleving steeds meer bepaald door
rassentheorieën en een steeds verdergaande scheiding tussen Ariërs en niet Ariërs.
Vandaar het citaat van Otto Frank: Op basis van wetgeving, die het contact tussen
joden en niet-joden strafbaar stelt, hadden hij en zijn niet-joodse kennissen
gearresteerd kunnen worden.

Further Discussion
. The Study of Race
. Nuremberg Laws (concerning race)

See also

.   Catalogue page 26 - 29




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Panel 7

Large photo: Anne celebrates her birthday with her friends (see catalogue page 30, photo 1)
Date: 12 June 1939
Place: Amsterdam

Net als bij paneel 6 kan ook hier het contrast duidelijk gemaakt worden tussen de
situatie in Nederland en Nazi-Duitsland. Anne viert op 12 juni 1939 nog rustig haar
verjaardag. Maar de situatie in buurland Duitsland wordt steeds bedreigender.

Background Information

Otto en Edith Frank become acquainted with other refugees from Germany. Among them
are Hermann and Auguste van Pels, their son Peter, and Fritz Pfeffer, who will later join the
Frank family in hiding. The Van Pels family fled Osnabrück in 1937. Hermann van Pels
became Otto Frank's business partner. Like Anne's uncles, Fritz Pfeffer fled Germany after
"Kristallnacht."

The list of restrictions imposed on the jews of Germany keeps on growing. all to one
purpose: to isolate the Jewish population from the non-jewish population. The Nazis
organize a program against the Jews on the night of November 9-10, 1938. The immensity
of the danger has become all too clear, and many jews decide to flee Germany. But more
and more countries are closing their borders to refugees.


Further Discussion

.   Kristallnacht: the night of the pogrom
.   Herschel Grynszpan
.   Refugees (Evian Conference)

See also

.   Catalogue page 30 - 33




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Panel 8

Hans Massaquoi

You can use Hans' quotation to initiate a discussion on the concept of ethnic cleansing which
can lead to discrimination, persecution and ultimately murder of those who don't belong.
Your discussion can also be linked to the philosophy of Us-versus-Them, which has already
been mentioned (see panel 4). Then and Now. At this point, use your own experiences and
those of your group.

Suggestions

.   Read Hans' quotation altogether, out loud.
.   Ask questions, e.g.

.   Which of Hans' statements impresses you the most?
.   Can you imagine what it must feel like to be ostracized? Have you had any personal
    experience of it?
.   Can you give examples of countries in which minorities are still rejected today?

See also

.   Catalogue page 34 - 35




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Panel 9

Large photo: The Frank family on the Merwedeplein (see catalogue page 36 photo 1)
Date: May 1941
Place: Amsterdam


A few months after Anne's tenth birthday World War Two breaks out. Otto and Edith hope
that the Netherlands will stay out of the war. But on May 10, 1940, the German army also
invades the Netherlands.

Background Information

According to Hitler, Germany needed more Lebensraum (room for expansion) as all
Germans are to live in one so-called empire. In rapid succession Germany annexes the
Rhineland, the Saar and the Sudetenland (the northern part of what is today the Czech
Republic). Secret negotiations concerning the partition of Poland are initiated with Russia.
The German army invades Poland and the West enters the war. The Frank family is caught
up in the war. In Poland the Nazis immediately commence their acts of unbelievable horror.
Polish Jews are seriously mistreated. However, there is a considerable difference between
the way the Nazis conduct the war in the East and the way they behave in the West. The
Nazis regard most Dutch people as their Aryan brothers and so try to win them over to their
ideology.

Some Dutch people welcome the German invasion of Holland. There is a Dutch national-
socialist movement. At its peak in 1942 this party has 100,000 members. Later on 17,000
Dutch people fight on the side of Germany. Resistance to the German occupation takes a
long time to get under way.

See also

.   Catalogue page 36 - 39




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Panel 10

Large photo: Anne at the Montessori School (see catalogue page 40, photo 1)
Date: 1941
Place: Amsterdam

Tot 1941 zit Anne Frank op de Montessori-school. Daarna moet zij naar het Joods
Lyceum. Alle joodse kinderen moeten naar speciale daarvoor opgerichte joodse
scholen. Er komen net als in de dertiger jaren in nazi-Duitsland ook in bezet
Nederland steeds meer maatregelen om het Joods bevolkingsdeel van het niet-
Joodse te isoleren.

Background Information

The persecution of the Jews proceeds in three stages: registration, isolation and deportation
- and murder.

From 15 September 1941 German Jews are forced to wear the Jewish Star. This measure is
later also introduced in some of the occupied countries. A whole range of additional
measures to isolate Jews from the rest of the population follow in short succession (see the
quotation from Anne's diary).

Further Discussion

.   Anti-Jewish measures
.   Eastern Europe/Western Europe.

See also

.   Catalogue page 40 - 43




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Panel 11

Large photo: This is the last known photo taken of Anne and Margot (see catalogue page
44, photo 1)
Date: circa 1941
Place: Amsterdam

On July 5, 1942, Margot receives a call-up notice to 'work in the East'

Background Information

The Wannsee Conference takes place on 20 January 1942. At this Conference the details
for the mass-murder of European Jewry are worked out by Nazi functionaries (though the
broad decision to implement this policy has already been taken by the Nazi leadership in
1941).

