Asbury Park Middle School
OPENING THE WEST
THE INDUSTRIAL AGE
(1858 – 1914)
Department: Social Studies Unit designation: 2
Course: 8th Grade Anticipated timeframe: 4 weeks
Marking Period: 1st
New Jersey Standards for Social Studies:
Standard 6.1. U.S. History: America in the Word. All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and
present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make
informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Standard 6.2. World History/Global Studies. All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically and systematically about how
past interactions of people, cultures, and the environment affect issues across time and cultures. Such knowledge and skills enable students to
make informed decisions as socially and ethically responsible world citizens in the 21 century.
Standard 6.3 Active Citizenship in the 21 Century. All students will acquire the skills needed to be active, informed citizens who value diversity
and promote cultural understanding by working collaboratively to address challenges that are inherent in living in an interconnected world.
New Jersey Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6-8
1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content:
a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and
organize the reasons and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the
topic or text, using credible sources.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical
a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as
appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when
useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
3. In history/social studies, students must be able to incorporate narrative accounts into their analyses of individuals or events of
historical import. In science and technical subjects, students must be able to write precise enough descriptions of the step-by-step
procedures they use in their investigations or technical work that others can replicate them and (possible) reach the same results.
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing,
rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas
clearly and efficiently.
7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and
generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy
of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format
9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research.
10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two)
for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
New Jersey Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6-8
1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct
from prior knowledge or opinions.
3. Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates
are raised or lowered).
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to
5. Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
6. Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular
7. Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
8. Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
9. Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.
10. By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and
Students will know how to create their own interpretation of history.
By developing their own interpretation, students will understand the events of the world today such as immigration,
improving the economy, being a good citizen, and why countries go to war.
Through their own interpretation students will not only understand history but become active members of their society.
By becoming active members of their society, students will be writing their own history which will then be studied by others.
Enduring Understandings: Essential Questions:
Students will understand that: Students will be able to provide feedback on:
History is an everyday occurrence and the past will always What changes in history do you see?
impact the future. Why did these changes in history take place?
History shows us that people can always do better to Could these changes in history have been prevented?
improve the world. In your opinion how did these changes in history affect the
History tells a story of our lives and once we are gone what events of today?
will people have to say about us. Does the expansion of a country make a country great?
There are varying perspectives on the meaning of historical Is conflict always necessary to promote change in a nation?
events. Why are some groups of people more privileged than
There are credible and questionable sources of information others?
about historical and contemporary events. Do big businesses and their inventions create a positive
Historians establish justifiable timelines to connect path to everybody’s future?
significant events. Are workers undermined when they form unions?
Students will know: Students will be able to:
The historical vocabulary that covers the period from Analyze historical texts such as books, documents, internet
(1858 – 1914). sites, and journals.
Important people, places, and events from (1858 – 1914). Understand the difference between primary and secondary
That the reunification of the United States between the sources.
North and South at the end of Reconstruction would lead to Understand historical vocabulary.
the expansion of the West. Take lecture notes without the use of visuals.
The causes and effects of the mining booms in the West. Write journal entries, essays, and research papers on the
The fight the cattle ranchers and farmers had to go through historical topics presented in this unit.
in order to establish their lives in the West. Participate in class discussions, debates, and group projects
That Native Americans were the first victims of eminent based on the historical topics presented in this unit.
domain. Participate in presenting historical research at seminar
How the economic reform movements came about in the events.
late 1800s. Participate in presenting historical projects outside of
How the railroads contributed to expansion, the growth of school.
an industrialized economy, and to an American Nation that Complete daily quizzes and weekly tests based on topics
stretches from sea to shining sea. from this unit.
The inventions that revolutionized society in the late Complete a unit test on the history covered from (1858 –
How big businesses formed monopolies and skirted around
the Sherman Antitrust Act.
How workers had no job protection which resulted in the
formation of unions.
Performance Tasks: Other Evidence:
Complete a series of “do now,” “pre-assessment,” and Students will present their research papers to other classes.
“post assessment” activities based on the information This will lead to the creation of multiple history seminars,
from “Students will know” (listed above) and “Student in which students will discuss their research with other
Review (listed after anticipated resources and key students.
terms).” Students will give power point presentations.
