"Cross Cultural Communications"
Cross Cultural Communication Chapter 10 How We Relate to Nature CCC Chapter 10 1 Learning Outcomes Role people assign to their environments How people relate to Nature Inner directed Vs Outer directed Orientations CCC Chapter 10 2 Orientations Towards Nature Inner Directed cultures believes in “Can and should control Nature” by imposing their will on it Tends to identify with mechanisms : that is, the organization is conceived of as a machine that obeys the will of its operators Outer Directed cultures believes that “man is part of nature and must go along with its laws, directions, and forces” Tends to see an organization as itself a product of nature, owing its development to the nutrients in its environment and to favorable ecological balance. CCC Chapter 10 3 The Locus of Control Locus of Control refers to a generalized belief about the amount of control people have over their own lives. Measure of the amount of control people believe they have over their environment and their activities American Psychologist J.B. Rotter developed a scale to measure locus of control of people. Individuals who feel that they are very much in charge of their own destiny have an Internal locus of control Typical of more successful Americans • Individuals who feel that events in their life are due mainly to fate or luck have an External locus of control CCC Chapter 10 4 Locus of Control : Exercise I A. It is worthwhile trying to control important natural forces, like the weather B. Nature should take its course and we just have to accept it the way it comes and do the best we can Select the statement you believe most reflect reality CCC Chapter 10 5 Locus of Control : Exercise II A. What happens to me is my own doing B. Sometimes I feel that I do not have enough control over the directions my life is taking Select the statement you believe most reflect reality CCC Chapter 10 6 Findings : Exercise I & II Fig. 10.1 shows the percentage of respondents who chose A in Exercise – I No country produces a totally internalized reaction to this statement : highest score is 68% British, Germans and Americans are above the middle. Fig. 10.2 shows the percentage of respondents who chose A in Exercise – II Alternatives are made to appear more personally related. Number of countries are almost internalized. In America 82%of the managers believe that they control their destinies, as do 76% of French Japan and Singapore are far less likely to believe in internal control than they are in North America or Europe CCC Chapter 10 7 Control and Success In ancient days relationship between man and nature were confounded in a struggle with their fates. The post-industrial revolution society has made heroes of entrepreneurs, whose struggles to tame nature are not expected to end in tragedy. The American view, shaped by the experience of discovering a new continent of immense size and small indigenous population and turning a wilderness into a new nation. Success is identified with control over outside circumstances CCC Chapter 10 8 Control and Success However, internal versus external loci of control do not necessarily distinguish the successful from the less-successful in non American cultures. There are ways of adapting to external influences which can prove economically effective. To accept direction from customers, market forces or new technologies can be more advantageous than opposing these with your own preferences. CCC Chapter 10 9 Changing views of Nature Primitive Era Kind of nature - Organic Productive functions - arts : to form Philosophies - natural; natural world Focus of Control - external control Renaissance Era Kind of nature - mechanistic nature Productive functions – techniques : to transform Philosophies - mechanical; technical world Focus of Control - internal control Modern Era Kind of nature - cybernetic nature Productive functions – applied sciences : to develop Philosophies - scientific; social world Focus of Control - reconciliation of internal and external control CCC Chapter 10 10 Culture’s orientation to Nature Orientations to nature have much to do how we conduct our day-to-day lives and manage businesses. Cultures may seek to master nature, accept and be subjugated by it or live in the most effective harmony with it Nature is both controllable by man and liable to show sudden reversals of relative strength, becoming man’s master, not slave Neither situation is very stable nor very desirable, since a subjugated nature may fall to sustain man on earth. CCC Chapter 10 11 Reconciling Internal and External Control Fig. 10.4 shows that too much inner directedness can lead to the lack of market Conversely an overtly developed customer focus risks leaving the organization at the mercy of market forces For optimum performance, inner and outer directedness have to be reconciled. CCC Chapter 10 12 Exercise – III Reconciling Internal and External Control Several senior strategists were discussing whether strategy should be devised at the top of the corporation and “cascaded down” to be implemented locally, or emerge from the grassroots and successful interfaces with customers. The following views were expressed: 1. No one dealing with customers is without a strategy of sorts. Our task is to find out which of these strategies work, which don’t and why. Devising our own strategy in the abstract and imposing it downwards only speeds confusion. 2. No one dealing with customers is without a strategy of sorts. Our task is to find out which of these strategies work, and then create a master strategy from proven successful initiatives by commending and combining the best. 3. To be a leader is to be the chief deviser of strategy. Using all the experience, information and intelligence we can mobilize, we devise an innovative strategy and cascade it down to be vigorously implemented. 4. To be a leader is to be the chief deviser of strategy. Using all the experience, information and intelligence we can mobilize, we create a broad trust, leaving it to the subordinates to fit these to customer needs. Indicate with “1” the approach you believe would be favored by your closest colleague at work, and with “2” the approach which you believe would be their second choice. CCC Chapter 10 13 Exercise – III Reconciling Internal and External Control Answer 1 affirms an outer-directed strategy and rejects inner direction Answer 3 represents the opposite Answer 2 affirms a connection between an outer-directed strategy and an inner-directed strategy Answer 4 affirms the opposite connection CCC Chapter 10 14 Recognizing the Differences INTERNAL CONTROL EXTERNAL CONTROL Often dominating attitude Often flexible attitude, willing to bordering on aggressiveness compromise and keep the towards environment. peace. Conflict and resistance means Harmony and responsiveness, that you have convictions. that is, sensibility. Focus is on self, function, own Focus is on “other”, that is, group and own organization. customer, partner or colleague. Discomfort when environment Comfort with waves, shifts, seems “out of control” or cycles if these are “natural”. changeable CCC Chapter 10 15 Tips for doing business with: Internally controlled Externally controlled (for externals) (for internals) Playing “hardball” is legitimate Softness, persistence, politeness to test the resilience of an and long long patience will get opponent. rewards. It is most important to “win It is most important to your objective”. “maintain your relationship”. Win some, lose some. Win together, lose apart. CCC Chapter 10 16 When Managing and being Managed Internally Controlled Externally controlled 1. Get agreement on and 1. Achieve congruence among ownership of clear objectives. various people’s goals. 2. Make sure that tangible goals 2. Try to reinforce the current are clearly linked to tangible directions and facilitate the rewards work of employees 3. Discuss disagreements and 3. Give people time and conflicts openly; these show opportunities to work quietly that everyone is determined. through conflicts; these are 4. Management-by-objective distressing. works if everyone is genuinely 4. Management-by-environments committed to directing works if everyone is genuinely themselves towards shared committed to adapting objectives and if these persist. themselves to fit external demands as these shift. CCC Chapter 10 17