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过去分词的逻辑主语必须和句子

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过去分词的逻辑主语必须和句子 Powered By Docstoc
					The verb-ed form
Can you tell the function of the
verb-ing in the following sentences?
 The teacher’s encouraging words made
 all the students regain confidence.
                       the attribute
 The story he told us was very exciting.
                                   the predicative
 I watched the athletes jumping from the
 diving board into the swimming pool.
         object complement
A verb-ed form can also serve as attribute ,
predicative and object complement. When
the verb-ed form is used as an attribute,
it can be changed into an attribute clause.
Now please tell the use of the verb-ed form
in the following sentences.
1.I don't like canned food; I prefer
  something fresh.
2. China has no time to lose to catch up
   with the developed countries in the world.
3. The man delivering mails to my office
   every day is a retired worker.

The verb-ed forms in these sentences are
all used as the attribute. And a verb-ed
can appear after a noun to modify the
noun like an attributive clause does.
Can you change the following
attributive clauses into verb-ed form?
(1) We should drink water which has been boiled.
   We should drink boiled water.
(2) They took the woman who was injured to the
   nearby hospital at once
  They took the injured woman to the nearby
   hospital at once.
(3) The kidnappers were using a car which was
    stolen.
  The kidnappers were using a stolen car.
(4) The dark-haired man went into the room.
    The man who was dark-haired went
    into the room.
(5) The name which was mentioned in the
    letter was unknown to me.
     The name mentioned in the letter was
     known to me.
(6) The firemen were trying to rescue the
    people who were trapped in the fire.
  The firemen were trying to rescue the
  people trapped in the fire.
Look at the following sentences:

(1) Edison became interested in science when
    he was very young.
(2)The little boy was very excited when he
   heard that he could go to the party.

 The verb-ed forms interested and excited
 in the two sentences are used as
 predicatives. They follow link verbs.
(1) The cake was left untouched on the table.
(2) The girl lay trapped under the wreckage.

In these sentences, the verb-ed forms
are used as adverbs.
(1) He tried to make himself understood by
    his students in class.
(2) I had my hair cut yesterday.
The verb-ed forms are used as the
object complements in the sentences.
    The verb-ed form can express different
    meanings, that is, the passive and the
    past meaning. For example:
           English is a widely used language.
passive




          =English is a language which is used widely.
           He always wears thick glasses and holds a
           book in his hand, which makes his neighbours
           think he is a well-educated man.
           = He always wears thick glasses and holds a
           book in his hand, which makes his neighbours
           think he is a man who is well-educated.
       The ground is covered with fallen leaves
       when autumn wind blows.
       =The ground is covered with leaves which
past




       have fallen when autumn wind blows.

       Some countries like the USA and Japan
       are developed countries.
       = Some countries like the USA and Japan
       are countries which have developed.
A verb-ed can be used after verbs like
stand, sit and lie to show that the two
actions are happening at the same time.
 The girl lay in bed lost in thought.
 = The girl lay in bed and was lost in thought.

The boy sat at the table buried in his homework.
= The boy sat at the table and was buried in his
homework.
A verb-ed phrase is actually a verb-ed
followed by an object and /or adverbial.
Verb-ed phrases especially the passive
ones can be used to express the time,
the reason and the condition.

Can you rewrite the following sentences ,
using clauses introduced by
when ,once ,because, if, unless…?
(1)Frightened by the scene, the girl did
   not dare go out alone.
  Because she was frightened by the scene,
  the girl did not dare go out alone.
(2) Once seen , it can never be forgotten.
   Once it is seen, it can never be forgotten.

(3) Unless invited , I will not go to the party.

   Unless I am invited, I will not go to the party.
(4) Given another five days, I could finish
    it in time.
   If I was given another five days, I could
  finish it in time.
(5) Lost in thought, he almost ran into the
   car in front of him.
   Because he was lost in thought, he almost
   ran into the car in front of him.
(6) When told the news, he couldn’t help crying.
   When he was told the news, he couldn’t
   help crying.
NOTE:


 过去分词的逻辑主语必须和句子
 的主语保持一致.
The differences between verb-ed forms
and the verb-ing forms:

(1)作状语:分词的逻辑主语和句子的主语保持
一致的情况下,如果分词和句子的主语之间在
逻辑上是被动关系,用过去分词,否则用现在
分词。分词短语也可以有自己的逻辑主语,这
种结构称为独立主格结构。分词作状语可以相
当于一个状语从句。现在分词的被动式,习惯
上不作伴随状语。注意比较下面的句子:
   Seen from the space, the earth looks blue.
= When it is seen from space, the earth looks blue
     Kept in refrigerator, these vegetables will
     remain fresh.
= If they are kept in refrigerator, these vegetables
  will remain fresh.

