Extrinsic Motivation - PowerPoint by QHRDSL7

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									                 Motivation
   Motivation: The desire to exert effort to
    perform a particular task.

   Some background on the underlying
    theory of motivation:
    – Reinforcement Theory
         Reinforcement Theory
   “Behavior is sensitive to its
    consequences.”

   Law of Effect: Behaviors followed by net
    positive outcomes will have their
    probability of occurrence increase;
    behaviors followed by net negative
    outcomes will have their probability of
    occurrence decrease.
         Reinforcement Theory
   Four Types of Consequences

   Positive Reinforcement:

    – Behavior followed by the presentation of a
      positive consequence.
    – Will increase the probability of that behavior
      occurring again.
         Reinforcement Theory
   Punishment

    – Behavior followed by the presentation of a
      negative consequence.
    – Will decrease the probability of that behavior
      occurring again.
         Reinforcement Theory
   Extinction

    – Behavior followed by taking away a positive
      consequence.
    – Will decrease the probability of that behavior
      occurring again.
         Reinforcement Theory
   Negative Reinforcement

    – Behavior followed by taking away a negative
      consequence.
    – Will increase the probability of that behavior
      occurring again.
Example of Reinforcement
        Theory
                           Praise        Positive
                                         Reinforcement

          Correct
                      Refrain from     Negative
                      Public Reprimand Reinforcement
Prepare
Report
                       Offer no Praise   Extinction
          Incorrect

                         Reprimand       Punishment
     Schedules of Reinforcement
   Continuous
    – Reinforce after every occurrence of the
      behavior. Best for initial training.
   Fixed Interval
    – Reinforce after the passing of a fixed period
      of time.
    – Example: Monthly pay
     Schedules of Reinforcement
   Variable Interval
    – Reinforce after the passing of a variable
      period of time.
    – Example: Bank examiners visit a certain
      number of times per year, but there is no
      warning.
    – Example: We will have four pop quizzes
      during the semester, but they are not
      scheduled.
     Schedules of Reinforcement
   Fixed Ratio
    – Reinforce after the occurrence of a fixed
      number of behaviors.
    – Example: Commission pay plans, yearly
      performance bonus.
   Variable Ratio
    – Reinforce after the occurrence of a variable
      number of behaviors
    – Vending machine coin returns, slot machines,
      Tips.
        Which Schedule is Best?
   Most direct link between behavior and rewards.

   Most stable pattern of performance
    – Wave Effect (Kids at Christmas)




   Paradox – least motivational is most used?
    – Why?

								
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