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Classical Greece Rome by 1M8a92Y0


Greece & Rome
   Chapter 4
1. Pericles              14.   Themistocles
2. Alexander the Great   15.   Thermopylae
3. Hellenistic Period    16.   Peloponnesian Wars
4. Punic Wars            17.   Philip II of Macedon
5. Julius Caesar         18.   Hannibal
6. Constantine           19.   Augustus Caesar
7. Carthage              20.   Polis
8. Roman Republic        21.   Tyranny
9. Senate                22.   Direct Democracy
10. Consuls              23.   Aristocracy
11. Aristotle            24.   Twelve Tables
12. Iliad                25.   Ptolemy
13. King Xerxes
I. Geography of Greece
   A. Mountains
      1. Impeded communication and allowed the
         creation of independent city-states…still had a
         common culture across the city states.
   B. The Sea
      1. Natural harbors and limited farm land
         increased the importance of the water
      2. Allowed the Greek city-states to develop trade
         networks and establish colonies
II. Patterns of Greek and Roman History
   A. Greece
      1. Crete        These two cultures, along with other
                      invading indo-Europeans mixed to
      2. Mycenae      create the Greek culture.
II. Leading Up to Classical Greece
   A. The Civilizations of Crete and Mycenae mixed to
      create the Greek culture.
B. The Minoans…Island of Crete (2000 – 1500 BCE)
   1. Monarchy…was a civilization based on trade
   2. Major palace at Knossos
   3. Contact with developing
      Mycenaean culture on
      the Greek mainland
      eventually led to the
      downfall of the Minoans

                                     Palace at Knossos

                            Trade was
                            vital to the
C. The Mycenaeans
   1. Indo-European people - invaded the Greek
      peninsula…began to form city-states by 1600 BCE
   2. Name came from their leading city, Mycenae
      a. Dominated the Aegean Sea from 1500-1200 BCE
      b. Cities were built on hills for protection.
   3. War against Troy?
   4. The Mycenaeans
      were conquered
      by the Dorians
D. The Greek Dark Ages…(1150 - 800 BCE)
   1. Period between the fall of the Mycenaeans and the
        rise of the city-states
   2. No written records
   3. Simplified political patterns - village communities
        led by kings (tribal leaders)
   4. Little to no trade (no word for merchant)
III. Classical Greece
   A. 800-600 BCE – growth of independent city-states
      1. Despite independence,
         a single Greek culture
         was established.
      2. Greek culture
         characterized by:
          a. A written language
              based on the
              Phoenician alphabet
          b. Shared polytheistic
          c. Regular celebrations
              including the Olympics to honor the gods.
3. Colonization…set up colonies around the Mediterranean
4. Warfare
   a. Warfare came to
      commoners…not just
   b. Phalanx - tight battle
      formation of hoplites.
   c. Hoplite – armored
      Greek citizen soldier
B. Government
   1. Polis (city-state)
   2. Government varied from city-state to city-state
       a. Sparta (military aristocracy) and Athens (direct
            democracy) were the leaders
       b. All citizens were expected to serve in the
   3. Acropolis…each city-state built a temple to its
      patron god on the highest
      hill (acropolis)
   4. Agora…open area used as
      a meeting place and for

                   The Agora in Athens today
C. Athens
   1. Large city-state with plentiful mineral deposits and
      good harbors
   2. Strong in the arts: literature and sculpture
   3. Strong in philosophy: Socrates and Plato
   4. Established numerous colonies
   5. Did engage in the practice of slavery
   6. Women in Athens
      a. Women secluded in the home…expected to have
         one child every two years…was their main role
      b. Girls married in early teens in arranged marriage
      c. Women seen as inferior…not worthy of a
7. Government included oligarchy, tyranny, and
   eventually, democracy
8. Solon instituted reforms giving poor
   greater voice in government
9. Age of Pericles
   a. Imperialist phase - Athens dominated
      Greece through Delian League (trade
      alliance with other city states) after
      the Persian Wars.
                b. Pericles increased            Solon
                   democratic institutions

                during the
              “Golden Age of
D. Sparta
   1. Militaristic state built on the slavery
      (serfdom) of the Helots
   2. Male children raised by the state
      a. Mandatory military service at age 7
   3. Females raised by wives
      a. Spartan women had more freedom
          than women in other city-states
   4. Disdained the arts; masters of the
      art of war
   5. Government                                 Spartan Hoplite

      a. Two Kings (to act as military leaders)
      b. Council of Elders (28 + 2 kings). Proposed
          motions to be voted on by citizen assembly.
E. Persian Wars
   1. 490 BCE – Darius
      invades and loses
      the Battle of
   2. 480 BCE – Xerxes