In Holland the deportation of Jews starts in the summer of 1942. Margot is amongst the first
to be summoned. A number of Jews really did report for work relocation when they were
summoned: there were severe penalties for those who failed to do so - and many people
believed the Nazis when they said they were creating work opportunities in work camps.
Others ignored the call-up and stayed at home. Later on the occupiers organised round-ups:
streets were blocked off at all exits and any Jews discovered by the Nazis were arrested. It
was very difficult to go into hiding. One had to have non-Jewish contacts, but these had
dwindled away owing to the measures which had been taken to isolate the Jews during the
preceding years. Moreover, going into hiding cost a great deal of money, which few people
had. Anyone found helping Jews risked severe punishment. Most non-Jews were not willing
to take this risk - and many Jews did not want to put gentile friends in such danger.

See also

.   Catalogue page 44 - 47




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Panel 12

Miep Gies

Miep's quotation illustrates the help given to people who went into hiding. It gives you the
opportunity to discuss various reactions in times of oppression and terror. Then and Now.
You should mention any experiences of your own and encourage your group to do the same.

Suggestions

.   Read Miep's quotation together, out loud
.   Ask questions. For example:
.   What impresses you most about the help given?
.   Do you believe that Miep and others like her were heroes?
.   Can you think of any difficulties the helpers might have encountered?
.   What do you feel about the many non-Jews who did not offer assistance?
.   What choices are there in times of terror and oppression?
.   Do you know of any examples of courageous people in our own time?
.   Have you ever needed anyone’s help yourself?
.   Or have you ever helped anyone?

See also

.   Catalogue page 48 - 49
.   Video 'Eyewittnesses' Miep Gies
.   Video 'Miep Gies'
.   Book; Anne Frank Remembered
.   Anne Frank Journal: 'Against the current' page 10 - 11




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Panel 13

Large photo: After the arrest, the whole Secret Annex is stripped by order of the Nazi
occupiers. Only a few things are left behind, among them the pictures that Anne pasted on
her wall. This is the room that was shared by Anne Frank and Fritz Pfeffer. It is shown here
after being temporarily refurnished based on information provided by Miep Gies and others.
(see catalogue page 53 photo 17)
Place: Amsterdam

Background Information

Otto Frank's company occupied a building on one of Amsterdam canals. The narrow front of
the building masked the fact that there was a second building at the rear, with a corridor
joining the two. The rear section was empty and rarely used and it was here that Otto Frank
set up his hiding-place. He removed the door that led from the front to the back and replaced
it with a revolving bookcase.
Four of Otto Frank's former employees supplied food, clothing and books to the eight people
in hiding in the Annex.

The windows in the Annex were covered with black-out, so Anne and the others could only
look out through tiny cracks. Anne writes in her diary about what she was able to see in this
way: the chestnut tree in the garden, the people in the house opposite.

See also

.   Catalogue page 50 - 53




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Panel 14

Topic: Assistance - Betrayal

Discuss the significance of help given in such circumstances; without the non-Jewish helpers
it would have been impossible to go into hiding. Discuss also the constant fear of betrayal.

Background information

Miep and Bep ensured a continuous supply of food - a task that became ever more difficult
and dangerous as the war progressed. Food became scarcer and more expensive all the
time and there was always the danger that strangers would see the supplies for so many
people being taken into the house. There was constant fear of discovery and betrayal.
Occasionally, Anne and the others heard news of the round-ups and deportations.

Anne often went into the attic and opened the window a fraction, to get a breath of fresh air
and to seek a little solitude away from the others.

See also

.   Catalogue page 54




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Panel 15

Topic: Daily life

Discuss the conditions of daily life in the Annex.

Background Information

Anne and the others hid in the Annex for more than two years. From nine to five they must
not make a sound, as the staff working on the floor below might hear them. The toilet may
not be flushed; they spend the day on the top floor, tip-toeing around in their socks; they
speak in whispers. They spend the day reading, playing games and studying. They are often
very bored. 'We try to pass the time with all sorts of stupid things: asking each other riddles,
doing gymnastics in the dark, speaking English or French, discussing books - ultimately it all
gets boring.'

Anne, Margot and Peter do their schoolwork and Otto Frank helps them with it. They are
pleased when Bep starts a course in shorthand (she registers for it in her own name). The
helpers are their only source of contact with the outside world; they buy food, bring books
and report what is happening in Amsterdam.

Anne's favorite subject is history but she hates algebra. She also keeps a book of Favorite
Quotations, in which she writes out selected passages from the book she reads.

They are of course all afraid of falling ill, as it would be very difficult to find a doctor whom
they could trust. Fortunately, Fritz Pfeffer is a dentist. Anne gives a marvelous description of
Auguste van Pels being treated by him. During her time in hiding it becomes apparent that
Anne needs glasses but she is not able to get them.

See also

.   Catalogue page 55




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Panel 16

Topic: Imprisonment/Freedom

Discuss the claustrophobia of imprisonment and the longing for freedom.

Background Information

The windows are blacked out. At night they are covered with black cardboard so that no
chink of light should be seen from the outside. Windows throughout Amsterdam had to
blacked out in this way so that British bombers flying overhead would not be able to take
their bearings from the city lights. During the day the windows of the Annex are covered with
paper so that no-one can see in.