 Walking in the street, I came across an old friend.
= When I was walking in the street, I came
  across an old friend.
After his journey from abroad, Richard Jones
returned home, being exhausted. (误)
After his journey from abroad, Richard Jones
returned home, exhausted.(正)

Her grandfather being ill, she had to stay at
home looking after him.

                  独立主格机构
(2) 作表语:一般来说,表示心理状态的动词
如excite, interest等都是及物动词,汉语意
思不是“激动”,“高兴”,而是“使激动”、
“使高兴”,因而现在分词应该是“令人激动的”、
“令人高兴的”,过去分词则是“感到激动的”和
“感到高兴的”。所以,凡表示“令人……的”
都是-ing形式,凡是表示“感到……”都用
-ed形式。换句话说,-ed形式常和人有关,
-ing形式常和物有关。look, expression等词
作主语时常用-ed形式作表语,但有时要看具
体情况。请在下面的几组句中体会他们的区别。
The news was very exciting. I was excited at it..

The book is interesting.    He is interested in it.

The question is puzzling.    His look is puzzled.

His expression was frightening. I was frightened.

这类词有很多,如:
delighting令人高兴的-delighted感到高兴的
disappointing令人失望的-disappointed感到失望的
 encouraging令人鼓舞的-encouraged感到鼓舞的
 pleasing令人愉快的-pleased感到愉快的
 satisfying令人满意的-satisfied感到满意的
 surprising令人惊异的-surprised感到惊异的

 worrying令人担心的-worried感到担心的
tiring令人疲倦的- tired感到疲倦的
boring 令人厌烦的-bored 感到厌烦的
(3) 作定语:过去分词做定语与其修饰词
之间是动宾关系或过去分词表示的动作
已完成;现在分词作定语表示动作正在
发生,与修饰词是主谓关系。
The picture hanging on the wall is painted
by my nephew.
The building being built is a hospital.
The flowers smelling sweet in the botanic
 garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature
Linda worked for the Minnesota Manufacturing
 and Mining Company, known as 3M.
The key to solving the problem is to meet the
demand made by the customers.
Prices of daily goods bought through a
 computer can be lower than store prices.
便于记忆-ed形式和-ing形式作表语及作
定语时的区别的句子:

I am interested in the interesting book.
He was excited at the exciting news.
The parents were disappointed about
their disappointing son.
Mr. Smith, tired of the boring speech,
started to read a novel.
(4)作补语:跟分词作宾补的动词有:
catch, have get, keep, hear, find,
 feel, leave, make, want, start,
notice, observe, watch, set等。
在复合宾语中,用现在分词作宾补,
说明宾语是动作的发出者,形成逻
辑上的主谓关系;用过去分词作宾补,
表示宾语是动作的承受者,构成逻辑
上的动宾关系。
There was so much noise that the speaker
couldn’t make himself heard
When he awoke, he found himself being
looked after by an old woman.
Just now I caught him stealing things from
the supermarket.
 Laws that punish parents for their little
 children’s actions against the laws get
 parents worried.
 NOTE:非谓语动词使用条件: 一个句子当
 中,已经存在一个主句(谓语动词),
 又没有连词的情况下, 还有别的动词出现时。
并非分词的逻辑主语都要和句子的主语一致。
此时的分词短语又可称为垂悬状语。有些动
词不定式也可以这样运用。常见的这种情况有:
Strictly speaking, smoking is not allowed here.
Judging from what he said, he is a southerner.
Taken as a whole, there is nothing important
in his speech.
To tell you the truth, I don’t like English teacher.
To speak frankly, I don’t agree with you about
the case.
 动词-ed的逻辑主语
 所作句子 表语              定语        状语      宾补
 成分

