"From Climate to Weather in New England"
The Weather that Makes the Dots TESSE 22 July 2008 Eric Kelsey Institute for the Study of Earth, Ocean and Space - UNH 600 Projected Concentration After 50 More Years of Unrestricted Fossil Fuel Burning 500 Temperature Cycle over 7 Glacial Cycles 400 300 280 260 240 CO2 [ppmv] 220 200 180 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 Age (yr BP) 600 Projected Concentration After 50 More Years of Unrestricted Fossil Fuel Burning 500 Seasonal Temperature Cycle over 7 Years? 400 Year 1 600,000 2 500,000 3 400,000 4 300,000 5200,000 6100,000 7 0 Age (yr BP) 600 Projected Concentration After 50 More Years of Unrestricted Fossil Fuel Burning 500 Diurnal Temperature Cycle over 7 Days? 400 Mon 600,000 Tue 500,000 Wed 400,000 Thu 300,000 Fri 200,000 Sat Sun 100,000 0 Age (yr BP) Temperature at Mount Washington, NH June 2007 Climate vs Weather climate- weather- Meteorological elements that The state of the atmosphere characterize the average with respect to heat or cold, and extreme conditions of wetness or dryness, calm or the atmosphere over a long storm, clearness or period of time at any one cloudiness. place or region of the earth's surface. (Environment Canada) (Massachusetts Dept. of Education) Fractals Fractals -fronts cool warm Supercell Thunderstorm cool warm Extratropical cyclone Supercell in southeast NH July 18, 2008 Prompted issue of Tornado Warning for Durham and surrounding towns Supercell with small hook-echo Storm Reports Storm Prediction Center US water vapor imagery If above link doesn’t work you can get it here: http://rap.ucar.edu/weather/satellite How do clouds form? Cool air until it is saturated - also, radiative cooling until air reaches saturation: fog Cohos Trail near Dixville Notch orographic uplift What weather phenomena impact New England weather and climate? Time and Space Scales of Weather Phenomena Common Storm Tracks cold, dry Alberta Clipper Colorado (Lee) Low moist warm Coastal Track warm, moist Orographic Effects Seabreeze Ocean & Lake Effect Snow Short-lived, localized events Gulf Stream & Gulf of Maine SSTs NOAA Westerly Mid-latitude Winds Nor’easters, Coastal Storms Energy gained from contrast between cold-dry and warm-moist air masses Blizzard of Feb. 2006 Hurricanes Hurricane Bob 1991 ENSO: Tropical Pacific SST El Niño (Dec. 1997) La Niña (Dec. 2000) http://www.elnino.noaa.gov/lanina.html El Nino-Southern Oscillation: Tropical Pacific SST http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/ensocycle/meanrain.html North Atlantic Oscillation +Warmer and less snow Variability on Order of Weeks -Colder and more snow Land Use Effects Mount Washington Fun Facts • July: Coldest month: January warmest month (14F ave high) (ave high: 54F) 2nd driest month (8.02”) Wettest: November (10.49” ave) Least snowiest: 1.1” most ever Snowiest: December (55” ave) 3rd highest temp (71F) Coldest temp: -47F (Jan 1934) 2nd least windiest: 25.3mph Windiest: Jan 46.3mph ave. Helpful Links • Storm Prediction Center: spc.noaa.gov • University Corporation for Atmospheric Research: rap.ucar.edu/weather • National Weather Service nws.noaa.gov