Chapter 6 The New Republic by Lnyt5Byt

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									Chapter 6

   The New Republic
Sec. 1 – Govt. & Party Politics

 Proper role of the new govt. still not
  determined and not tested
 Washington’s administration set precedents
 Cabinet: Jefferson (State), Hamilton
  (Treasury), Knox (War), Randolph (Attorney
  General)
 Judiciary Act 1789 – Set up 13 federal courts,
  3 circuit (appeals) courts and 6-member
  Supreme Court
Hamilton’s Plan

Alexander Hamilton (Fed.) proposed plan
 to strengthen national power & develop a
 commercial and industrial economy
Fed. govt. would pay off national debt ($52
 million) and state debts ($25 million)
Would restore credit and establish
 trustworthiness abroad
Funded with government bonds which
 would pay interest to investors
Hamilton’s Plan cont.

Proposed excise taxes and high tariffs
 to pay interest
Placed tax on whiskey
Hoped to pay off slowly so countries
 would take continued interest in U.S.
 (long term investment)
Bank of U.S. established 1791
Hamilton’s Plan cont.

Loose construction of the Constitution –
 broad interpretation
Alarmed critics (Jefferson) – strict
 construction of Constitution – only those
 powers stated in Constitution; no
 “stretching” of powers
Believed Federalists had betrayed the
 Revolution
Opponents of Hamilton’s plan

 Resented interference by fed govt. in state
  affairs
 Resented new taxes
 Washington’s elegant style, taxes, tariffs,
  federal interference, Bank, seemed like a
  return to the British monarchy – alarmed
  people
 Jefferson disagreed with Federalist
  Washington, eventually resigned his post
Whiskey Rebellion

 Made from corn and exported – key to
  farmers’ economy
 Many refused to pay tax
 Followed the tradition of Stamp Act and
  Shay’s Rebellion – attacked collectors
 Washington & Hamilton determined to stop
  the rebellion; gathered troops and marched on
  W. Pennsylvania – rebellion dissolved
 Showed world that govt. would enforce the
  laws
Two Party System

 Whiskey Rebellion highlighted tensions
 Federalists had sent 12,000 troops to suppress
  rebellion (overkill?)
 Emerged into two parties:
 Federalists – Hamilton, Adams; northern
  merchants
 Democratic-Republicans – Jefferson, Madison;
  farmers
 But supporters from all parts of country
Section 2 – Foreign Policy

British had kept forts – Ohio River, Great
 Lakes
Gave weapons to Indians to resist
 expansion
Battle of Fallen Timbers – General
 Anthony Wayne defeated Native
 Americans
Treaty of Greenville - Ceded most of Ohio
 territory; opened N.W. Territory
French Revolution - 1789

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
Deteriorated into a “reign of terror” where
 thousands lost their lives, including King
 Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
Divided U.S.
Federalists opposed it as extremist;
 anarchists who would destroy the social
 order
French Revolution cont.

Anti-Feds supported it as an extension of
 the Am. Rev., Republican ideals;
 applauded its rejection of kings
Americans torn between British who ruled
 the seas, or France who had helped us in
 the Revolution
Chose neutrality – remained U.S. policy
 for a century
Treaties with Britain and Spain

 Washington decided it was in our best interest to
  support Britain
 Jay Treaty - Chief Justice John Jay negotiated
  treaty to remove remaining British troops/forts in
  NW territory, pay pre-war debts, expand trade
 Americans furious – a betrayal of France, sell-out
  to British
 Pinckney Treaty – with Spain; guaranteed
  shipping rights on Miss. River; established
  northern boundary of Florida
Washington’s Farewell

 After 2 terms, declined to run again to avoid
  perception of being a “king.” (another precedent)
 Achievements: Indian defeat, western lands
  opened for settlement, Whiskey rebellion
  suppressed, kept nation out of war, improved
  economy and foreign trade, helped pay national
  debt
 Farewell Address – warned against “entangling
  alliances” and political parties
Foreign Policy

 John Adams – 2nd Pres (Fed) lacked prestige of
  GW; faced growing divisions in U.S.
 Drift towards war w/France – angry over Jay’s
  treaty w/Britain; began seizing Am. ships
 XYZ Affair – Adams sent officials to Paris, met
  by officials demanding bribe ($250K) and loan of
  $10 million; outraged Americans, “Millions for
  defense but not one cent for tribute.”
 Undeclared war, fired on, seized ships
Alien and Sedition Acts

Alien – Pres. could imprison or deport
  immigrants who criticized govt.
  – Most immigrants supported Dem-Rep.
Sedition – Made it a crime for citizens who
 published or said anything false,
 scandalous about the govt.
Silenced much Republican opposition with
 this
VA and KY Resolutions

