Basic First Aid by cu0Y5Y


									Basic First Aid
  By: Amberly Javar

 It is important to understand the basic first
  aid principles
 You must be certified by a trained instructor
  in order to be totally qualified
 Course is available in most communities
What is First Aid?
          Why learn First Aid?
   Accidents are the
    leading cause of death
    in people ages 1-38
   Time is such a critical
   Self-help as well as
    helping others can
    save lives
   Preparation for
           What do you do first?
   Take action – set priorities      Don’t move victim unless
    based on the type of               they are in danger
    injuries                          Look for emergency
   Call for help                      medical identifications,
   Ensure the victim has an           such as a band or bracelet
    open airway                       Avoid or overcome chilling
   Control bleeding                  Find out what happened
   Give first aid for poisoning      Examine the victim
                                      Carry out the indicated first
  Caused by
   common            Abrasion: outer skin is
  accidents:          damaged – little bleeding
 falls, vehicle      Incision: a cut – heavy
accidents and         rapid bleeding
 mishandling         Laceration: jagged break
sharp objects         of tissue – heavy, rapid
                     Puncture: a small hole in
                      the tissue – bleeding
                     Avulsions: torn tissue
           First aid procedures

   Call for help!             Cleanse the area if it is
   Stop the bleeding –         not bleeding
    apply direct pressure      Do not move the
    to the wound and            injured area
    elevate the body part      Attend for shock
   Protect the wound
    from contamination
    and infections
   Use a dressing
       First aid for animal bites

   Call for help!
   Stop the bleeding and
    cleanse the area
   Apply a dressing
   Do not move the
    injured area
   Restrain the animal
First aid for Closed wounds

                 Call for help!

                 Maintain open airway

                 Keep victim from

   Signs of Shock
       Pale skin                 Treatment
       Moist skin                    Keep victim lying down
       Weakness of victim            Cover the victim to
       Rapid Pulse                    prevent loss of body
       Shallow, deep, rapid           heat
        breathing                     Get medical help
       Vomiting
    Respiratory Emergencies &
       Artificial Respiration
 When normal breathing stops or is reduced
  you have a respiratory emergency! Artificial
  respiration is a procedure for causing air
  flow into and out of a person’s lungs.
 The average person may die in 6 minutes if
  his/her oxygen supply is cut off
   All communities have organizations that offer
    training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
    Many of these training courses are free. It is
    worthwhile to take on of these courses. They will
    off training demonstration and practice (on
    dummies) in the currently advised methods of
    treatment for cardiopulmonary arrest
   When a victim is revived – treat for shock
   Always continue artificial respiration until:
       The victim breathes for his/herself
       Is pronounced dead by a doctor
Mouth - to - Mouth
            Do not move the victim
            Loosen the clothing
            Remove foreign matter
            Tilt head back and listen
             for breathing
            Pinch nose
            Blow air into the victim’s
            Watch chest
            Repeat
       Chest Pressure Arm Lift

   Remove foreign matter
   Place victim face-up
   Kneel at head, grasp his/her wrist and cross over
    his/her lower chest
   Rock forward
   Rock back and pull arms out and up over his/her
   Repeat
   Watch for vomiting
       Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
      This is a technique of                    Involves the following
       manually forcing a                         steps:
       person’s heart to beat                         A: Airway opening
       and his/her lungs to                           B: Breathing restored
       breathe                                        C: Circulation restored
                                                      D: Definitive therapy
      It should be carried out by qualified persons. You must be certified by the
  American Red Cross in order to administer CPR properly. We are only attempting
                          to acquaint you with the procedure.
The heart and lungs work together. A lack of air will eventually cause the heart to stop.
     When this occurs, CPR is needed. CPR combines mouth-to-mouth artificial
  respiration and chest compressions. By giving CPR you breathe and circulate the
                                  blood for a person
Review of mouth-to-mouth

        Click for

              General Rhythm

   The general rhythm for one person CPR
    given to an adult is:
     15 compressions (in 10 to 15 seconds) then 2
      quick breaths
     Check the pulse every few minutes. Continue
      until help arrives or pulse breathing is restored
             General Rhythm

   Two person CPR is more effective. It allows
    more air to be given and is less tiring. The
    general rhythm for two person CPR is given
    to an adult is:
     5 compressions, then 1 breath. Repeat
     Check the pulse every few minutes.
     Continue until help arrives or until pulse and
      breathing are restored
Swallows objects and choking
   The objective of first        If you suspect that
    aid for a person who is        someone is choking,
    choking, is to allow the       ask “Are you choking?”
    victim to assume a            If the victim can
    comfortable position           answer or is coughing,
    and encourage                  let him/her continue
    him/her to cough               coughing
                                  Only if the victim
                                   cannot breathe or
                                   speak, should you give
                                   the Heimlich Maneuver
        The Heimlich Maneuver