  Allows the Greek
  to remain
F. Peloponnesian Wars (431–404 BCE)…Sparta vs. Athens
   1. Causes: quarrels over colonies and fear of Athenian
         economic dominance
   2. Athens especially needed allies along waterways
         due to dependence on imports.
   3. Pericles’ strategy was to remain behind walls and
         supply Athens through its navy.
   4. The Spartans were unable to break through the
         walls of Athens.
   5. Plague killed 1/4 to 1/3 of the Athenian
      population…including Pericles.
   6. Eventually Athens falls to Sparta...left all city-states
         severely weakened…made them vulnerable to
   7. Greece could not withstand invasion by Macedonians
      under Philip II…became part of the Macedonian
City walls, walls
protecting road to
port, walls
protecting port
Empire at Philip’s
G. Alexander the Great…became emperor with the
   death of Philip
      a. Conquered Persia, Egypt, and attacked India
         --Attempted blending of Greek and Persian
            cultures through forced intermarriages
      b. Established Greek cities throughout empire
      c. Died in Babylon in 323 BCE at age 33
      d. Successors carved up empire
      e. Hellenistic Age established
H. Hellenistic Period (323–100 B.C.E.) – Greeks were
   known as Hellenes
    a. Through the conquests of the Greeks, their
        culture and art were mixed with many other
        civilizations. This extended their influence
        through areas well outside their borders.
         -- Ex: Alexandria in Egypt
IV. Rome
   A. Geography
      1. Few natural resources…although coastline was
         extensive, few natural harbors – limited
         seafaring skills
      2. Mainly agricultural
   B. Early Influences…the
      Etruscans and Greeks
      1. The Etruscans
         brought city-states,
         and trade routes
      2. The Greeks brought
         religion, alphabet
         and crops (grapes
         and olives)
C. Origins of Rome
   1. City-state of Rome founded in 753 BCE along the
      Tiber River, on the Seven Hills of Rome
   2. Myth of Romulus & Remus
D. Three Phases of Roman History
   1. The Kingdom (753-507 BCE)
   2. The Republic (27 BCE)
      a. Rule by Senate, Consuls,
         assemblies, and dictators
   3. The Empire (27 BCE – 476 CE)…Rule by emperors
E. Rome’s Republic
   1. Government
      a. Senate – Aristocratic
         they served for life
      b. Consuls – executives;
         each held veto power over the other
           --Could be chosen dictator in times of crisis
      c. Assemblies of the people…used to choose
         representatives for the senate
   2. Law codes – Rome’s first code of laws
      a. 12 Tables – 450 B.C.E.
         --Gave protection to the people…no longer
             would justice be administered on a whim.
             Even the upper classes would be subject to
             the law.
3. Class structure of the Roman Republic
   a. Patricians…wealthy, landowning families from
      origins of Rome
   b. Plebeians…farmers, soldiers, merchants; could
       --Intermarriage of classes forbidden until fourth
          century BCE
       --Power struggle between Patricians and
          Plebeians throughout Republic period
   c. Slaves
The seat of Roman government- the Forum
4. Punic Wars (264–146 B.C.E.)
       --Carthage and Rome wanted to control Western
           Mediterranean trade.
   a. 1st War…Rome wins, takes Sicily from Carthage
b. 2nd Punic War
   --Roman interferes in
       Carthaginian Spain
   --Hannibal…crosses the Alps
   --Battle of Cannae…horrible
       defeat for Rome
                                 The Mediterranean before
   --Battle of Zama…Hannibal         the 2nd Punic War
       defeated in
       north Africa
c. 3rd Punic War
   --Senator Cato
       Rome to
Second Punic War

Rome’s victory in
the Punic Wars
gave it firm control
over the trade in
the Western
Mediterranean Sea.
5. The First Triumvirate
   a. Julius Caesar, Crassus, Pompey
   b. Crassus killed by Parthians 53 BCE
   c. Senate support of Pompey versus
   d. Caesar had been a senator, consul,
         and general
       --became rich in Gaul (France)
   e. Caesar crosses the Rubicon…leads
       to civil war
   f. Caesar defeats Pompey
   g. Caesar made dictator 47 BCE
   h. Caesar initiates reforms…the Senate fears
       monarchy…Caesar assassinated 44 BCE
The assassination
 of Julius Caesar
5. The Second Triumvirate
   a. The Second Triumvirate Octavian, Marc Antony,
   b. Rome divided and ruled by Octavian and
      Antony…eventually leads to civil war
   c. Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra
   d. The deaths of Antony and
      Cleopatra allow Octavian
      (later Augustus) to become
      the first Emperor of Rome.

