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									Activity 2

Section 1: Review of Research Methods, Basic Statistics,
and the Fundamentals of SPSS
Please note: the SPSS software has recently been renamed PASW. However,
references in this course will retain the SPSS name.

Course Basics
The Field text includes a companion website that contains sample data files,
flash movies, podcasts, self-assessment questions, flashcard glossary,
additional materials, answers, etc. You can access the companion site at:
http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/

Self-Tests – Embedded within each chapter, you will see an icon and the
label SELF-TEST
(http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/additionalwebmaterial.htm). These are
questions that can quickly assess your mastery of the material just covered.
Answers to all self-tests are available on the companion website under the
heading: Additional Web Material in the Student Resource section.

Multiple Choice Questions—The companion web site
(http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/MCQ.htm) contains quizzes under the
heading Interactive MCQs (multiple choice questions). You are encouraged
to use these quizzes to assess your mastery of material in each chapter.

Flashcard Glossary - The companion web site
(http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/Flashcard.htm) contains a flashcard
glossary to assist in reviewing key concept for each chapter.

Flash SPSS Movies—Need to obtain a little more help about using SPSS and
entering data? The companion web site
(http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/SPSSstudentmovies.htm) contains flash
movies to guide you in the use of the SPSS software.

Tips for a Successful Statistics Course
Preparing to complete an online intermediate statistics course may cause
you some anxiety. However, it is important to realize that this course is
critical to the successful completion of your PhD program. Below are some
tips on how to not only make it through this course, but enjoy the journey.

1. Keep a positive attitude. Believe it or not, this can be fun. The text for
this course was chosen based on exceptional reviews by other statistics
students. You may find it is somewhat unconventional. The text uses
images/icons, provides a wealth of SPSS output examples, and has an
extensive companion website. While many of the examples/stories used in
the text are targeted to a 20-30 something age group, the text is easy to
read and highly understandable.

2. Make sure you have all the required materials prior to the first day of
the course. The course is fast-paced, so if you are not ready to “hit the
ground running”, you will likely find yourself short of time at the end of the
course. Take time to read the syllabus, browse the text, install the software
and download data sets from the companion site, as well as browse the
companion website. Spending 1 or 2 hours familiarizing yourself with the
course materials, setting up short cut icons on your desktop and developing
an organizational system will save you time when completing the first
activities (and the first activities are somewhat extensive).

3. Clear your schedule (some find they must read the material two or three
times before it really sinks in). If you have struggled with statistics in the
past, please do yourself a favor and limit your non-academic commitments
during this course.

4. Stay on schedule! Falling behind is OK from time to time in some courses.
This is not true for statistics.
5. If you find yourself at risk of falling behind please contact your Mentor as
soon as possible. Your Mentor is your advocate and here to assist you in
mastering this material.

6. If you feel terribly confused, consider a tutor. Northcentral University
offers free real-time tutoring (you can access the SMARTHINKING tutoring
service via the Writing Center). Or, you may have a learning style that
benefits from having statistics explained “in-person” – if this is true, locate a
tutor in your home town (local colleges and universities can often assist you
in locating a tutor).

Section Overview
Section 1 of this course will review research methodology, basic statistics,
and the fundamentals of SPSS. This section provides the foundation for the
rest of the course.

Many people pursuing a PhD come into their program with an area of
interest that they will explore during their dissertation, while others are less
clear regarding their possible dissertation topic. You are not expected to
know what you will do for your dissertation at this point in your program,
but if you have not settled on a general area, now is a good time to consider
a viable one. Throughout this course you will be asked to consider your
general area of research interest as you complete the activities. Some
examples of general areas include: leadership, organizational behavior,
market research, and organizational culture.

All quantitative research will assess variables related to your hypotheses.
Example of such variables include: age, gender, hours of physical activity
per week, type of illness, social support, organizational culture, work
satisfaction, stress, anxiety, burnout, etc.

Once you decide what and how to assess your variables of interest, you will
need to not only describe the data you collect, but use the data to make
inferences about a population.