Analyze historical information from “Students will know” Students will present completed projects to other classes
and “Student Review” by reading The American Journey: and even outside audiences. For instance, students will
Modern Times, primary and secondary sources, internet have the opportunity to present their projects at the
document, and journals. Museum in Trenton.
Write down lecture notes without the use of visual aides. Students will be given weekly tests. Tests will vary from
Complete a series of writing assignments utilizing the key week to week. For instance, multiple choice, fill in the
terms from this unit (key terms listed after anticipated blank, true or false, and essay tests will be given.
resources). Information on tests will be taken from “Students will
Complete a series of writing assignments based on the know” and “Student Review.”
information from “Students will know” and “Student Students will be given weekly quizzes. Quizzes will vary
Review.” Writing assignments will be compare and from week to week. For instance, multiple choice, fill in
contrast, expository, persuasive, and research. In addition, the blank, true or false, and essay quizzes will be given.
students will complete a weekly journal based on the Information on quizzes will be taken from “Students will
information from “Students will know” and “Student know” and “Student Review.”
Review.” Students will complete a unit test based on the information
Participate in class discussions and debates based on the only from “Students will know.” The information from
information from “Students will know” and “Student “Student Review” will be given on weekly tests and
Review.” quizzes in its own category. For instance, on weekly tests
Complete a series of projects such as T-charts, News and quizzes, questions will pertain to the unit topics such
Reports, models, drawings, power point presentations, as the growth of railroads and big business while topics
Excel charts, and the creation of Microsoft word classroom from “Student Review” will be listed on another page in
documents based on the information from “Students will its own category. Questions from “Student Review” will
know” and “Student Review.” pertain to the beginnings of U.S. history to the time of the
impeachment of Andrew Johnson.
Authentic Assessment: You are a small business owner in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The business that
you are involved with is steel. However, your business has problems taking off because Andrew Carnegie has a monopoly
over the entire steel industry. As a result, many people do not want to buy your steel product and not many know that your
business exists. What measures do you have to take in order for your business to succeed against Andrew Carnegie? In a
well written essay, describe how you would compete against Andrew Carnegie’s monopoly.
In addition, address the following:
a. Are there politicians who oppose monopolies that you can write to?
b. How can you make your product different and better than Andrew Carnegie’s?
Besides the essay, complete the following:
a. Create a brochure about your company explaining who you are and why your steel should be bought.
b. Create a power point presentation explaining why monopolies are bad and why small businesses should be
given a chance. Remember, does a billionaire who has a monopoly over his or her business always sell the
Anticipated daily sequence of activities:
Lecture on unit and review information.
Read The American Journey: Modern Times and any documents, journals, internet documents, and primary and secondary
sources based on the unit.
Writing assignments: compare and contrast, expository, persuasive, and research based on the unit.
Writing assignments: compare and contrast, expository, persuasive, and research based on the key terms of the unit.
Journal writing: write about current events of today that can be compared and contrasted with the information from the
Journal writing about the unit: pretend to be multiple characters who lived in the years (1858 – 1914) and describe the
events that your characters were apart of.
Journal writing using key terms: write a story using the key terms from the unit
Essential questions: these questions will be answered through the use of multiple interpretations. These interpretations will
be written and discussed during class.
Class Discussions about the various topics of the unit.
Debates: class discussions will lead into new ideas and these new ideas will lead to disagreements, which will then have to
be acknowledged through the use of a debate.
Projects: T-charts, News Reports, models, drawings, power point presentations, excel charts, and the creation of Microsoft
word classroom documents.
Graphic organizers: organization of historical events from the years (1858 – 1914).
Quiz: multiple quizzes will be given on the various topics in this unit and review topics.
Tests: multiple tests will be given on the various topics in this unit and review topics.
Unit Test: a unit test will be given at the end of the unit to see if students have mastered the historical material.