Anne and the others find it very hard to live in such close proximity under this constant
tension. It is almost impossible to be alone even for a moment and quarrels frequently break
out. Anne writes about them in her diary. For example, she has an argument with Fritz
Pfeffer about who is to use the table in their room. She often goes to the attic to find a bit of
peace. Later on, when she and Peter have fallen in love, they go to the attic together. Anne
yearns for the time when she was (relatively) free. Whenever she thinks of the outside world
she realizes the awful fate that has befallen her former school friends.

See also

.   Catalogue page 56




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Panel 17

Topic: Self identification

Discuss Anne's development and her writing.

Background Information

From Anne's diary we can see how she matures during her two years in hiding. The early
entries are those of a cheerful, happy thirteen year-old, concerned only with friends and
school, and in the first months of hiding she writes about what she sees, hears and
experiences. In the course of the two years we realize how rapidly Anne has grown up. She
thinks more maturely about herself and others, about the present and the future and about
hope and despair. She dreams of becoming a famous journalist or author one day. On 29
March 1944 she hears a BBC broadcast in which a Dutch minister suggests that diaries
should be collected after the War; she begins to edit her first diary, with a view to post-war
publication. She knows what she will call her book: The Secret Annex.

See also

.   Catalogue page 57




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Panel 18

Topic: Hope/Despair

The Normandy landings bring new hope to the eight people in the Annex. But it is too late.
The police raid their hiding place on 4 August 1944. They have been betrayed.

Background Information

Their imprisonment in the Secret Annex lasted much longer than any of the eight had
envisaged. The Allied landings in Normandy on 6 June 1944 bring new hope.

Food supplies become ever scarcer in Holland and the helpers find it increasingly difficult to
purchase anything to eat.

On 4 August 1944, a hot summer day, the helpers discover that the residents of the Secret
Annex have been betrayed. An Austrian Nazi, Silberbauer, together with four Dutch
henchmen ransack their hiding place. No-one knows to this day who betrayed them.
Silberbauer tips the contents of a briefcase onto the floor, in order to pack the family's
money and valuables into it.

Anne had been using the briefcase to store her diary. The eight Jews are first taken to a
prison in Amsterdam and then to Westerbork, an assembly camp in the north-east of
Holland. Every week Dutch Jews are transported from Westerbork to the extermination
camps. In the last train to leave Westerbork (on 3 September 1944) are the eight occupants
of the Secret Annex. They are bound for Auschwitz.

Two of the helpers, Victor Kugler and Johannes Kleiman, are also arrested, but Bep Voskuyl
and Miep Gies are left behind in the Prinsengracht offices. Some hours after the arrest, Miep
and Bep enter the Secret Annex together with a colleague from their firm. The rooms have
been turned upside down and Miep gathers the scattered pages of Anne's diary from the
floor. She takes them away with her, together with the family's photo albums and a few other
belongings; she intends to keep them safely, just in case Anne and the others should have
the good fortune to return after the war.

After the arrests, the entire Secret Annex has to be cleared out on orders of the Nazi
occupiers. This was the case with all hiding places discovered to have held Jews. The
furniture and any other contents were sent to Germany. The Secret Annex, which is a
museum today, remains empty at the request of its sole survivor, Otto Frank.

The photos which Anne stuck to the walls of her room are still in place.



Topics For Further Discussion

Austrians in Holland.

Miep Gies and one of the other helpers, Victor Kugler, were Austrian. But Silberbauer, the
Nazi officer who made the arrests, was also Austrian. So were many other senior Nazis in




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Holland - e.g., State Governor Seyss-Inquart, the highest-ranking Nazi in the whole of the
Netherlands, and Rauter, head of the SS and of the whole German police structure in
Holland.

This underlines one of the precepts of the Anne Frank House and of the Exhibition, namely
that we should not judge people by their nationality or race but by their actions. One cannot
condemn an entire nation, only individuals. Individuals are responsible for their own
decisions.




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Panel 19

Hannah Goslar

Hannah Goslar tells of her meeting with her old school-friend, Anne, in Bergen-Belsen
concentration camp.

Background Information

Anne, Margot and Auguste van Pels are transported from Auschwitz to Bergen-Belsen at the
end of October 1944.

Bergen-Belsen had been intended as a transit camp for Jews who were to be exchanged for
German prisoners of war held by the Allies. It was built to hold 10,000 people.

The relatively favorable conditions in Bergen-Belsen deteriorated rapidly and dramatically in
1944 and 1945. Transports of prisoners began arriving from the camps which were being
evacuated in the East: these new arrivals were in a pathetic condition, some of them having
been on death marches for many weeks. Bergen-Belsen was now completely overcrowded.
Food supplies became ever more desperate, epidemics broke out and there was no
semblance of medical assistance.

Bergen-Belsen was the first concentration camp to be freed by the Western Allies, on 15
April 1945. By then, 37,000 people had died of disease and starvation. 60,000 were still alive
when the camp was liberated, but 14,000 of these died within a short space of time as a
result of the terrible conditions they had had to endure.

See also
. Catalogue page 60 - 63
. Video 'Anne Frank Remembered'
. Video 'Eyewittnesses': Hannah Pick-Goslar
. Film and book: 'The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank'




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Panel 20

Janina Bauman

Every story of people in hiding is different; Janina's experiences illustrate this graphically -
but the fear of betrayal and arrest were common to all of them.

Background Information

Janina says that she envies Anne. Why?