This section will answer questions like: When do you report a median rather
than a mean score? What does the standard deviation say about my sample?
Are my data normally distributed? What does it mean to say something is
significant? And, probably most importantly: Why do I need to know and
understand statistics?

Although much of the mathematics behind descriptive data techniques is
quite simple, this does not minimize their importance. Descriptive statistical
analysis is often the starting point for more advanced statistical techniques.
Such statistics are useful in summarizing various aspects of a data set.
When it’s time to analyze your dissertation data, for example, it can be quite
illuminating to look at things like measures of central tendency, standard
deviations, and other descriptive measures. Even in more advanced classes,
such as this course, it is important to start with a review of descriptive
statistical techniques as they will be a required part of every activity (as well
as your dissertation research results). Finally, after reviewing basic research
methods and descriptive statistics, you will practice entering data into SPSS.

Thus, while this section should be a refresher, it contains a fair amount of
information. If it has been a while since your last statistics course, you may
find it useful to access the supplemental materials found on the companion
website for the Field text.

This section lays the foundation for the rest of the course, so take the time
you need to fully understand the concepts covered.

Note: While some may pursue a qualitative dissertation, much of the
research in the field of business is based on quantitative research. Thus,
whether your dissertation is rooted in a quantitative or qualitative tradition,
you must understand the concepts taught in this course to understand much
of the published research in the field.
Course Resources
The Resources area for this course contains a variety of reference materials
that may help you to complete the course Activities. It is suggested that you
become familiar with these resources before you begin the Activities.

NCU Library
References used for research need to be peer reviewed/scholarly journals
which can be found by searching the NCU Library databases. These journals
typically have the following characteristics:
- Articles are reviewed by a panel of experts before they are accepted for
publication.
- Articles are written by a scholar or specialist in the field.
- Articles report on original research or experimentation.
- Articles are often published by professional associations.
- Articles utilize terminology associated with the discipline.

NCU Writing Center
NCU values your progress and success as a scholarly writer. Please access
the NCU Writing Center from your Learner home page to see a wide variety
of writing tips and examples to help you as you compose written
submissions for this and other NCU courses.

The Writing Center also contracts with SmartThinking, an online 24/7
tutoring service that offers assistance in mathematics, statistics, finance,
and writing. You can contact SmartThinking from the home page of the NCU
Writing Center.

NCU Dissertation Center
The Dissertation Center is a valuable reference area for research methods
and products specific to NCU standards. You will find a rich variety of
resources that will help you through the scholarly research process, as well
as a complete collection of dissertations written by NCU Ph.D. Learners.

-Course Work

Required Reading:
Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Preface, How to Use This Book, Chapters
1, 2, 3, 4

Self-Tests
Smart Alex's Quizzes
SPSS Movies:
-   Entering Data
-   The Syntax Window
-   The Viewer Window
-   Exporting SPSS Output into Word
-   Editing Graphs

SPSS Data Sets:
Downloadfestival.sav
Chickflick.sav
Hiccups.sav
Textmessages.sav
ExamAnxiety.sav

Optional Resources:
Reliability and Validity video
Interactive Multiple Choice Questions
Flashcards

Assignment 2 Entering Data in SPSS and Exploratory Data Analysis
This activity involves two related and fundamental concepts in statistical
analysis. Intially, you will discover or re-discover the joi de SPSS. Next, you
will start exploring data.

Activity 2a: Entering Data in SPSS
This activity reviews the fundamental of SPSS. From this point forward SPSS
will be used in most activities, so take the time to learn (or refresh) yourself
on the basics. Spending time learning how to navigate SPSS will save you a
ton of time (and frustration) later. Even if you have no intention of
conducting quantitative analyses for your dissertation research, it is
expected that PhD graduates from a Business program will have a working
knowledge of SPSS. Even if you are not very excited about learning (or
relearning) a software program (especially one that has a history of not
being overly user friendly) think of this as an opportunity to gain a skill
worthy of being showcased on your resume. SPSS has worked hard on
becoming more intuitive and the resources available through your text set
the stage for SPSS becoming your friend (really!).