                    Caesar Augustus (Octavian)
F. Empire – Last 500 years
   a. Augustus Caesar (27 B.C.E. – 14 C.E.)
       --First Roman Emperor
   b. Romans promoted cultural unity through the
       Latin language, Roman law, and citizenship
   c. The Five Good Emperors – (96 – 180 C.E.)
       --Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and
          Marcus Aurelius
   d. Marcus Aurelius – Emperor at the end of the “Pax
       Romana”… a 200 year period of peace and
   e. After Aurelius the empire began a slow, but sure
   f. Constantine
       --Converted to Christianity
V. Roman Life
   A. Law
      1. Roman law was based on the Twelve Tables
         set in 450 BCE
      2. Law dealt with both citizen and non-citizen
      3. Standards included
         a. Innocent until proven guilty
         b. Right to a defense before a judge
         c. Responsibility of judge to weigh evidence
            before rendering verdict
 B. Roman Engineering

Roman baths were used as
meeting places where one could
not only bathe but eat, conduct
business, and be entertained
Roman aqueducts provided as much fresh water
   to Roman citizens as is provided today
Water was taken
from mountain
sources and moved
along underground
and aboveground
channels using the
force of gravity
A fountain could be
found at the
terminus of each
aqueduct to release
its pressure
Roman Roads
Hadrian’s Wall – Across Britain
C. Rich vs. Poor
D. Social Welfare…“Bread & Circus”
V. Religion and Culture of Greece and Rome
   A. Pantheon
      1. Zeus, Apollo, Neptune, Mars, Venus
Greek/Roman Gods
Zeus/Jupiter Lord of the sky and supreme ruler of the gods. Known for
throwing lightening bolts.
Poseidon/Neptune Ruler of the sea. Brother of Zeus. Carried a three-
pronged spear known as a trident.
Ares/Mars God of war and son of Zeus and Hera. Likes vultures and
Athena/Minerva Daughter of Zeus alone. She sprang from his head full-
grown and in full armor. The protector of civilized life, handicrafts, and
agriculture. Invented the bridle, and first to tame the horse. Likes
Athens, olives, and owls.
Apollo/Apollo Son of Zeus. Master musician, archer god, healer, god of
light, god of truth, sun god. A busy god who likes the laurel tree,
dolphins, and crows.
Aphrodite/Venus Daughter of Zeus. Goddess of Love and Beauty. Likes
the myrtle tree, doves, sparrows, and swans.
   2. Roman Emperors often proclaimed gods to gain
      support from masses
   3. Romans usually tolerant of other religions
B. Philosophy
   1. Socrates – Taught through questioning
   2. Plato – Pupil of Socrates
      a. Believed that humans had intellectual capacity
         to achieve true understanding
   3. Aristotle – Pupil of Plato
      a. Wrote on subjects from politics to
C. Sciences
   1. Ptolemy – Believed in a geocentric, not
      heliocentric model of the universe
   2. Pythagoras – Early geometric mathematics
D. Literature
   1. Sophocles – Greek playwright… famous for
      his drama, Oedipus
   2. Iliad, Odyssey – Greek epic plays
E. Arts
   1. Phidias – Greek sculptor…realistic versions of the
      human form
F. Rome and Christianity
   1. Use of Roman roads allowed Christianity to spread
   2. Persecution sporadic…based on perceived threat to
   3. Emperor Nero was the first to persecute Christians
   4. Church developed organizational structure with
       salaried priests and bishops
   5. Christianity widespread by 300’s CE
   6. Fulfilled need to belong, personal
       salvation…especially for the lower classes
   7. Last great persecution under Diocletian in fourth
       century CE
   8. Constantine – first Christian emperor
   9. Edict of Milan
   10. Christianity made state religion under Theodosius
Feeding Christians to the animals
VI. Economy and Society in the Mediterranean
   A. Agriculture
      1. Poor soils – led away from production of food
         crops such as wheat
      2. Market farms – produced crops to sell…forced
         farmers to buy their own food since they sold
         their grapes, olives, etc.
   B. Trade
      1. Grain – Mainly controlled by the government
         since supplies were vital to survival
      2. Luxuries – Mainly for upper classes
C. Society
   1. Slavery
      a. Was common from the time of early Greece in
         the Mediterranean
            --Domestic work, agriculture, etc.
      b. Justified military expansion in the Roman
      c. Eventually helped with the fall of Rome since
         free farmers couldn’t compete with farms that
         used slave labor
   2. Family – Patriarchal in both Greece and Rome
      a. Women treated better than China
VII. The Fall of Rome
  A. Loss in population due to plague, famine,
      and decrease in agricultural production
  B. Trade slowed…shrinking revenues
  C. Military defeats – inroads by Germanic tribes
  D. The population grew soft, corrupt, and decadent
  E. The Eastern Roman empire surpassed the
      Western empire in wealth…this led to a shift in
      political power
  F. Huns and Germanic tribes put increasing
      pressure on the Western empire
 C. Emperor Romulus Augustulus deposed 476 CE
 D. The Western empire disintegrates…the East
    survives as the Byzantine Empire

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