Anne's conditions in hiding were virtually unique. It was very rare that a whole family could
go into hiding together. Many people were hounded from one address to another, not
knowing what had happened to their relatives. Moreover, once the Nazis had deported most
of the Jews, they concentrated on discovering secret hiding places.

Janina Bauman was helped by many different people.

People are willing to help others from a variety of motives - sometimes because they see it
as their humanitarian duty, sometimes out of religious conviction and even, on occasion, for
payment.

Janina had to keep moving on because she was threatened with betrayal or blackmail.
Betrayal was very common at that time, whether for financial gain, out of a sense of civic
duty, or simply because of anti-Semitism.

One way of evading persecution was to assume a new identity. The forging of identity
documents was an important aspect of the work undertaken by the Resistance, and many
Jews who were in hiding took part in this task - for instance Otto Treumann (panel 4).

See also

.   Catalogue page 64 -67
.   Video 'Eyewittnesses': Otto Treumann Part III




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Panel 21

Hannes Weiss

The fate of Gypsies in Europe.

Background Information

Gypsies had been ostracized and discriminated against for centuries throughout Europe. In
1939 there were approximately 900,000 Gypsies in Europe, of which some 35,000 lived in
Germany and Austria. Most of them lived in the south-eastern part of Europe. The Nazis
viewed them as an inferior race, just like the Jews and Blacks. As early as 1933 an unknown
number of Gypsies were forcibly sterilized. Although the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 did not
mention Gypsies specifically, they too had all civic rights withdrawn and were also forbidden
to marry Aryans. Gypsies living in Germany were imprisoned in concentration camps during
the whole of the 1930s.

Dr. Ritter conducted Racial and Biological Research Studies on them; many Gypsy children
were put into special homes between 1933 and 1939 so that experiments could be
performed on them. After 1939 countless numbers of East European Gypsies were put to
death by killing squads, in the same way as Jews. Many were sent to extermination camps.
Yet others died as a result of the medical experiments to which they were subjected by Dr.
Mengele and other SS doctors.

There are no exact statistics as to how many Gypsies were murdered between 1933 and
1945; due to their nomadic way of life they had only rarely registered with any local police
authorities, as all citizens were supposed to do. It is estimated that from 200,000 to 500,000
Gypsies died at the hands of the Nazis.

See also

.   Catalogue page 68 -71
.   Video 'Eyewittnesses': Hannes Weiss




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Panel 22

Ruth Wallage-Binheim

Arrival in the extermination camps and what happened to the prisoners thereafter.

Background Information

Auschwitz-Birkenau consisted of a complex of concentration and extermination camps.
Between four and five million people were murdered there in the course of five years,
approximately 50,000 of them being Dutch Jews. The gassing of Jews began at the
beginning of 1942 and by the summer it had become a highly efficient murder machine. A
gruesome combination of mass murder and slave labor were the order of the day at
Auschwitz. In all other extermination camps (Chelmno, Treblinka, Maidanek and Sobibor) the
new arrivals were herded straight into the gas chambers. The Auschwitz combination was
described as productive annihilation by the Nazis. It was in Auschwitz that the infamous
selections for work took place. Those who were allowed to live (for the time being) had their
heads shaved, a number tattooed on one of their arms and were given rags to wear. Who
was selected depended on what slave labor was required at that moment and on the
physical fitness of the new arrivals. Between 75% and 90% of the whole transport was taken
straight to the gas chambers in cattle trucks.

The gas chambers were camouflaged as shower rooms; a sign over the door read
Decontamination Unit. Many people knew nothing of what awaited them there. Once the gas
chambers were completely full, Zyklon B was fed down shafts in the ceiling. It frequently
happened that large numbers of children, who were too small to be instantly overcome by
the descending gas, would have petrol poured over them in the mass graves and be burnt
alive. The so-called Special Commandos (groups of prisoners forced into special duties)
were obliged to extract gold from the teeth of the murder victims and to cut off their hair;
clothes were searched for any valuables and the corpses were burned. It was possible to
gas and then burn more than 10,000 people per day. In addition to the gas chambers, many
prisoners fell victim to starvation, ill treatment, epidemics and medical experiments (about 80
per day on average).

Many tests were carried out in Auschwitz, particularly on women; these consisted of trials for
new types of medication or operating procedures. The German chemical industry paid the
Nazis well for this supply of Jewish guinea pigs. The death rate from these experiments was
particularly high.

The gas chambers at Auschwitz were used for the last time at the end of October 1944. The
camp was evacuated on 18 January, so that it should not fall into the hands of the advancing
Russians. The prisoners were taken to other camps on so-called death marches. Auschwitz
was liberated by the Red Army on 26 January 1945; there were 5,000 survivors in the camp,
one of whom was Otto Frank.

A distinction must be made between concentration camps and extermination camps. There
were hundreds of concentration camps in Germany and in the occupied territories, many of
them dating from the 1930s. The extermination camps were set up in the course of the War.
They were designed to kill and cremate enormous numbers of people in the speediest and
most efficient manner possible.




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This mass murder of millions of Jews is now frequently called The Holocaust but as the
term literally means burnt offering in Hebrew, many people prefer to use the word Shoah
meaning catastrophe.

It is of course important that guides are sensitive to the ages and perceptions of the group
they are taking round when giving descriptions of life in the camps. Please try to convey that
these were personal experiences to each victim rather than give a cold clinical presentation
of the numbers of victims.