The activity is divided into two main sections (2a and 2b) each with several
sub-sections. To complete the activity, you will assemble all of your work
into a total of three files for this activity: two SPSS data files and one Word
document.

To Prepare for Activity #2a:
Install SPSS and the data sets on your computer. If you have not yet
installed SPSS on your computer, please do it now.

Read Chapter 3 in the text. It will be to your advantage to have SPSS open
on your computer as you work through chapter 3. With each section, explore
the exercises in SPSS so that you become familiar with the interface. Feeling
comfortable in the SPSS environment will go far in your successful
completion of this course.

Complete the Self-Tests within each chapter. Answers are available on the
companion web site under the heading Additional Web Material in the
Student Resource section
(http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/additionalwebmaterial.htm).

Complete Smart Alex’s Quizzes. Be sure to take Smart Alex’s Quiz at the end
of the Chapter and spend time learning the concepts related to questions
you answered incorrectly. Answers are available at:
http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/SmartAlexAnswers.htm

View SPSS Movies. View the first three SPSS movies: Entering Data, The
Syntax Window, The Viewer Window. These movies are available on the
companion web site at:
http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/SPSSstudentmovies.htm

Optional Preparation for Activity #2a
After completing the above activities, if you feel you need for additional
instruction on the concepts covered, please choose from any of the following
activities that will assist you in mastering the core concepts.

Interactive Multiple Choice Questions. You might find it helpful to complete
the multiple choice quizzes available at:
http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/MCQ.htm

Flashcards. If what you need is gain a basic, definitional understanding of
the topics, visit the Flashcard Glossary at:
http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/Flashcard.htm

Part A. Creating a Data File. Open a data file in SPSS and enter the data
presented in Table 3.1 on page 72. Name this SPSS data file as
LastnameFirstinitialSTAT8028-2a

Part B. Create a mock research project. Submit your answers to the
three questions below in a Word doc. Name this SPSS data file as
LastnameFirstinitialSTAT8028-2b
     1. Considering your area of research interest, briefly state your area
     and a possible research project related to the area (150-500 words)

     2. Pose one or more null and alternative hypotheses that follow from
     the possible research project.

     3. List at least 10 variables that would be collected in your mock
     research project that would be used to answer the hypotheses. After
     each variable list the variable name you will use in SPSS (Part C), the
     level of measurement (binary, nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and
     the possible range of scores. Feel free to be creative.

Part C. Create a mock SPSS data set. Name this SPSS data file as
LastnameFirstinitial STAT8028-2c
     1. Open a data file in SPSS and enter in a set of mock data for the
     research project you describe in Part B. (Note: It is important that you
     do not collect real data for this activity; you cannot collect data without
     IRB approval).

     2. You must enter in 10 rows of data for all 10 variables (that is, create
     data for 10 mock participants).

     3. Participant #1 must have missing data for Variable #3. Ensure this is
     coded correctly.

Activity #2b: Exploratory Data Analysis
Prior to conducting statistical tests that will evaluate your hypotheses, it is
imperative to do what can be described as exploratory data analysis (EDA).
Essentially, this entails visually examining your data and exploring, at a high
level, any relationships intrinsic to the data. The end result is a
comprehensive understanding of your data – this is a must prior to doing
any hypothesis testing. Please remember this when you get to your
dissertation. Spending time getting to know your data will expedite
completion of your results sections.

To Prepare for Activity #2b:
View the SPSS Movie 4: Exporting SPSS Output into Word. It will be helpful
for you to view this prior to reading the chapter, as understanding how to
export output as you go will save you time in the completion of Activity #2b.
This movie is available on the companion web site at:
http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/SPSSstudentmovies.htm

Download SPSS Data Sets. The visual displays you will be asked to create as
part of Activity #2b are ones you will work through in this chapter. If you
have not yet done so, download the zip folder of SPSS data from the
companion web site. Open the Zip file and save the data sets, as you need
them, to your computer (or you can right click on the zip file and select
“extract all”). This activity requires the following data sets:

     •   Downloadfestival.sav
     •   Chickflick.sav
     •   Hiccups.sav
     •   Textmessages.sav
     •   ExamAnxiety.sav

Read Chapter 4 in the text. It will be to your advantage to have SPSS open
on your computer as you work through chapter 4. While you are reading
through this chapter and creating visual displays of data, consider the
importance of understanding data at this basic level.