 逻辑主语 句子的主 所修饰的 句子的 句子的宾语
      语    词    主语
                  链接高考
1.The managers discussed the plan that they
would like to see _______the next year.
(2000全国)
A.carry out B.carrying out
C.carried out D.to carry out
2. ________ the general state of his health,
it may take him a while to recover from the
operation. (2000北京春季)
A.Given              B. To give
C. Giving            D. Having given
3. As we joined the big crowd I got _________
   from my friends. (01全国)
 A. separated B. spared C. lost             D. missed
4. It shames me to say it, but I told a lie when___
 at the meeting by my boss. (04全国IV)
  A. questioning    B. have questioned
  C. questioned     D. to be questioned
5. You should understand the traffic rule by now.
   You've had it____ often enough. (05天津卷)
  A. explaining      B. to explain
  C. explain         D. explained
6. The research is so designed that once
  _____ nothing can be done to change it.
(02全国)
A.begins          B.having begun
C.beginning       D.begun
7. ________ in the mountains for a week, the
 two students were finally saved by the local
 police (05江苏卷)
A.Having lost    B. Lost
C. Being lost    D. Losing
8. ______ in a white uniform, he looks
  more like a cook than a doctor. (05湖南卷)
A.Dressed      B. To dress
C. Dressing    D. Having dressed

9._____ time, he’ll make a fist-class tennis
 player. (03北京)
 A.Having given    B. To give
 C. Giving         D. Given
 10. The repairs cost a lot, but it’s money
     well   . (05湖北卷)
    A.to spend           B.spent
    C.being spent        D.spending

11. Laws that punish parents for their little
   children’s actions against the laws get
   parents     . (04重庆)
  A.worried            B. to worry
  C. worrying          D. worry
12.A man is being questioned in relation
  to the ________ murder last night. (04江苏)
 A.advised          B. attended
 C. attempted       D. admitted

13. The prize of the game show is $30,000 and
    an all expenses ___vacation to China.
    (05北京卷)
  A.paying           B. paid
  C. to be paid      D. being paid
 14. ______ into use in April 2000, the hotline
 was meant for residents reporting water and
 heating supply breakdowns. (05上海卷)
 A.Put             B. Putting
 C. Having put     D. Being put
 15. Helen had to shout _____ above the
     sound of the music. (04广西)
A. making herself hear   B. to make herself hear
C. making herself heard D. to make herself heard
16.with the size of the whole earth , the
   biggest ocean does not seem big at all
 (04湖北)
 A.Compare            B.When comparing
 C.Comparing          D.When compared
17.___by the beauty of nature , the girl from
  London decided to spend another two days
  on the farm . (04辽宁)
  A.Attracting          B.Attracted
  C.To be attracted     D.Having attracted
18. When first______ to the market,
   these products enjoyed great success.
 (04全国II)
  A. introducing      B. introduced
  C. introduce        D. being introduced
19. The disc, digitally _____ in the studio,
    sounded fantastic at the party that night.
    (04上海)
    A. recorded            B. recording
   C. to be recorded       D. having recorded
20. Sarah, hurry up. I’m afraid you won’t
have time to ______ before the party.
(04全国I)
A. get changed           B. get change
C. get changing          D. get to change
21. ____ and happy, Tony stood up and
   accepted the prize. (2006全国)
A. Surprising          B. Surprised
C. Being surprised     D. To be surprising
               Consolidation
I. Multiple choice:
1.--- What’s the language _______ in
      New Zealand?
  --- English.
 A.speaking        B. spoken
 C. be spoken      D. to speak
2. The car _______ in Germany in the 1960s
   looks old now.
 A.produced    B. producing
 C. to produce D. which produced
3. --- You’d better have your sports jacket
        _____. It’s too dirty.
    --- Thanks. I will.
A. to wash B. washed       C. washing D. wash


4. Yesterday I heard a story _______ by my
  friend.

A. told   B. telling    C. to tell   D. tell
5. The pilot asked all the passengers on
   board to remain _____as the plane was
   making a landing.
 A. seat   B. seating C. seated D. to be seating
6. _____ to sunlight for too much time will do
  harm to one’s skin.