See also

.   Catalogue page 72 - 75
.   Video 'Eyewittnesses': Ruth Wallage-Binheim




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Panel 23

Otto Frank

Otto Frank tells what happened to the other people who had been in hiding with him in the
Secret Annex. The main subject of this panel is his time in Auschwitz. He survived the
concentration camp and was liberated by the Red Army.

Background Information

Hermann van Pels is gassed soon after arriving in Auschwitz. Edith Frank dies in January
1945. Nazi Germany is on the verge of defeat. The Russian army is approaching from the
East. The SS empties Auschwitz of its prisoners and blows up the gas chambers and the
crematoria. The remaining 50,000 former inmates are forced to walk westwards to other
concentration camps. Peter van Pels survives the death march but finally dies in
Mauthausen (Austria) three days before this camp is liberated.

See also

.   Catalogue page 76 - 79
.   Video 'Anne Frank Remembered'
.   Video 'Eyewittnesses': Otto Frank




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Panel 24

Large photo: Otto Frank (left) goes to live with Miep and Jan Gies and their son. In 1952
Otto remarries and moves to Basel, Switzerland. (see catalogue page 80, photo 2)

Background Information

Otto Frank is the only one of the eight occupants of the Secret Annex to survive the War. He
would like to return to Amsterdam but the War has not yet ended in Holland. His long journey
back begins on 5 March 1945 and he finally arrives in Amsterdam on 3 June. He knows that
his wife is dead but hopes that Anne and Margot are still alive. After two months it becomes
clear that they have not survived the camps, so Miep gives Otto Anne's diary which she
found in the Secret Annex. Friends urge Otto to find a publisher for it, but he is unwilling to
have it printed in its entirety: he leaves out certain sections concerning his wife, as well as
some passages concerning Anne's developing sexuality. It is very difficult to find a publisher,
but he finally manages to obtain a print-run of 1,500 copies of the book.

In common with many other victims, Otto finds it extremely hard to talk about his wartime
experiences in the camps:

'There is a lot that I am not yet able to speak about and also much that I no longer want to
think about - for instance, my feelings when we were hauled out of our hiding place in
Amsterdam, or when my family was torn apart on the platform at Auschwitz.'
Otto Frank (The World on Sunday, 4 February 1979)

Topics For Further Discussion

.   Publication of the diary
.   Liberation
.   Returning home - anti-Semitism has not disappeared
.   Many war victims are unable to speak of their suffering. People are often unwilling to
    listen to them.

See also

.   Catalogue page 80 - 83




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Panel 25

Large photo: A scene from the premiere of the play (see catalogue page 84, photo 2)
Date: 1955
Place: USA

Success of the diary

Background Information

After its first publication in Dutch, the diary is soon translated into German and French,
followed by an English edition in 1951. It becomes world famous when it is made into a play
and then into a film. Both these versions stress only a few aspects of Anne's diary: her hope
for a better future and that despite everything people are really good at heart. The public was
able to identify with such aspirations in an era in which they were trying to look forward to a
better world. Very little emphasis was laid on the dreadful fate that had befallen the people in
the Secret Annex and the millions of others who also died. It was only in the early 1970s that
we began to take account of the full horrors of these events.

Now, many years later, the diary has been translated into 55 languages and has sold
approximately 25 million copies. What is it about the diary that still has relevance for us
today? At this point it is worth referring again to the quotations on the opening panel: there
are many different interpretations and much inspiration to be drawn from this diary.

Further Discussion

.   Human rights
.   Emigration
.   Discrimination

See also

.   Catalogue page 84 - 87




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Panel 26

Large photo: Otto Frank (see catalogue page 88, photo 1)
Date: 1967
Place: Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Background Information

Otto Frank received hundreds of letters asking: How was it possible that such things ever
happened? He does not answer the question directly but replies that he hopes his young
correspondents will work together, to build a future in which all human rights are respected.

'I no longer seek to know who it was who betrayed us all those years ago. I cannot forgive
but I do not want revenge - only reconciliation.'
Otto Frank (The World on Sunday, id)

There is still strife in the world today, as well as extreme nationalism and neo-Nazism. Each
one of us should take personal responsibility for what is going on around us.

Topics For Further Discussion

.   Return to subjects previously discussed, such as nationalism, racial cleansing and giving
    assistance. These themes are taken up again in the lower part of the panel and in the
    display compartments.
.   Neo-Nazism
.   The ideology of Our own people first

See also

.   Catalogue page 88 - 91
.   Anne Frank Journal 'One of the best streetfighters' page 6/7




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Panel 27

Tammy Williams

The importance of personal attitudes and of taking a stand. Here again, you should draw on
your own experiences and those of your group.

Questions

.   Which of Tammy's statements do you consider to be the most important and why?
.   Why should governments seek to combat discrimination by implementing laws?
.   Why is it equally important for individuals to feel a personal sense of responsibility and
    commitment?

See also

.   Anne Frank Journal 'I'm a hundred percent myself' page 10/11




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Panel 28

This panel is intended to make visitors think about what the previous two panels have to do
with Anne Frank.

Background Information

Some visitors to the Annex were interviewed after their tour.

Topics:

.   Daouda: Upbringing, the role of parents.
.   Dan: Learning from ones own experiences.
.   Caroline: Taking a stand, even when one is not personally affected.
.   Anthony: Confronting discrimination and how to react against it.
.   Merav: Extremism does not solve anything.
.   Dina: Why do people not react?
.   Robert: Intolerance is part of human nature and it takes courage to fight it.

Questions:

.   Which of the foregoing statements do you find the most powerful?
.   Why?
.   Can you give us any examples from your own experience?
.   Can anyone tell us what the previous two panels have to do with Anne Frank?

See also

.   Anne Frank Journal, 'You can's escape history' page 12/13




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7.
Glossary of terms

Arbeitslager = LABOUR CAMP: Primitive accommodation in barracks to house slave
laborers. First used at the beginning of the Second World War in Germany and other Nazi-
occupied territories. Under the control of Heinrich Himmler, Head of the German police. The
labor camps were in no way different to concentration camps but could not be so called for
internal administrative reasons. In April 1944 there were 20 concentration camps and 165
affiliated labor camps.

Arierparagraph = ARYAN CLAUSE: A clause added to all laws, statutes, ordinances, etc.,
prohibiting Jews from being members of professional bodies, thus closing many professions
to them altogether.

Arisch = ARYAN: The term originated from a Sanskrit word, Arya, meaning a noble person.
It took on a quite incorrect meaning under the Nazi study of race: the German nation,
consisting of members of the Nordic race, shall be known as ARYAN. Thereby, Jews who
had lived in Germany for centuries, as well as Gypsies and Slavs, immediately became
classified as inferior races.

Arisierung = ARYANISATION: A word invented by the Nazis, denoting the appropriation
(theft) of Jewish property to be given to Aryans (i.e. non-Jews). The main beneficiaries were
members of the National Socialist party (NSDAP).

Bekennende Kirche = CONFESSING CHURCH: When the Nazis came to power in 1933
there was an internal revolt in the German Evangelical Church - the movement opposed the
influence and interference of Nazis in Church matters. The Confessing Church was
particularly in conflict with the German Christians, a group which had been formed by the
Nazis in 1932 within the Evangelical Church (notable members of the Confessing Church:
Pastor Niemoller, Dietrich Bonhoffer).

Blutschutzgesetz = LAW OF RACIAL PURITY: Promulgated on 15 September 1935 at
Nuremberg, to Protect German Blood and German Honor. It forbade marriage or extra-
marital intercourse between Jews and non-Jews.

Deutsche Christen = GERMAN CHRISTIANS: A movement within the Evangelical Church,
started in 1932 under strong Nazi influence. Its aim was to bring all the Churches in
Germany under the central control of the Nazis.

Drittes Reich = THIRD REICH (EMPIRE): The period 1933-1945 in Germany. The term has
no legal meaning but was coined by the Nazi propaganda department to denote that by the
grace and power of Adolf Hitler all that is best in the great German people will flourish for the
next thousand years of the German Reich. According to the Nazi version of history, the First
Reich was under the Holy Roman Empire from 962 to 1806 and the Second was under the
Hohenzollern Empire from 1871 to 1918. The Weimar Republic was classed as an interim
period and the Third Reich was destined to last a thousand years.

Edelweisspiraten = EDELWEISS PIRATES: The name used by anti-Nazi groups of
students and apprentices in parts of the Ruhr and along the Rhine. Their emblem was an
edelweiss. They distributed leaflets publicizing the crimes and injustices perpetrated by the




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Nazis.

Einsatzgruppen = KILLING SQUADS: Mobile sub-sections of the Security Police, their task
was to carry out special duties in the service of the Fuehrer. They terrorized, persecuted and
murdered political opponents or racially inferior species such as Jews, Poles and Gypsies
throughout Europe.

Endloesung = FINAL SOLUTION: Known as The Final Solution of the Jewish Question, it
meant the expulsion and ultimate murder of all Jews in Germany or in German-occupied
territory, decided on at the Wannsee Conference, 1942.

Entartete Kunst = DEGENERATE ART: Works of art classified as degenerate by the Nazis
were those of the modern, abstract, cubist or expressionist schools; also those which did not
accord with the Nazi philosophy. World-famous artists were banned - e.g. Pablo Picasso,
Otto Dix, Marc Chagall, Franz Marc, Paul Klee, Max Beckmann, Paula Modersohn-Becker,
George Grosz, Kaethe Kollwitz. Degenerate Art was also the title of an exhibition (July 1937)
which displayed works confiscated from galleries and museums. Many of the degenerate
artists had to flee Germany.

Ermaechtigungsgesetz = ENABLING LAW: A scandalous law, passed on 24 March 1933
which enabled the National Socialists to by-pass the Reichstag (the German Parliament) and
thus assume ever-greater powers. To get this law through Parliament they needed a two-
thirds majority, which they did not have. Other parties would have to vote with them. The
final count was 441 votes for the new law, 94 against. 81 Communists were unable to vote
as they had been imprisoned.

Euthanasie Befehl = EUTHANASIA ORDINANCE: Term given to a secret document signed
by Hitler and dated 1 September 1939 (though he actually wrote it at the end of October
1939). In it he decreed that the authority of specialist doctors will be extended so that the
incurably sick may be rendered a merciful death. The dubious concept of a merciful death
masks the fact that it was the Nazis intention to exterminate all those they considered
unworthy to live. Over 120,000 people were killed in this way.

Gestapo = GESTAPO: Abbreviation of GEheime STAatsPOlizei (Secret State Police). The
Gestapo had unlimited powers between 1933 and 1945; they searched houses and arrested
the occupants, sent them to concentrations camps, persecuted and tortured them. The
Gestapo was the brainchild of Hermann Goering.

Gleichschaltung = PROGRAMME OF EQUALISATION: Before the Nazis came to power
Germany had been a democratically-run State, but after 1933 they infiltrated every aspect of
society and placed members of the NSDAP in all the positions of leadership and control.

Hakenkreuz = SWASTIKA: The NSDAP (The National Socialist German Workers Party)
had used the swastika as its symbol since 1920. It became the symbol of the Nazi party and
of Nazi hegemony in Germany from 1933 to 1945.
The sign of the swastika dates from around 4000 B.C. and was thought to symbolize the
holy and benevolent powers of the sun. It was known in Northern and Central Europe, the
Middle East, India, China and Japan and amongst Semitic peoples (especially Arabs).
It began to be used politically in about 1900 and many political groupings turned it into an
anti-Semitic (i.e. anti-Jewish) sign.




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Hitlerjugend = HITLER YOUTH: Abbreviated to HJ. The collective name given to Nazi youth
groups and all their subdivisions; founded in 1926 by the NSDAP, it became the official State
youth organization after 1933. The Law Relating to the Hitler Youth Movement (of 1
December 1936) decreed that all young people in the Third Reich should come under the
banner of the Hitler Youth.

Kindertransport = CHILDREN'S TRANSPORT: After Kristallnacht (see below), the British
Government allowed in nearly 10,000 Jewish children from Europe , many of whom never
saw their parents again.

Kristallnacht = THE NIGHT OF SHATTERED GLASS: An anti-Jewish pogrom, organized
by the SA, Nazis and others, on the night of 9th November 1938. (A pogrom is a series of
violent attacks against religious, national or racial minorities). More than 20,000 Jews were
arrested and deported to concentration camps on orders given by propaganda minister,
Josef Goebbels, and sanctioned by Adolf Hitler. Throughout Germany synagogues (Jewish
places of worship) were set on fire and innumerable Jewish businesses and homes were
ransacked and destroyed.

Machtuebernahme = TRANSFER OF POWER: On 30 January 1933 Hitler became
Chancellor of Germany; the Nazis called this The Day of Transfer of Power to the NSDAP. In
later years the term came to include the measures that the Nazis took during the period
1932-1934 to ensure total control of all aspects of German society.

Mein Kampf = MY STRUGGLE: The title of Hitler's book in two volumes, in which he
discusses his ideology and political views. Despite its ramblings, the book already outlines
Hitler's appalling philosophy very clearly. Adolf Hitler had been leader of the NSDAP since
1921. When he became Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933 he insisted on being
known only as Fuehrer (Leader).

NSDAP = NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS PARTY: The only political party
permitted in Germany from July 1933 until the unconditional surrender of the Nazis in May
1945. Adolf Hitler was its leader. The Law Relating to the Unity of Party and State (31
December 1933) decreed that the NSDAP was the conscience of the State and that it was
inextricably linked to the State, to ensure the racial well-being of the German people. Party
members had to swear an oath of unquestioning loyalty and obedience to their Fuehrer.

Nuernberger Prozess = NUREMBERG TRIALS: Lasted from 20.11.1945 to 1.10.1946. The
International Military Tribunal (IMT) consisted of the victorious powers of the Second World
War - Great Britain, France, USA and the Soviet Union. 24 leading Nazis were put on trial.
The charges against them were:
1. Conspiracy
2. Crimes against peace
3. War Crimes
4. Crimes against humanity
(Of the 24 accused, 12 were condemned to death, 7 were imprisoned, 3 were acquitted and
2 were absent owing to illness and suicide.)

Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) = STATE SECURITY CENTRAL OFFICE: Under the
control of the SS, all public as well as secret Police and Security measures emanated from




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the RSHA. It had innumerable departments, offices, sub-sections, branches and was virtually
incomprehensible to outsiders. The RSHA had the power to imprison people or deport them
to a concentration camp without recourse to law - the victims had no right of appeal.

SA - Sturmabteilung = STORM TROOPERS: Formed in 1921, they were members of the
NSDAP who volunteered to organize into military units; they played a considerable role in
gaining power for the NSDAP.

Schutzhaft = PROTECTIVE CUSTODY: The method most commonly used by the Nazis to
remove political opponents and other unwanted citizens from public life. These were then
imprisoned in concentration camps. In civilized countries it is legal for the police to hold a
suspect for up to 48 hours; however, he must then be released unless an examining
magistrate gives permission for him to be held for a further period. After the Nazis came to
power in 1933 this protective custody was abused; unwanted citizens were incarcerated
without due process of law, not knowing when they would be released.

SS - Schutzstaffeln = PROTECTION SQUADS: The SS was the most powerful
organization within the Nazi regime, and also the most feared. It was responsible for the
concentration camps and for the killing squads that murdered political opponents and racial
minorities. Members of the SS tortured and murdered men, women and children throughout
Europe. They were responsible for the systematic murder of millions of people in the
extermination camps. At the Nuremberg Trials the whole of the SS was branded a criminal
organization.