View the SPSS Movie 8: Editing Graphs. This movie will help you understand
how to edit your graphs. This movie is available on the companion web site
at: http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/SPSSstudentmovies.htm

Complete the Self-Tests within each chapter. Answers are available on the
companion web site under the heading Additional Web Material in the
Student Resource section
(http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/additionalwebmaterial.htm).

Complete Smart Alex’s Quizzes. Be sure to take Smart Alex’s Quiz at the end
of the Chapter and spend time learning the concepts related to questions
you answered incorrectly. Answers are available at:
http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/SmartAlexAnswers.htm

Optional Preparation for Activity #2b
After completing the above activities, if you feel you need additional
instruction on the concepts covered, please choose from any of the following
activities that will assist you in mastering the core concepts.

Interactive Multiple Choice Questions. You might find it helpful to complete
the multiple choice quizzes available at:
http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/MCQ.htm

Flashcards. If what you need is gain a basic, definitional understanding of
the topics, visit the Flashcard Glossary at:
http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/Flashcard.htm

Activity #2b
Include the information in this activity with the Word document created for
Activity #2a. You will create this Word document by cutting and pasting
SPSS output into word.

Part A. Creating Visual Displays of Data. For this activity you will copy
and paste output you created while working in Chapter 4 into a Word
document. Please read the instructions below to ensure you are pasting the
correct material into your activity document (this chapter has you create
many charts and not all are required for Activity #2).

     1. Using the data set: DownloadFestival.sav, create a boxplot for males
     and females for the variable Day1. It is important that you change the
     outlier identified to 2.02 prior to creating the boxplot. Be sure to save
     the data set with a new name, indicating it is the corrected data set
     (outlier identified and corrected). Save this boxplot, with an appropriate
     title in your Activity #2 Word document.

     2. Using the data set: ChickFlick.sav, create a clustered bar chart for
     independent means. The variables you will use are: Arousal, Film, and
     Gender (grouping variable). Be sure to display error bars and save your
     chart with an appropriate title in your Activity #2 Word document.

     3. Using the data set: Hiccups.sav, create a clustered bar chart for
     related means. The variables you will use are: Baseline, Tongue Pulling,
     Carotid Artery Massage, Digital Rectal Massage. Be sure to display error
     bars, include labels for the X- and Y-axis, and save your chart with an
     appropriate title in your Activity #2 Word document.

     4. Using the data set: Text Messages.sav (note: you may see an
     additional data set with the same name: TextMessages.sav – either will
     create the correct output), create a clustered bar chart for mixed
     designs. The variables you will use are: Time1, Time2, and Group. Be
     sure to display error bars, include labels for the X- and Y-axis, and save
     your chart with an appropriate title in your Activity #2 Word document.

     5. Using the data set: Exam Anxiety.sav, create a scatterplot that
     includes a regression line. The variables you will use are: Exam
     Performance and Exam Anxiety. Be sure to include the regression line
     and save your chart with an appropriate title in your Activity #2 Word
     document.

Part B. Why Exploratory Data Analysis?
Write a short paragraph that highlights your understanding of why
exploratory data analysis is a critical part of any analytical strategy (500
Word limit). This answer is worth 5 points (half the assigned points for this
activity). To receive full credit you must show a high level of understanding
the importance of exploring data visually.

Submit your files in the Course Work area below the Activity screen.

Learning Outcomes: 1, 3, 4, 10
Assignment Outcomes
Review research methods and basic statistics as they relate to planning, conducting, and
interpreting inferential statistics.
Calculate, integrate, and evaluate descriptive statistical analysis.
Create, integrate, and evaluate visual displays of data.
Demonstrate proficiency in the use of SPSS.

								
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