From Climate to Weather in New England by K2Tytb9

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									The Weather that Makes the
          Dots
       TESSE 22 July 2008
             Eric Kelsey
  Institute for the Study of Earth,
     Ocean and Space - UNH
             600             Projected Concentration After 50 More Years of Unrestricted
                             Fossil Fuel Burning


             500

                   Temperature Cycle over 7 Glacial Cycles
             400




             300


             280
             260
             240
CO2 [ppmv]




             220
             200
             180




                   600,000   500,000      400,000       300,000      200,000      100,000   0
                                                    Age (yr BP)
600               Projected Concentration After 50 More Years of Unrestricted
                  Fossil Fuel Burning


500

       Seasonal Temperature Cycle over 7 Years?
400




      Year 1
        600,000     2
                  500,000        3
                               400,000       4
                                             300,000     5200,000 6100,000      7   0
                                         Age (yr BP)
600             Projected Concentration After 50 More Years of Unrestricted
                Fossil Fuel Burning


500

      Diurnal Temperature Cycle over 7 Days?
400




      Mon
      600,000   Tue
                500,000     Wed
                            400,000        Thu
                                          300,000        Fri
                                                        200,000      Sat Sun
                                                                     100,000 0
                                      Age (yr BP)
   Temperature at
Mount Washington, NH




       June 2007
            Climate vs Weather
climate-                           weather-
Meteorological elements that       The state of the atmosphere
  characterize the average           with respect to heat or cold,
  and extreme conditions of          wetness or dryness, calm or
  the atmosphere over a long         storm, clearness or
  period of time at any one          cloudiness.
  place or region of the earth's
  surface.
   (Environment Canada)               (Massachusetts Dept. of Education)
Fractals
                             Fractals
                               -fronts
 cool
                  warm




Supercell Thunderstorm
                           cool
                                  warm




   Extratropical cyclone
        Supercell in southeast NH July 18, 2008
            Prompted issue of Tornado Warning for Durham
                       and surrounding towns




  Supercell with
small hook-echo
Storm Reports
Storm Prediction Center
US water vapor imagery
If above link doesn’t work you can get it here:
http://rap.ucar.edu/weather/satellite
How do clouds form?
   Cool air until it is saturated




- also, radiative cooling until air reaches saturation: fog
Cohos Trail near Dixville Notch




       orographic uplift
 What weather phenomena
impact New England weather
        and climate?
Time and Space Scales of
  Weather Phenomena
Common Storm Tracks
            cold, dry
             Alberta Clipper



      Colorado (Lee) Low

                                      moist

                               warm

                    Coastal Track
             warm, moist
Orographic Effects
Seabreeze
Ocean & Lake Effect Snow




   Short-lived, localized events
Gulf Stream & Gulf of Maine SSTs




                              NOAA
Westerly Mid-latitude Winds
    Nor’easters, Coastal Storms




                        Energy gained from contrast between
                        cold-dry and warm-moist air masses
Blizzard of Feb. 2006
Hurricanes
Hurricane Bob 1991
      ENSO: Tropical Pacific SST

El Niño (Dec. 1997)                      La Niña (Dec. 2000)




               http://www.elnino.noaa.gov/lanina.html
El Nino-Southern Oscillation:
     Tropical Pacific SST




          http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/ensocycle/meanrain.html
           North Atlantic Oscillation


  +Warmer and
    less snow


Variability on
Order of
Weeks


     -Colder and
      more snow
Land Use Effects
Mount Washington
                      Fun Facts
• July:                          Coldest month: January
warmest month                      (14F ave high)
(ave high: 54F)


2nd driest month (8.02”)         Wettest: November (10.49” ave)

Least snowiest: 1.1” most ever   Snowiest: December (55” ave)

3rd highest temp (71F)           Coldest temp: -47F (Jan 1934)

2nd least windiest: 25.3mph      Windiest: Jan 46.3mph
  ave.
                  Helpful Links
• Storm Prediction Center:
      spc.noaa.gov

• University Corporation for Atmospheric Research:
      rap.ucar.edu/weather

• National Weather Service
       nws.noaa.gov

								
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