 A. Exposed          B. Having exposed
 C. Being exposed D. After being exposed
7. Generally speaking, when _____
   according to the directions, the drug
   has no side effect.
   A.taking     B. taken
   C. to take    D. to be taken
8. The first textbooks _____ for teaching
  English as a foreign language came out
  in the 16th century.
 A.having been written       B. to be written
 C. being written            D. written
9. Is this the watch you wish _____?

  A.to have repaired       B. to repair it
  C. to have it repaired   D. will be repaired
10. _____ many times, but he still couldn't
  understand it.
 A.Having been told
 B. Though he had been told
 C. He was told       D. Having told
II. Translation:
  1. 这扇朝南的窗户是破的。

  The window facing the south is broken.
  2. 我们的班主任是一位受人爱戴的女性。

  Our head teacher is a woman loved by all.
  3. 我今天收到的那封信是我哥哥寄来的。

The letter that reached me today is from
my brother.
4. 输掉那场比赛后,她看上去很失望。

She looked disappointed after she lost
the game.
5. 从山顶看这座城市时,它看起来很壮丽。

 Seen from the top of the hill, the city
looks significant .
6. 那位教授在学生们的簇拥下,兴高采烈地坐在那儿

Surrounded by his students , the professor
sat there cheerfully .
1. figure out :
   to finally understand something or
   someone, or find the solution to a
   problem after a lot of thought:
  [+ question word]
  我不能理解他为什么做这件事.
  I can't figure out why he did it.

  你能算出第五个问题的答案吗?
 Can you figure out the answer to question 5?
2. puzzle : v. [I + adverb or preposition; T]
         to feel confused and slightly worried

    调查的发现使我困惑.
  The findings of the survey puzzle me
   [+ question word]
    她为什么那样说使我很困惑.

  It puzzles me why she said that.
     [S] a situation which is difficult
n.     to understand:
     [C] a game or toy in which you have
         to fit separate pieces together, or
         a problem or question which you
         have to answer by using your skill
         or knowledge:

多年来科学家门一直在尽力解开这一谜底.
Scientists have been trying to solve this
puzzle for years.
a crossword puzzle
puzzled adj. confused because you
            do not understand something:

 他脸上有一丝感到困惑的表情.
 He had a puzzled look on his face.
 至于她为什么那样说我仍然感到困惑.

I'm still puzzled as to why she said that.

 我很久没有收到Tom的来信我感到困惑.
I'm a bit puzzled that I haven't heard
from Tom for so long.
puzzling adj.
    difficult to explain or understand:
    Eg. It's a rather puzzling film.
        a puzzling situation
3. cautious :
  1) describes someone who avoids risks:

 2) describes something which is careful,
    well considered and sometimes slow
    or uncertain:
当他骑自行车的时候,他很小心。
He was cautious when he was riding the
 bicycle.
a cautious approach
cautiously   adv.
 caution     n.
我们需要谨慎前进.

We need to proceed with caution
4. worth : adj.
  having a particular value, especially
    in money:
  我们的房子价值20万英镑.
  Our house is worth about £200 000.
 (1)be worth sth.: to be important or
    interesting enough to receive a
    particular action:

   我认为这件事值得我们注意.
  I think this matter is worth our attention.
(2) be worth having/doing sth. :
    to be important or useful to have or do:
   这张报纸上没什么值得读的.

There's nothing worth reading in this newspaper.

   worthless : adj.
having no value in money/valueless
/unimportant or useless:

 NOTE: The opposite is invaluable/priceless.
相关有用的表达:
 It’s worth the money.
=It’s good value for the money.
 be (well) worth doing sth.
A bird in the hand (is worth two in the bush) :
 两鸟在林,不如一鸟在手。

 be worth it :to be of reasonable or good
              value for the price:
与worthy及worthwhile的区别:
 worthy:adj.
 worthy of sth :
 suitable for, or characteristic of something:
 worthy to be done / worthy of being done
 worthwhile : adj.

 句型:It’s worthwhile doing/to do sth.
       做某事是值得的。
译:这个问题值得讨论。
The question is worth discussing.
The question is worthy of discussion.

The question is worthy of being discussed.

The question is worthy to be discussed.
It’s worthwhile discussing/to discuss the
  question.
Discussing/To discuss the question is
 worthwhile.

				
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posted:10/3/2012
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