Volksgerichtshof = PEOPLE'S COURT: Instituted on 24 April 1934 to hear cases of High
Treason. High Treason is normally considered to be an attempt to overthrow the State or to
spy for a foreign power; however, as the lawyer Parisius, succinctly put it: That is not the
purpose of our People's Court. Its function is to exterminate the opponents of National
Socialism.

Wannsee-Konferenz = CONFERENCE AT WANNSEE: Held on 20 January 1942 at the
instigation of Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Security Police. Its aim was to clarify our
position concerning the final solution of the Jewish question. In July 1941 Heydrich had been
officially asked by Reich Marshall Hermann Goering to devise a comprehensive blueprint for
the Final Solution - its organization, practical problems and material requirements.

Wehrmacht = DEFENCE FORCES: The official title of the German army. Hitler re-
introduced military conscription in March 1935 saying: the Wehrmacht will bear arms to
protect the German people; it will be the military school for our fighting forces; it consists of
the army, the navy and the air force.

Weisse Rose = THE WHITE ROSE: The name of a resistance group in Munich; they were
mostly students, led by a brother and sister, Sophie and Hans Scholl.
The White Rose began distributing anti-Nazi pamphlets in the spring of 1942 aided and
abetted by their professor of philosophy, Kurt Huber. The Scholls were arrested at the
University on 18 February 1943 whilst distributing their literature. Their trial lasted two days
and they were condemned to death. They were executed on 22 February 1943 aged 22 and
25.

20 Juli = 20 JULY 1944: The date on which the Military finally rose against Hitler and his




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Nazi regime. A colonel, Baron Claus von Stauffenberg, attempted to bomb Hitler whilst he
was at his headquarters - known as the Wolf's Lair - at Rastenburg (in East Prussia). The
assassination attempt failed because the meeting which Hitler, Stauffenberg and others
were to attend had been relocated to a room other than the one originally designated.

That same night Stauffenberg and four other high-ranking officers who had plotted with him
were shot. Approximately 200 additional people from the resistance movement were put on
summary trial at the People's Courts. All were sentenced to death.

(Source: Kammer, Hilde & Elisabet Bartsch: National Socialism: Concepts during the period
of Dictatorship, 1933-1945. Published - Reinbek bei Hamberg: Rowohlt, 1992)




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8.
Important dates

12 May 1889: Otto Frank is born in Frankfurt am Main.

16 January 1900: Edith Hollander is born in Aachen.

12 May 1925: Marriage of Otto Frank and Edith Hollander.

16 February 1926: Birth of Margot Frank in Frankfurt am Main.

Autumn 1927: The Frank family moves to 307 Marbachweg.

12 June 1929: Anne Frank is born in Frankfurt am Main.

March 1931: The Frank family moves to 24 Ganghofer Street.

Summer 1933: Edith, Margot and Anne Frank join Grandmother Hollander in Aachen. Otto
Frank travels to Holland.

15 September 1933: Otto Frank establishes his firm Opekta Werke in Amsterdam.

October 1933: Alice Frank-Stern, Anne's paternal grandmother, moves to Basel in
Switzerland.

5 December 1933: Edith and Margot Frank move to Holland.

February 1934: Anne Frank joins them in Holland.

1934: Anne Frank attends the kindergarten of the Montessori School.

Summer 1937: The van Pels family flees from Osnabruck to Holland.

1 June 1938: A second company is established: Pectagon Ltd.

8 December 1938: Fritz Pfeffer flees Germany and arrives in Holland.

March 1939: Grandmother Hollander comes to live with the Frank family.

1 December 1940: Otto Frank's company moves into the premises at number 263
Prinsengracht.

8 May 1941: Opekta-Werke changes its name to Messrs Gies & Company.

Summer 1941: Anne and Margot attend the Jewish School in Amsterdam.

January 1942: Death of Grandmother Hollander.

12 June 1942: Anne receives a diary for her 13th birthday.




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5 July 1942: Margot Frank receives orders in writing to present herself for deportation.

6 July 1942: The Frank family goes into hiding in the annex behind 263 Prinsengracht.

13 July 1942: Family van Pels (van Daan) joins the Franks in the annex.

16 November 1942: Fritz Pfeffer (Albert Dussel) moves into the annex.

4 August 1944: The Frank family and all those in hiding with them are arrested.

8 August 1944: They are all taken to the camp at Westerbork.

3 September 1944: From Westerbork they are all transported to Auschwitz concentration
camp in Poland.

6 September 1944: Arrival in Auschwitz. Hermann van Pels is gassed a few weeks later.

October 1944: Anne and Margot are sent to the concentration camp at Bergen-Belsen.

20 December 1944: Fritz Pfeffer dies in Neuengamme.

6 January 1945: Edith Frank dies in Auschwitz.

27 January 1945: The concentration camp at Auschwitz is liberated by the Russians. Otto
Frank is freed.

March 1945: Anne and Margot die in Bergen-Belsen.

5 May 1945: Peter van Pels dies in Mauthausen.

Spring 1945: Mrs van Pels dies in Theresienstadt concentration camp in Czechoslovakia.

3 June 1945: Otto Frank returns to Amsterdam.

Summer 1947: The Diary of Anne Frank is published in Holland.

1952: Otto Frank moves to Basel in Switzerland.

November 1953: Otto Frank marries Elfriede Geiringer.

May 1960: The Anne Frank House opens.

19 August 1980: Otto Frank dies in Birsfelden, aged 91.




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