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The Atom Power Point Notes Fill in the notes while going through the slides. Essential Question: what are the three subatomic particles of an atom and what characteristics does each have? The yellow particles shown have a positive charge and are called ____________________. The orange particles have a neutral charge and are called _______________________. The particles on the outer energy levels are called ___________________ and they have a negative charge. An atom is made up of three subatomic particles which are shown below the “atom” square. The symbol for proton: ______ The symbol for neutron: ______ The symbol for electron: ______ Protons Protons are located in the nucleus and have a ______________________ charge. Their mass is infinitely small, but incredibly large compared to the electron. Write the mass of a proton (1.673 x 10 24) in standard notation. ______________________________________________________________________________ *The relative mass of a proton is one amu, or atomic mass unit. This is the mass you need to remember. What is so unique about protons? They are all the same in each element, yet the number of them identifies the element. What happens if the number of protons changes? __________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Lithium has 3 protons therefore the atomic number of lithium is _____. The atomic number is ALWAYS written as a whole number on the periodic table. What is the atomic number of lead (Pb) and how many protons does it have? Atomic number = _____ Number of protons= _____ Neutron The neutron (notice the spelling, e before u) is also located in the __________________ of the atom. What is the relative mass? ______ amu How does this compare to a proton? ___________________ The neutron just adds mass to the atom. Is the number of neutrons on the periodic table? _________ Electron Electrons are very small but their function is extremely important in chemistry – they are responsible for an atom’s _____________________________, or how it will react or not react with other atoms. The electrons are located ( inside / outside ) in an area called the electron ____________________. The electron ( IS / IS NOT ) included in the atom’s mass. Why? ___________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ The relative mass of an electron is _________ (remember this) which is almost 2000 times smaller than a proton or neutron! Atomic number and Mass number Look on the periodic table. Which element has 32 protons? ______symbol ________________name Which element has 14 protons? _____ symbol ____________________ name The ___________________ _____________________ is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in an atom. Why? _________________________________________________________ If you know the mass number of an element and its name you can find it on the periodic table and calculate how many neutrons it has by subtracting. Mass # - atomic # = neutrons # Write the formula for finding the neutrons: ____________________________________________ Three types of Atoms Many atoms of the same type are called an ________________________. An atom that has a charge is no longer neutral and is called an ____________________. All individual atoms are an isotope of its element depending on the number of neutrons it has. An atom is neutral, meaning it has the same number of positive charges ( protons / electrons ) as negative charges ( protons / electrons ). What is the particle called when the number of protons and electrons in an atom do not match? ________________________ Element Isotopes Atoms with the ______________ number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called ____________________________. Most elements have isotopes with the exception of a few. The larger the atomic number the ( greater / smaller ) the difference in the numbers of protons and neutrons. Isotopes of elements having many neutrons “rich” in comparison to protons are unstable. Isotopic Notation The isotopic name of an element is always paired with its ( mass / atomic ) number. Ex: silicon-28 Do not use the atomic number! That would be redundant. The shorthand notation is written with the mass number on top and the atomic number on the bottom and the symbol of the element to the right. It is then easy to find the number of neutrons. Can you explain how? __________________________________________ Notice the differences between the isotopic notation and the isotopic name. You must learn how to do this! It just takes practice. These are three known isotopes of carbon; carbon-12, carbon-13 and carbon-14. Fill in the chart to see how they differ. Review Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same number of _____________________ but with different numbers of _______________________________. Complete the blanks for the three isotopes on the chart.
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