The American Journey: Modern Times
Best of History Web Sites: http://www.besthistorysites.net/
US Historical Documents: http://www.law.ou.edu/hist/
History Channel: http://www.history.com/
U.S. History: http://www.ushistory.org/us/41a.asp
History of American Agriculture: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blfarm4.htm
University of Washington/Native American history: http://www.lib.washington.edu/subject/history/tm/native.html
The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture: http://encyclopediaofarkanasa.net/encyclopedia/entry-
About.com/History of the Railroad Industry: http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blrailroad.htm
Digital History/Big Business: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=196
U.S. History/Industrial Workers: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1050.html
The Social Studies Help Center/Labor Unions: http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/Eco_Unionization.htm
Facts on File: Source for online databases dealing with historical documents
National Geographic Magazine
New York Times
Asbury Park Press
The following are the key terms that students will understand by the end of the unit:
Vigilantes: people who take the law into their own hands.
Subsidy: grant of money from the government to a person or a company for an action intended to benefit the public.
Transcontinental: extending across a continent.
Time Zone: a geographical region within which the same standard of time is used.
Long Drive: the herding of cattle for 1,000 miles or more to meet the railroad.
Vaquero: Hispanic ranch hand.
Homestead: to acquire a piece of U.S. public land by living on and cultivating it.
Sodbuster: a name given to the Plains farmer.
Dry Farming: a way of farming dry land in which seeds are planted deep in ground where there is some moisture.
Nomadic: moving from place to place with no permanent home.
Reservation: an area of public lands set aside for Native Americans.
National Grange: the first farmers’ organization in the United States.
Cooperative: store where farmers bought products from each other; an enterprise owned and operated by those who use its
Populism: appeal to the common people.
Consolidation: the practice of combining separate companies into one.
Rebate: discount or return of part of a payment.
Railroad Barons: powerful and aggressive businessmen who controlled the nation’s railroads.
Pool: a group sharing in some activity, for example, among railroad barons who made secret agreements and set rates among
Standard gauge: the uniform width of 4 feet, 8.5 inches for railroad tracks, adopted during the 1880s.
Model T: America’s first mass production car made by the Ford Motor Company.
Mass Production: the production of large quantities of goods using machinery and often an assembly line.
Assembly Line: a system with machines and workers arranged so that each person performs an assigned task again and
Corporation: a business in which investors own shares.
Trust: a combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition.
Stock: shares of ownership a company sells in its business which often carry voting power.
Monopoly: total control of a type of industry by one person or one company.
Shareholders: a person who invests in a corporation by buying stock and is a partial owner.
Merger: the combining of two or more businesses into one.
Dividend: a stockholder’s share of a company’s profits, usually as a cash payment.
Sweatshop: a shop or factory where workers work long hours at low wages under unhealthy conditions.
Strikebreaker: person hired to replace a striking worker in order to break up a strike.
Trade Union: organization of workers with the same trade or skill.
Injunction: a court order to stop an action, such as a strike.
Collective Bargaining: discussion between an employer and union representatives of workers over wages, hours, and
End Note: Instructors should develop a “Word Wall” with the use of these vocabulary terms.
Student Review: Throughout the course of the school year, every social studies teacher should review the following topics listed
The beginnings of U.S. History (Native Americans and European Explorers)
The beginnings of Slavery and the Triangle Slave Trade
The lost colony of Roanoke
The establishment of Jamestown Virginia
The Dutch under Peter Minuit
The creation of the 13 British Colonies
The French and Indian War
The causes of the American Revolution
The American Revolution
The Creation of a New Government (The Articles of Confederation, The U.S. Constitution, Bill of Rights,
Remaining Amendments, The Branches of Government: Legislative, Executive, Judicial)
The Presidency of George Washington
The Presidency of John Adams
The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson
Alexander Hamilton versus Aaron Burr
The Louisiana Purchase
The Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Presidency of James Madison
War of 1812/Napoleonic Wars
The Presidency of James Monroe
Establishment of the Current White House
The Presidency of John Quincy Adams
The Presidency of Andrew Jackson
The Trail of Tears
The Battle of the Alamo
The Presidency of Martin Van Buren
The Presidency of William Henry Harrison
The Amistad Case
The Presidency of John Tyler
The Presidency of James K. Polk
The Manifest Destiny
The Mexican American War
The Presidency of Zachary Taylor
The Presidency of Millard Fillmore
The Presidency of Franklin Pierce
The Presidency of James Buchanan
The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln
The Causes of the Civil War
The Civil War
The Presidency of Andrew Johnson
Racism and Discrimination in the South
The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson