# Extrinsic Motivation - PowerPoint by QHRDSL7

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```									                 Motivation
   Motivation: The desire to exert effort to

   Some background on the underlying
theory of motivation:
– Reinforcement Theory
Reinforcement Theory
   “Behavior is sensitive to its
consequences.”

   Law of Effect: Behaviors followed by net
positive outcomes will have their
probability of occurrence increase;
behaviors followed by net negative
outcomes will have their probability of
occurrence decrease.
Reinforcement Theory
   Four Types of Consequences

   Positive Reinforcement:

– Behavior followed by the presentation of a
positive consequence.
– Will increase the probability of that behavior
occurring again.
Reinforcement Theory
   Punishment

– Behavior followed by the presentation of a
negative consequence.
– Will decrease the probability of that behavior
occurring again.
Reinforcement Theory
   Extinction

– Behavior followed by taking away a positive
consequence.
– Will decrease the probability of that behavior
occurring again.
Reinforcement Theory
   Negative Reinforcement

– Behavior followed by taking away a negative
consequence.
– Will increase the probability of that behavior
occurring again.
Example of Reinforcement
Theory
Praise        Positive
Reinforcement

Correct
Refrain from     Negative
Public Reprimand Reinforcement
Prepare
Report
Offer no Praise   Extinction
Incorrect

Reprimand       Punishment
Schedules of Reinforcement
   Continuous
– Reinforce after every occurrence of the
behavior. Best for initial training.
   Fixed Interval
– Reinforce after the passing of a fixed period
of time.
– Example: Monthly pay
Schedules of Reinforcement
   Variable Interval
– Reinforce after the passing of a variable
period of time.
– Example: Bank examiners visit a certain
number of times per year, but there is no
warning.
– Example: We will have four pop quizzes
during the semester, but they are not
scheduled.
Schedules of Reinforcement
   Fixed Ratio
– Reinforce after the occurrence of a fixed
number of behaviors.
– Example: Commission pay plans, yearly
performance bonus.
   Variable Ratio
– Reinforce after the occurrence of a variable
number of behaviors
– Vending machine coin returns, slot machines,
Tips.
Which Schedule is Best?
   Most direct link between behavior and rewards.

   Most stable pattern of performance
– Wave Effect (Kids at Christmas)

   Paradox – least motivational is most used?
– Why?

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