Women�s Movement by K2Tytb9


									The Women’s Movement
“Women Rise”
1.   After WWII most women quit their jobs,
2.   In the 1960s women were driven by                                                and more and more women found it
     necessary (or desirable) to earn a second income for their
3.   Betty Friedan wrote a book called                                                in which her thesis was

4.   In 1960 the FDA approved which birth control method?
5.   What was its significance?

6.   Who was the first president of NOW?
7.   What was this organization’s main goals\ideas?

           8.   The new feminist magazine of the 60s titled Ms. was founded by                                  and was
                named such because
9.   Why is Roe v. Wade such a controversial topic? What makes it a woman’s rights issue?

“The Women’s Movement”
10. According to the first paragraph (in italics) feminists were also seeking

11. What was the purpose of this statement by NOW?

12. Do you agree with most or all of the things mentioned in this Statement of Purpose? Why\Why not?

“National Women’s Liberation Conference” (Placard 3.1I-on the back of the previous sheet/the picture below.)
13. Analyze the symbol in this poster. Describe what you see:

14. How might these symbols be significant?

15. In your opinion, is this an effective symbol for the women’s movement? Why?

“The Feminine Mystique”
16. According to Friedan, what is the expectation in the 1950s of women?
17. What unnamed “problem” do the women face?
18. Do you think women were ready for a change in the 1960s? Why?

“Gloria Steinem Testifies in Support of the ERA”
19. How does Gloria Steinem compare the injustice that women face with the injustice that blacks and other minorities face?

20. Why does Steinem believe that her experience with discrimination is not as bad as the experiences of most other women in
Inside Story, The Equal Rights Amendment, & Roe v. Wade- Page 634
21. Read the Inside story on page 634. What did labor unions have to do with women’s rights?

22. Page 635—In the 1960s women began to question
23. Page 636—What was the goal of the Equal Rights Amendment?
24. What were some of the concerns that people had about the ERA? Name at least three things.

25. Congress passed the ERA, but needed                                states to approve it. What happened to the ERA after
26. What were the effects of the women’s movement?

“I Am Woman” By Helen Reddy
27. What messages are in this song about gender roles or changing social values?

28. This song became one of the anthems of the women’s movement. Why do you think the movement would have used it?
    What phrases are particularly powerful to its message?

Connect to Today
29. Are there any gender equity issues that you can think of now? How are men & women portrayed differently on TV? Are
    girls and boys equal in school?
                                             WOMEN RISE
A Woman’s Place
   The sweet land of liberty was largely a man’s world until 1920, when women, at long last, were given the
   constitutional right to vote. Yet that giant stride changed remarkably little about American society. The first
   presidential election in which women had a voice brought Warren G. Harding (1865-1923) into office,
   embodiment of the status quo, whose very campaign slogan promised a “return to normalcy.” No, it would
   take a second world war to bring even temporary change to gender roles and sexual identity in the United
From Rosie the Riveter to the Feminine Mystique
   The national war effort spurred into action by the December 7, 1941, surprise attach on Pearl Harbor required
   maximum military force and maximum industrial production. But if the men were off fighting the war, who
   would “man” the factories? Women answered the call in massive numbers invading traditionally male
   workplaces. Posters exhorting workers to give their all for war production often depicted women in denim
   overalls and bandanna, wielding a rivet gun like an expert. She was Rosie the Riveter, symbol of American
   womanhood during World War II.
   For most American women, the war was their first experience of life in a workplace other than the home.
   Women faced new responsibilities, but also tasted new freedom and independence. Yet when the war ended,
   the woman, for the most part, quit their jobs, married the returning soldiers, and settled into lives as
   Throughout the 1950s, relatively few women questioned their role in the home. With the beginning of the
   1960s, however, the American economy started a gradual shift from predominantly manufacturing-based to
   service-based industries, and women soon began finding job opportunities in these venues. Propelled in part by
   the powerful advertising medium of television, the 1960s were also driven by consumerism. Increasing
   numbers of women found it necessary (or desirable) to earn a second income for their product-hungry families.
   In 1963, write Betty Friedan sent a questionnaire to graduates of Smith College, her alma mater. She asked
   probing questions about the women’s satisfaction in life, and the answers she received were sufficiently eye
   opening to prompt her to write a book, The Feminine Mystique. Its thesis, based on the Smith questionnaire
   and other data, was that American women were no longer universally content to be wives and mothers. They
   were, in fact, often the unhappy victims of a myth that the female of the species could gain satisfaction only
   through marriage and childbearing. The Feminine Mystique, an instant best seller, struck a cord that caused
   many women to reexamine their lives and the roles in which society had cast them.
The Power of the Pill
   In 1960, shortly before Friedan’s nook appeared, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the
   world’s first effective oral contraceptive, the birth-control pill, which was soon dubbed more simply “the Pill.”
   It was destined not only to bring radical change to the nation’s sexual mores—contributing to the so-called
   sexual revolution of the 1960s—but also to liberate women from the inevitability of life tied to the nursery.
   Now, women could choose to delay having children (or not to have them at all) and use the time to establish a
                                                   What’s the Word?
                     The rise of feminism brought many changes and proposed many changes to the
                     American society, including the modification of sexist (gender-biased)
                     language. For example, the word “mankind” excluded women; feminists
                     preferred “humankind.” The use of “Miss” and “Mrs.” Suggested to feminists
                     that a woman’s value was unfairly bound to her marital status (in contrast, men
                     are addressed simply as “Mr.” whether married or not. The abbreviation “Ms.”
                     (pronounced mizz) was widely adopted as a more equitable female counterpart
                     to “Mr.”

NOW and Ms.
  Three years after publishing The Feminine Mystique, Friedan helped found the National Organization for
  Women (NOW) and served as now’s first president. An organized feminist movement—popularly called
  Women’s Liberation or (sometimes derisively) “women’s lib”—crystallized around NOW. The organization
  advocated equality for women generally in society and more specifically in the workforce, liberalized abortion
  laws, and passage of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), a proposed constitutional amendment declaring that
  “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States nor by any State on
  account of sex.” ERA was drafted by feminist Alice Paul (1885-1977) of the National Women’s Party and
  introduced in Congress in 1923, where it was essentially ignored until NOW took up its cause in 1970.
  By the end of the 1960s, the Women’s Liberation Movement was in full swing. In 1972, journalist and feminist
  Gloria Steinem started Ms. Magazine, which became a popular, entertaining, and immensely profitable vehicle
  for the feminist message. Its masthead title came from the new form of female address that had been gaining
  ground since the 1960s: Both Miss and Mrs. linked a woman’s identity to her marital status, as if she had no
  status apart from her relationship to a man, but Ms. was the equal counterpart of Mr. in that it did not depend on
  marital status.
  NOW met with opposition not only from conservative men, but also from many women, some of whom
  claimed that the feminist movement ran contrary to the natural (or God-given) order; other women feared the
  movement would de-feminize women and lead to the disintegration of the family. By the 1970s, NOW was
  also under attack from more radical feminists, such as Shulamith Firestone, Kate Millet, and Ti-Grace
  Atkinson, for being too conservative. Nevertheless, NOW and the entire range of feminist activism have had
  an impact on American life. More women occupy corporate executive positions today than ever before; in state
  legislatures, the number of women serving doubled between 1975 and 1988; and by the late 1980s, 40 of 50
  states had laws mandating equality of pay for men and women in comparable jobs.
ERA Collapse
  Thanks to NOW, the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was approved by the House of Representatives in 1971
  and by the Senate in 1972. The amendment was then sent to the states for the ratification, and when the
  necessary three-fourths majority of states failed to ratify it by the original March 1979 deadline, a new deadline
  of June 30, 1982, was fixed. Yet, by this date, ratification was still three states short of the 38 needed.
  Reintroduced in Congress on July 14, 1982, ERA failed to gain approval and was dead as of November 15,
  The failure of ERA points to the limits of what the feminist movement has achieved. Despite gains, far fewer
  women than men hold high elective office or sit on the board of major corporations and despite legislation,
  women continue to earn, on average, less than their male counterparts

                                               Remember This!
      In 1973, the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Roe v Wade, which had its origins in a suit brought
      by a woman against the state of Texas for having denied her the right to an abortion. In a seven-to-
      one vote, the high court determined that women have a constitutional right to abortion during the
      first three months of pregnancy.
      Abortion is the most controversial right women have asserted, and the Roe v Wade decision gave
      rise to a so-called Right to Life antiabortion movement. Usually motivated by religious conviction,
      Right to Life advocates have campaigned for a constitutional amendment banning abortion (except
      in cases of rape, incest, or threat to the mother’s life). In recent years, some opposition to abortion
      has been fanatical, leading to the bombing of abortion clinics and the intimidation, even the murder,
      or medical personnel.
                                The Women’s Movement
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, an increasing number of women organized to demand equal rights
and recognition of women’s secondary status in American society. Supporters of the Equal Rights
Amendment (ERA) became greater in number and organized demonstrations and began lobbying in
Congress for legislation banning discrimination on the basis of sex. Feminists (activists for women’s
rights) also sought access to education and employment opportunities, and pushed for improved
healthcare, childcare facilities, access to legal and safe abortion, and shared parenting. In 1966, author
and feminist Betty Friedan co-founded the National Organization for Women (NOW), which became an
important venue for bringing attention to women’s issues. In the following excerpt from NOW’s
Statement of Purpose (1966), Friedan outlines the beliefs of the organization and its strategy for
achieving change.

