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주제: 유통관리 제11주 강의노트 이정완 교수 경로관리 Marketing channel Distribution channel Channel concept: – 최소총거래수의 원칙 – 선별의 컨셉트 중간상의 기능 상품집중 수요.공급의 균형 수량분산의 기능 효용의 창조: – 형태효용: 가공 – 장소효용: 운송 – 시간효용: 저장 – 소유효용: 소비자의 상품 구매 소매업자의 분류 점포의 규모(매출액) – 대규모/소규모 제품계열의 범위 – General merchandising stores: 백화점, 할인점 – Limited line stores: 식품점, 얀화점, 의류점 등 소유권 형태 – 자영상점/회사연쇄점/자영상점의 결합: 프랜차이즈 운영방법 – 슈퍼마켓소매업/ 할인소매업/ 점포이외 소매 (방문판매/ 우 편주문판매/ 자판기판매/ 인터넷판매/ TV 홈쇼핑 등) 도매업자의 분류 상인도매상 제조업자의 판매사무소 대리점/중개상 Distribution costs table autos software gasoline fax machines packaged goods distribution 15 25 28 30 41 manaufacturing 40 65 19 30 33 raw materials 45 10 53 40 26 source:Christine B. Bucklin, Steven D. Defalco, John R. DeVincentis, and John P. Levis, "Are you tough enough to manage your channels?" The McKinsey Quarterly 1996, 106. Why has the marketing channel emphasized recently? Greater difficulty of gaining a sustainable competitive advantage Growing power of distributors (retailers) The need to reduce distribution costs The new stress on growth The increasing role of technology Marketing channel and Marketing management strategy Marketing channel Marketing strategy management strategy – Product flow – Product – Negotiation flow – Price – Ownership flow – Promotion – Information flow – Place (Distribution) – Promotion flow Marketing channel environment Economic environment Competitive environment Sociocultural environment Technological environment Legal environment Channel structure M-C M-R-C M-W-R-C M-A-W-R-C – A=agent, C=consumer, M=manufacturer, R=retailer, W=wholesaler Six basic variables affecting channel structure Market variables Product variables Company variables Intermediary variables Environmental variables Behavioral variables Marketing channel characteristics An economic system A social system: behavioral process – Conflict – Power – Role – Communication process Channel conflict vs. channel efficiency Channel efficiency Negative effect- ..is the degree to which reduced efficiency the total investment in No effect- efficiency the various inputs constant necessary to achieve a Positive effect- given distribution objective can be efficiency increased optimized in terms of General curve outputs. Distribution decisions Questions What role should distribution play in the firms overall objectives and strategies? What role should distribution play in the marketing mix? How should the firm’s marketing channels be designed to achieve its distribution objectives? What kinds of channel members should be selected to meet the firm’s distribution objectives? How can the marketing channel be managed to implement the firm’s channel design effectively and efficiently on a continuing basis? How can channel member performance be evaluated? Six basic distribution decisions Role of distribution in the firm’s overall objectives and strategies Role of distribution in the marketing mix Design of marketing channels Selection of channel members Management of the channel Evaluation of channel member performance Choosing the best channel structure Aspinwall’s approach: characteristic of goods theory Financial approach Transaction cost analysis approach Management science approach: – simulation model, mathematical model, bayesian statistics, comprehensive operations research model…etc. Judgmental-heuristic approaches – Straight qualitative judgment approach, weighted factor score approach, distribution costing approach Structure of electronic marketing channels Disintermediation vs. re-intermediation The information flow vs. the product flow Virtual channel structure vs. physical channel structure Implications for marketing channel strategy Objectives and strategies of the firm and electronic marketing channels-> pure channel, multi channels, supportive channel ex) Dell computer- differential advantage based on distribution strategy Role of electronic marketing channels in the marketing mix-> product, price, promotion by perfect information flow, however place may gain a sustainable competitive advantage via electronic marketing channels. Channel design and electronic marketing channels- >channel design decisions must now include consideration of the Internet as a marketing channel.