Response to A & S acts – Rep. believed
 they violated Constitutional right to free
 speech
VA & KY Resolutions declared the
 Sedition Act unconstitutional
Nullification is a defiance of federal power
Growing tensions in U.S. – State power vs.
 Federal power is a sign of things to come...
Election of 1800

 Jefferson wins election
 Aaron Burr, running mate got same number of
  votes
 Went to the House to decide
 Hamilton (congressman) preferred Jefferson so
  swayed vote to him
 Later Burr killed Hamilton in a duel for
  slandering him 
 1804 amendment
Section 3 - Jefferson

 Election of 1800 a “revolution” in government
  principles according to Jefferson
 Known now as Jeffersonian Republicans or
  Republicans (NOT the modern Republican party)
 Jeffersonian democracy
 Reduced military, streamlined government
  bureaucracy, increased trade, sale of western
  lands
 More common style than the aristocratic
  Federalists, but Jefferson was wealthy, educated
  and refined
The Marshall Court

 John Marshall new Chief Justice
 Established judicial review in Marbury v.
  Madison – courts can determine constitutionality
  of laws
 Helped build prestige and power of Court
 Established federal authority over state authority
 Loose constructionist - increased power of court
  tremendously; not stated anywhere in
  Constitution
Marbury v. Madison

John Adams appointed William Marbury
 (Federalist) as federal judge
Left office before delivery of appointment
New Sec. of State Madison comes in
 (Republican) and refuses to deliver
 appointment
Marbury wants a writ of mandamus –
 under Judiciary Act, the delivery would be
 required
Marbury v. Madison cont.

 Court rules in favor of Madison (makes
  Republicans happy) but declares Judiciary
  Act unconstitutional
 Gives court massive powers (not what
  Republicans wanted)!
 Said Marbury deserved the appointment but
  the act was unconstitutional so tough luck
 Set important precedent & continued to
  overturn state laws
 Loose constructionist
Louisiana Purchase - 1803

 Napoleon sold all French claims to U.S. for $15
  million – Louisiana Purchase (Napoleon had
  taken it from France)
 Jefferson concerned over the purchase and
  spending public funds
 Contradicted his principles about govt. power but
  signed anyway, doubled size of the U.S.
 Lewis & Clark expedition; 2 years, reached
  Pacific; helped by Sacajawea
Foreign Troubles

 British began kidnapping American sailors to
  serve in British military – impressment (at war
  with France); interfering with trade also
 British Leopard attached Chesapeake
 Embargo of 1807 as punishment – outlawed trade
  w/ foreign countries
 New Englanders hated embargo; bankrupted
  merchants, hurt farmers who couldn’t export
 Hurt his 2nd term, retired to Monticello unpopular
Section 4 – War of 1812

 Unpopular embargo replaced
 If either country (GB or Fr) recognized neutrality, we
  would renew sanctions on other country
 France agreed – sanctions on GB
 More battles w/Native Americans (dishonest
  treaties); Americans believed GB supplying weapons
 Tecumseh defeated at Tippecanoe (lost momentum)
 War Hawks – Clay and Calhoun called for war
  against GB (impressments humiliating) to restore
  national honor
War of 1812 cont

 Called for invasion of Canada
 Would stop British supply of weapons and throw
  them out of N. America
 War breaks out 1812
 Invasion of Canada fails
 Navy did surprisingly well though
 Battle of Lake Erie – victory for U.S.
 Andrew Jackson crushed Creek Indians of
  Alabama, killed Tecumseh, invaded Florida and
  defeated Seminole Indians
War of 1812 cont.

Major attacks by British (including New
 Orleans)
Burned White House (Madison flees –
 Dolly saves picture of George) & Capital
Ft. McHenry (Baltimore) – Francis Scott
 Key wrote Star Spangled Banner
Flag still on display at Smithsonian
Americans win on Lake Champlain
Cont.

 Not all supported war (Federalists) – capital burned,
  treasury depleted, trade stopped due to blockade (“Mr.
  Madison’s war”)
 Napoleon defeated, no need for impressment; both sides
  weary from war
 Treaty of Ghent – ended war 1815
 Andrew Jackson’s important Battle of New Orleans – two
  weeks after treaty! Created illusion that this had led to
  British defeat
 Hartford Convention 1814 – Federalists had looked weak
  & defeatist in opposing war; wanted to consider leaving
  nation (secession), failed
 Post War - results

 Surge of national pride (nationalism)
 Nation continues to grow – settlement spreads
  west
 End of Federalist party
 Settlers going into Florida too, conflicts with
  Seminoles; fugitive slaves heading to Florida
 Spain cedes Florida to U.S. – Adams – Onis
  Treaty of 1819
 *Showed the nation would endure

								
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