We, men and women who hereby constitute ourselves as the National Organization for Women, believe
that the time has come for a new movement toward true equality for all women in America, and toward a
fully equal partnership of the sexes… We organize to initiate or support action, nationally, or in any part
of this nation, by individuals or organizations, to break through the silken curtain of discrimination
against women.
There is no civil rights movement to speak for women, as there has been for Negroes and other victims of
discrimination. The National Organization for Women must therefore begin to speak.
WE BELIEVE that the… protection guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution to the civil rights of all
individuals, must be effectively applied and enforced to isolate and remove patterns of sex discrimination,
to ensure equality of opportunity in employment and education, and equality of civil and political rights
and responsibilities on behalf of women, as well as for Negroes and other deprived groups.
WE BELIEVE that this nation has a capacity… to innovate new social institutions which will enable
women to enjoy the true equality of opportunity and responsibility… [such] as a nationwide network of
child-care centers.
WE REJECT the current assumptions that a man must carry the sole burden of supporting himself, his
wife, and family…. We believe that a true partnership between the sexes demands a different concept of
marriage, an equitable sharing of the responsibilities of home and children and of the economic burdens
of their support.
political power of all women and men intent on our goals. We will strive to ensure that no party,
candidate, president, senator, governor, congressman, or any public official who betrays or ignores the
principle of full equality between the sexes is elected or appointed to office.
The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan
ABOUT THE READING—Many credit Betty Friedan’s The Feminine
Mystique with launching the 1960s feminist movement. In it, she
challenges traditional assumptions about women’s role in society and
exposes the unhappiness and frustration that many women experienced
as they tried to live up to an idealized notion of what it means to be
feminine—an image she calls the “feminine mystique.” Friedan begins
by identifying “the problem with no name.”
 As you read the passage below, watch for clues to what the “problem with no name” is about.

     The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women. It was a strange
stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning that women suffered in the middle of the twentieth century
in the United States. Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for
groceries, matched slipcover material, ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffeured Cub
Scouts and Brownies, lay beside her husband at night—she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent
question—“Is this all?” . . .
     In the fifteen years after World War II, this mystique of feminine fulfillment became the cherished
and self-perpetuating core of contemporary American culture. Millions of women lived their lives in the
image of those pretty pictures of the American suburban housewife, kissing their husbands goodbye in
front of the picture window, depositing their stationwagonsful of children at school, and smiling as they
ran the new electric waxer over the spotless kitchen floor. They baked their own bread, sewed their own
and their children’s clothes, kept their new washing machines and dryers running all day. They changed
the sheets on the beds twice a week instead of once, took the rug-hooking class in adult education, and
pitied their poor frustrated mothers, who had dreamed of having a career. Their only dream was to be
perfect wives and mothers; their highest ambition to have five children and a beautiful house, their only
fight to get and keep their husbands. They had no thought for the unfeminine problems of the world
outside the home; they wanted the men to make the major decisions. They gloried in their role as women,
and wrote proudly on the census blank: “Occupation: housewife” . . .
     But on an April morning in 1959, I heard a mother of four, having coffee with four other mothers in a
suburban development fifteen miles from New York, say in a tone of quiet desperation, “the problem.”
And the others knew, without words, that she was not talking about a problem with her husband, or her
children, or her home. Suddenly they realized they all shared the same problem, the problem that has no
name. They began, hesitantly, to talk about it. Later, after they had picked up their children at nursery
school and taken them home to nap, two of the women cried, in sheer relief, just to know they were not
alone . . .
     Just what was this problem that has no name? What were the words women used when they tried to
express it? Sometimes a woman would say “I feel empty somehow . . . incomplete.” Or she would say, “I
feel as if I don’t exist.” Sometimes she blotted out the feeling with a tranquilizer. Sometimes she thought
the problem was with her husband, or her children, or that what she really needed was to redecorate her
house, or move to a better neighborhood, or have an affair, or another baby. Sometimes, she went to a
doctor with symptoms she could hardly describe: “A tired feeling . . . I get so angry with the children it
scares me . . . I feel like crying without any reason.” (A Cleveland doctor called it “the housewife’s
syndrome.”) . . .
     If I am right, the problem that has no name stirring in the minds of so many American women today is
not a matter of loss of femininity or too much education, or the demands of domesticity. It is far more
important than anyone recognizes. It is the key to these other new and old problems which have been
torturing women and their husbands and children, and puzzling their doctors and educators for years. It
may well be the key to our future as a nation and a culture. We can no longer ignore that voice within
women that says: “I want something more than my husband and my children and my home.”
           Gloria Steinem Testifies in Support of the ERA
ABOUT THE SOURCE—Alice Paul wrote the first Equal Rights Amendment. Proposed
to Congress in 1923, the amendment declared that “men and women shall have equal
rights throughout the United States . . .” Paul and her supporters pushed the amendment
each year throughout the 1930s. The growing women’s movement revived the issue in
the 1960s. Revised wording of the ERA asserted that “equal rights under the law shall
not be abridged or denied. on account of sex.” Conservative groups strongly opposed
the amendment. The passage below is from feminist Gloria Steinem’s testimony before
Congress in 1970.

As you read, note the injustices that Steinem describes. The following words may be new to you:
remedies, subsist, median. You may want to use a dictionary to look them up.

    My name is Gloria Steinem. I am a writer and editor. I have worked in several political campaigns,
and am currently a member of the Policy Council of the Democratic National Committee.
    During twelve years of working for a living, I’ve experienced much of the legal and social
discrimination reserved for women in this country. I have been refused service in public restaurants,
ordered out of public gathering places, and turned away from apartment rentals; all for the clearly-stated
sole reason that I am a woman. And all without the legal remedies available to blacks and other
minorities. I have been excluded from professional groups, writing assignments on so-called
“unfeminine” subjects such as politics, full participation in the Democratic Party, jury duty, and even
from such small male privileges as discounts on airline fares. Most important to me, I have been denied a
society in which women are encouraged, or even allowed, to think of themselves as first-class citizens and
responsible human beings.
    However, after two years of researching the status of American women, I have discovered that I am
very, very lucky. Most women, both wage-earners and housewives, routinely suffer more humiliation and
injustice than I do.
    As a freelance writer, I don’t work in the male-dominated hierarchy of an office. (Women, like blacks
and other visibly-different minorities, do better in individual professions such as the arts, sports, or
domestic work; anything in which they don’t have authority over white males.) I am not one of the
millions of women who must support a family. Therefore, I haven’t had to go on welfare because there
are no day care centers for my children while I work, and I haven’t had to submit to the humiliating
welfare inquiries about my private and sexual life, inquiries from which men are exempt. I haven’t had to
brave the sex bias of labor unions and employers, only to see my family subsist on a median salary 40
percent less than the male median salary.
    I hope this committee will hear the personal, daily injustices suffered by many women—professional
and day laborers, women housebound by welfare as well as suburbia. We have been silent for too long.
We won’t be silent anymore.
    The truth is that all our problems stem from the same sex-based myths. We may appear before you as
white radicals or the middle-aged middle class or black soul sisters, but we are all sisters in fighting
against these outdated myths. Like racial myths, they have been reflected in our laws.
Source: U.S. Congress, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Constitutional
Amendments, Hearings, The “Equal Rights” Amendment, 91st Cong., 2d sess., 1970, 335–337.
I Am Woman                              Artist: Helen Reddy
I am woman, hear me roar
In numbers too big to ignore
And I know too much to go back an' pretend
'cause I've heard it all before
And I've been down there on the floor
No one's ever gonna keep me down again

Oh yes I am wise
But it's wisdom born of pain
Yes, I've paid the price
But look how much I gained
If I have to, I can do anything
I am strong (strong)
I am invincible (invincible)
I am woman

You can bend but never break me
'cause it only serves to make me
More determined to achieve my final goal
And I come back even stronger
Not a novice any longer
'cause you've deepened the conviction in my soul


I am woman watch me grow
See me standing toe to toe
As I spread my lovin' arms across the land
But I'm still an embryo
With a long long way to go
Until I make my brother understand

Oh yes I am wise
But it's wisdom born of pain
Yes, I've paid the price
But look how much I gained
If I have to I can face anything
I am strong (strong)
I am invincible (invincible)
I am woman
Oh, I am woman
I am invincible
I am strong

I am woman
I am invincible
I am strong
I am woman
Women’s Movement Pictures:

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