Activity 2 Section 1: Review of Research Methods, Basic Statistics, and the Fundamentals of SPSS Please note: the SPSS software has recently been renamed PASW. However, references in this course will retain the SPSS name. Course Basics The Field text includes a companion website that contains sample data files, flash movies, podcasts, self-assessment questions, flashcard glossary, additional materials, answers, etc. You can access the companion site at: http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/ Self-Tests – Embedded within each chapter, you will see an icon and the label SELF-TEST (http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/additionalwebmaterial.htm). These are questions that can quickly assess your mastery of the material just covered. Answers to all self-tests are available on the companion website under the heading: Additional Web Material in the Student Resource section. Multiple Choice Questions—The companion web site (http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/MCQ.htm) contains quizzes under the heading Interactive MCQs (multiple choice questions). You are encouraged to use these quizzes to assess your mastery of material in each chapter. Flashcard Glossary - The companion web site (http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/Flashcard.htm) contains a flashcard glossary to assist in reviewing key concept for each chapter. Flash SPSS Movies—Need to obtain a little more help about using SPSS and entering data? The companion web site (http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/SPSSstudentmovies.htm) contains flash movies to guide you in the use of the SPSS software. Tips for a Successful Statistics Course Preparing to complete an online intermediate statistics course may cause you some anxiety. However, it is important to realize that this course is critical to the successful completion of your PhD program. Below are some tips on how to not only make it through this course, but enjoy the journey. 1. Keep a positive attitude. Believe it or not, this can be fun. The text for this course was chosen based on exceptional reviews by other statistics students. You may find it is somewhat unconventional. The text uses images/icons, provides a wealth of SPSS output examples, and has an extensive companion website. While many of the examples/stories used in the text are targeted to a 20-30 something age group, the text is easy to read and highly understandable. 2. Make sure you have all the required materials prior to the first day of the course. The course is fast-paced, so if you are not ready to “hit the ground running”, you will likely find yourself short of time at the end of the course. Take time to read the syllabus, browse the text, install the software and download data sets from the companion site, as well as browse the companion website. Spending 1 or 2 hours familiarizing yourself with the course materials, setting up short cut icons on your desktop and developing an organizational system will save you time when completing the first activities (and the first activities are somewhat extensive). 3. Clear your schedule (some find they must read the material two or three times before it really sinks in). If you have struggled with statistics in the past, please do yourself a favor and limit your non-academic commitments during this course. 4. Stay on schedule! Falling behind is OK from time to time in some courses. This is not true for statistics. 5. If you find yourself at risk of falling behind please contact your Mentor as soon as possible. Your Mentor is your advocate and here to assist you in mastering this material. 6. If you feel terribly confused, consider a tutor. Northcentral University offers free real-time tutoring (you can access the SMARTHINKING tutoring service via the Writing Center). Or, you may have a learning style that benefits from having statistics explained “in-person” – if this is true, locate a tutor in your home town (local colleges and universities can often assist you in locating a tutor). Section Overview Section 1 of this course will review research methodology, basic statistics, and the fundamentals of SPSS. This section provides the foundation for the rest of the course. Many people pursuing a PhD come into their program with an area of interest that they will explore during their dissertation, while others are less clear regarding their possible dissertation topic. You are not expected to know what you will do for your dissertation at this point in your program, but if you have not settled on a general area, now is a good time to consider a viable one. Throughout this course you will be asked to consider your general area of research interest as you complete the activities. Some examples of general areas include: leadership, organizational behavior, market research, and organizational culture. All quantitative research will assess variables related to your hypotheses. Example of such variables include: age, gender, hours of physical activity per week, type of illness, social support, organizational culture, work satisfaction, stress, anxiety, burnout, etc. Once you decide what and how to assess your variables of interest, you will need to not only describe the data you collect, but use the data to make inferences about a population. This section will answer questions like: When do you report a median rather than a mean score? What does the standard deviation say about my sample? Are my data normally distributed? What does it mean to say something is significant? And, probably most importantly: Why do I need to know and understand statistics? Although much of the mathematics behind descriptive data techniques is quite simple, this does not minimize their importance. Descriptive statistical analysis is often the starting point for more advanced statistical techniques. Such statistics are useful in summarizing various aspects of a data set. When it’s time to analyze your dissertation data, for example, it can be quite illuminating to look at things like measures of central tendency, standard deviations, and other descriptive measures. Even in more advanced classes, such as this course, it is important to start with a review of descriptive statistical techniques as they will be a required part of every activity (as well as your dissertation research results). Finally, after reviewing basic research methods and descriptive statistics, you will practice entering data into SPSS. Thus, while this section should be a refresher, it contains a fair amount of information. If it has been a while since your last statistics course, you may find it useful to access the supplemental materials found on the companion website for the Field text. This