   Stand behind the victim
   Wrap your arms around the victim’s waist.
   Make a fist with one hand.
   Place your fist (thumb side) against the victim’s
    stomach in the center just above the navel and
    well below the rib margin
   Grasp your fist with your other hand
   Press into stomach with a quick upper thrust
   Repeat
      Victim is unconscious or
       becomes unconscious
 Sweep inside the victim’s mouth with your
 Attempt mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration
 Give 6-10 abdominal thrust and repeat the
  process as long as necessary
Break Time ???
      Do you want a break
  Do you want to continue?
       Always call the nearest Poison
        Control Center, local hospital,
        family doctor, or emergency
        services number (911) in the
        case of actual or suspected
       When someone takes a poison
        into the body it must be
        neutralized as quickly as
        possible. Vomiting (in some
        cases) must be induced,
        respiration maintained, vital
        functions preserved and medical
        assistance provided
   When you know it’s not an acid       When you don’t know what it
    or petroleum product:                 was:
       Dilute with water/milk               Dilute with water or milk
       Induce vomiting (unless the          Try to find out what the poison
        victim is drowsy or                   what
        unresponsive)                        Get help
       Get help                         Sometimes people are poisoned
                                          by contact with chemicals or
                                          poisonous plants: If this
                                             Remove contaminated clothing
                                             Wash the area
                                             Apply soothing skin lotion
                                             Get medical advice
                 Food poisoning

   Other items they may
    be poisoned by eating
    spoiled/bad seafood. If
    this happens:
       Induce vomiting
       Dilute poison
       Treat for shock
       Get medical help
Poison by insects

            Apply cold compresses
             to the area

            Apply soothing lotion
             to the area
             Snake Poisoning

   Keep victim quiet and
    reassure him/her

   Get medical help as
    soon as possible

   An injury that is the result of heat, chemical
    agent or radiation is a burn. They vary in:
     Depth
     Size
     Severity

         Burns   are classified as first, second, or third degree.

                        1st degree
              First Degree burns

   Redness

   Mild Swelling

   Rapid healing

   Treatment:
       Apply cold water and
                                   2nd degree
Second Degree Burning
              Greater depth
              Red or matted appearance
              Blisters
              Swelling
              Wet appearance of the
              Treatment:
                  Immerse in cold water
                  Apply cloths (cold, wet)
                  Dressing

                                      3rd degree
              Third degree burns
   Deep tissue
   White, charred
   Loss of layers of skin
   Treatment:
       Cover with thick, sterile
       Elevate
       Get help
                     Heat Exhaustion
                                Signs:
                                    Pale and clammy skin
                                    Profuse perspiration
                                    Headache, cramps
                                    Nausea
Heat exhaustion is                  Fainting
a response to heat
 characterized by               Treatment:
fatigue, weakness                   Salt water (sips)
 or collapse often
                                    Lie victim down, raise feet
caused by lack of
     water to                       Loosen victim’s clothing
  compensate for                    Apply cool cloths
   loss of fluids
through sweating
                        Heat Stroke
   Signs:
       Hot, red and dry skin
       High temperature
       Rapid pulse
       May be unconscious
   Treatment:
       If victim is unresponsive,
        check the airway and be
        sure the victim is breathing
                                       Heat stroke is a response to heat
       Cool the body immediately      characterized by extremely high
        by sponging with water
                                            body temperature and
       Do not cause shivering            disturbance of the body’s
       Call for help                        sweating mechanism.
                                          It can be life threatening!
Heat Cramps

         Signs:
             Cramping of leg and
              arm muscles
         Treatment:
             Pressure with hands on
              the cramped muscle or
             Sips of salt water

          Heat cramps are muscular pains
          and spasms due largely to loss of
               Sudden Illness

   Illness is often not related to injury, but can
    arise due to a crisis.

   Sudden illnesses can be dangerous to one’s

   Medical attention is very important.
                      Heart Attack

   Signs:                             Treatment:
       Chest Pains                        Call for help
       Shortness of breath                Keep victim
       Bluish color of the lips.           comfortable, usually
        Skin and fingernails                sitting up!
       Shock                              If victim is not
       Extreme exhaustion                  breathing, begin
                                            artificial respiration
       Sweating
                                           Do not give liquids

      Did you know?...
          every 53 seconds a person in the
           U.S. has a stroke? 160,000 people
           under the age of 65 have a stroke
           every year?
          stroke is the leading cause of
           adult disability and third-leading
           cause of death?
          there are 4.5 million stroke
           survivors alive today?

   Signs:                         Treatment:
       Possible                       Call a doctor
        unconsciousness                Keep victim calm
       Headache                       Protect from harm
       Paralysis or weakness
        on one side
       Confusion
       Disturbance in
       Slurred speech
                                          Fainting is partial or
                                            complete loss of
                            Fainting    consciousness caused by
                                       a reduced supply of blood
                                        to the brain for a short
   Signs:
       Paleness
       Sweating
       Cold skin
       Dizziness
       Nausea
       Blurred Vision
   Treatment:
       Leave victim lying down
       Loosen tight clothing
       Observe after recovery
   To summarize, no
    matter what the
    emergency, do your
    best to remain calm
    and keep control of
    the situation.

   Know your
    limitations and seek
    medical attention as
    quickly as possible.
Do your skills check
       On pages 125-126
You have 15 minutes
       Answers to Skills Check

   1. A              6. D
   2. C              7. C
   3. B              8. C/D
   4. C              9. D
   5. B              10. D

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