section lays the foundation for the rest of the course, so take the time you need to fully understand the concepts covered. Note: While some may pursue a qualitative dissertation, much of the research in the field of business is based on quantitative research. Thus, whether your dissertation is rooted in a quantitative or qualitative tradition, you must understand the concepts taught in this course to understand much of the published research in the field. Course Resources The Resources area for this course contains a variety of reference materials that may help you to complete the course Activities. It is suggested that you become familiar with these resources before you begin the Activities. NCU Library References used for research need to be peer reviewed/scholarly journals which can be found by searching the NCU Library databases. These journals typically have the following characteristics: - Articles are reviewed by a panel of experts before they are accepted for publication. - Articles are written by a scholar or specialist in the field. - Articles report on original research or experimentation. - Articles are often published by professional associations. - Articles utilize terminology associated with the discipline. NCU Writing Center NCU values your progress and success as a scholarly writer. Please access the NCU Writing Center from your Learner home page to see a wide variety of writing tips and examples to help you as you compose written submissions for this and other NCU courses. The Writing Center also contracts with SmartThinking, an online 24/7 tutoring service that offers assistance in mathematics, statistics, finance, and writing. You can contact SmartThinking from the home page of the NCU Writing Center. NCU Dissertation Center The Dissertation Center is a valuable reference area for research methods and products specific to NCU standards. You will find a rich variety of resources that will help you through the scholarly research process, as well as a complete collection of dissertations written by NCU Ph.D. Learners. -Course Work Required Reading: Discovering Statistics Using SPSS: Preface, How to Use This Book, Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4 Self-Tests Smart Alex's Quizzes SPSS Movies: - Entering Data - The Syntax Window - The Viewer Window - Exporting SPSS Output into Word - Editing Graphs SPSS Data Sets: Downloadfestival.sav Chickflick.sav Hiccups.sav Textmessages.sav ExamAnxiety.sav Optional Resources: Reliability and Validity video Interactive Multiple Choice Questions Flashcards Assignment 2 Entering Data in SPSS and Exploratory Data Analysis This activity involves two related and fundamental concepts in statistical analysis. Intially, you will discover or re-discover the joi de SPSS. Next, you will start exploring data. Activity 2a: Entering Data in SPSS This activity reviews the fundamental of SPSS. From this point forward SPSS will be used in most activities, so take the time to learn (or refresh) yourself on the basics. Spending time learning how to navigate SPSS will save you a ton of time (and frustration) later. Even if you have no intention of conducting quantitative analyses for your dissertation research, it is expected that PhD graduates from a Business program will have a working knowledge of SPSS. Even if you are not very excited about learning (or relearning) a software program (especially one that has a history of not being overly user friendly) think of this as an opportunity to gain a skill worthy of being showcased on your resume. SPSS has worked hard on becoming more intuitive and the resources available through your text set the stage for SPSS becoming your friend (really!). The activity is divided into two main sections (2a and 2b) each with several sub-sections. To complete the activity, you will assemble all of your work into a total of three files for this activity: two SPSS data files and one Word document. To Prepare for Activity #2a: Install SPSS and the data sets on your computer. If you have not yet installed SPSS on your computer, please do it now. Read Chapter 3 in the text. It will be to your advantage to have SPSS open on your computer as you work through chapter 3. With each section, explore the exercises in SPSS so that you become familiar with the interface. Feeling comfortable in the SPSS environment will go far in your successful completion of this course. Complete the Self-Tests within each chapter. Answers are available on the companion web site under the heading Additional Web Material in the Student Resource section (http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/additionalwebmaterial.htm). Complete Smart Alex’s Quizzes. Be sure to take Smart Alex’s Quiz at the end of the Chapter and spend time learning the concepts related to questions you answered incorrectly. Answers are available at: http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/SmartAlexAnswers.htm View SPSS Movies. View the first three SPSS movies: Entering Data, The Syntax Window, The Viewer Window. These movies are available on the companion web site at: http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/SPSSstudentmovies.htm Optional Preparation for Activity #2a After completing the above activities, if you feel you need for additional instruction on the concepts covered, please choose from any of the following activities that will assist you in mastering the core concepts. Interactive Multiple Choice Questions. You might find it helpful to complete the multiple choice quizzes available at: http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/MCQ.htm Flashcards. If what you need is gain a basic, definitional understanding of the topics, visit the Flashcard Glossary at: http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/Flashcard.htm Part A. Creating a Data File. Open a data file in SPSS and enter the data presented in Table 3.1 on page 72. Name this SPSS data file as LastnameFirstinitialSTAT8028-2a Part B. Create a mock research project. Submit your answers to the three questions below in a Word doc. Name this SPSS data file as LastnameFirstinitialSTAT8028-2b 1. Considering your area of research interest, briefly state your area and a possible research project related to the area (150-500 words) 2. Pose one or more null and alternative hypotheses that follow from the possible research project. 3. List at least 10 variables that would be collected in your mock research project that would be used to answer the hypotheses. After each variable list the variable name you will use in SPSS (Part C), the level of measurement (binary, nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and the possible range of scores. Feel free to be creative. Part C. Create a mock SPSS data set. Name this SPSS data file as LastnameFirstinitial STAT8028-2c 1. Open a data file in SPSS and enter in a set of mock data for the research project you describe in Part B. (Note: It is important that you do not collect real data for this activity; you cannot collect data without IRB approval). 2. You must enter in 10 rows of data for all 10 variables (that is, create data for 10 mock participants). 3. Participant #1 must have missing data for Variable #3. Ensure this is coded correctly. Activity #2b: Exploratory Data Analysis Prior to conducting statistical tests that will evaluate your hypotheses, it is imperative to do what can be described as exploratory data analysis (EDA). Essentially, this entails visually examining your data and exploring, at a high level, any relationships intrinsic to the data. The end result is a comprehensive understanding of your data – this is a must prior to doing any hypothesis testing. Please remember this when you get to your dissertation. Spending time getting to know your data will expedite completion of your results sections. To Prepare for Activity #2b: View the SPSS Movie 4: Exporting SPSS Output into Word. It will be helpful for you to view this prior to reading the chapter, as understanding how to export output as you go will save you time in the completion of Activity #2b. This movie is available on the companion web site at: http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/SPSSstudentmovies.htm Download SPSS Data Sets. The visual displays you will be asked to create as part of Activity #2b are ones you will work through in this chapter. If you have not yet done so, download the zip folder of SPSS data from the companion web site. Open the Zip file and save the data sets, as you need them, to your computer (or you can right click on the zip file and select “extract all”). This activity requires the following data sets: • Downloadfestival.sav • Chickflick.sav • Hiccups.sav • Textmessages.sav • ExamAnxiety.sav Read Chapter 4 in the text. It will be to your advantage to have SPSS open on your computer as you work through chapter 4. While you are reading through this chapter and creating visual displays of data, consider the importance of understanding data at this basic level. View the SPSS Movie 8: Editing Graphs. This movie will help you understand how to edit your graphs. This movie is available on the companion web site at: http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/SPSSstudentmovies.htm Complete the Self-Tests within each chapter. Answers are available on the companion web site under the heading Additional Web Material in the Student Resource section (http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/additionalwebmaterial.htm). Complete Smart Alex’s Quizzes. Be sure to take Smart Alex’s Quiz at the end of the Chapter and spend time learning the concepts related to questions you answered incorrectly. Answers are available at: http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/SmartAlexAnswers.htm Optional Preparation for Activity #2b After completing the above activities, if you feel you need additional instruction on the concepts covered, please choose from any of the following activities that will assist you in mastering the core concepts. Interactive Multiple Choice Questions. You might find it helpful to complete the multiple choice quizzes available at: http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/MCQ.htm Flashcards. If what you need is gain a basic, definitional understanding of the topics, visit the Flashcard Glossary at: http://www.sagepub.com/field3e/Flashcard.htm Activity #2b Include the information in this activity with the Word document created for Activity #2a. You will create this Word document by cutting and pasting SPSS output into word. Part A. Creating Visual Displays of Data. For this activity you will copy and paste output you created while working in Chapter 4 into a Word document. Please read the instructions below to ensure you are pasting the correct material into your activity document (this chapter has you create many charts and not all are required for Activity #2). 1. Using the data set: DownloadFestival.sav, create a boxplot for males and females for the variable Day1. It is important that you change the outlier identified to 2.02 prior to creating the boxplot. Be sure to save the data set with a new name, indicating it is the corrected data set (outlier identified and corrected). Save this boxplot, with an appropriate title in your Activity #2 Word document. 2. Using the data set: ChickFlick.sav, create a clustered bar chart for independent means. The variables you will use are: Arousal, Film, and Gender (grouping variable). Be sure to display error bars and save your chart with an appropriate title in your Activity #2 Word document. 3. Using the data set: Hiccups.sav, create a clustered bar chart for related means. The variables you will use are: Baseline, Tongue Pulling, Carotid Artery Massage, Digital Rectal Massage. Be sure to display error bars, include labels for the X- and Y-axis, and save your chart with an appropriate title in your Activity #2 Word document. 4. Using the data set: Text Messages.sav (note: you may see an additional data set with the same name: TextMessages.sav – either will create the correct output), create a clustered bar chart for mixed designs. The variables you will use are: Time1, Time2, and Group. Be sure to display error bars, include labels for the X- and Y-axis, and save your chart with an appropriate title in your Activity #2 Word document. 5. Using the data set: Exam Anxiety.sav, create a scatterplot that includes a regression line. The variables you will use are: Exam Performance and Exam Anxiety. Be sure to include the regression line and save your chart with an appropriate title in your Activity #2 Word document. Part B. Why Exploratory Data Analysis? Write a short paragraph that highlights your understanding of why exploratory data analysis is a critical part of any analytical strategy (500 Word limit). This answer is worth 5 points (half the assigned points for this activity). To receive full credit you must show a high level of understanding the importance of exploring data visually. Submit your files in the Course Work area below the Activity screen. Learning Outcomes: 1, 3, 4, 10 Assignment Outcomes Review research methods and basic statistics as they relate to planning, conducting, and interpreting inferential statistics. Calculate, integrate, and evaluate descriptive statistical analysis. Create, integrate, and evaluate visual displays of data. Demonstrate proficiency in the use of SPSS.
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