Self-determination � by Mdfk3H


									Perceptual Motor Development Program
          Training Manual

                                        Chapter 1
               Introduction to the Perceptual Motor Development Program

Overview and Philosophy of the Program
       The Perceptual Motor Development (PMD) program provides motor programming,
which includes aquatics for children of Northwest Ohio and Michigan. The children and
youth in the program range in age from 12 months to 18 years. The program seeks to improve
the “total fitness” of children and youth with special needs by enhancing fine and gross motor
skills and patterns. In addition, the program concentrates on the improvement of self-esteem
by strengthening the emotional-social aspects of a child’s personality through a successful
play environment. The PMD program utilizes principles from both educational and therapy
based models. Teachers or clinicians (as they have been called in the past) typically are
students who are in education or kinesiotherapy.

The Perceptual Motor Development Program consists of four different components. They
              Gross Motor
              Aquatics
              Fine Motor
              Group Activities

Goals of the Program
1. To provide opportunities for young children to develop motor skills.
Objectives may include improving in the areas of:

       Balance skills
       Body and space awareness
       Eye hand/foot coordination
       Jumping skills
       Locomotor skills
       Social skills

       Fine motor coordination
       Skill development through games
       Total body coordination

2. To provide a resident group of young children for research in motor development.

3. To provide practicum experiences for students enrolled in special education, teacher
   preparation, kinesiotherapy, and early childhood education programs.

4. Assist the children n developing the skills necessary to live independent, productive and
   healthy lives.

5. To develop individualized programs which are sensitive to a child’s parent and family
   interests and needs.

6. Improve the perceptions and attitudes people have toward those with disabilities.

       The PMD program is inclusive to the needs of all children. Children who are typically
served by our program are usually labeled by their school districts with any one of the
following: cerebral palsy, mental retardation, attention deficit disorders, attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder, autism, or Down’s syndrome. Your perceptions of children and their
parents are an important part of the program. If you attend PMD sessions with the intent of
simply fulfilling a course requirement, without a sincere interest in the child’s development,
this will become evident to the parents, child, and other PMD staff. It is absolutely crucial
that children involved in the PMD program feel that you enjoy working with them. This
program may give you the opportunity to address some of the possible misconceptions and
prejudices toward children with disabilities. In the end, you may learn as much from the
children as they learn from you. However, this latter point will only occur if you are receptive
to the goals of the program.

                                         Chapter 2
                                     Program Operations
       The following section is designed to explain the basic operations of the PMD program.
Information is provided relative to your time commitment and issues, which may arise during
the normal operations of the program. At the end of this chapter a schedule of a typical day is
provided to help you understand what is expected of you as a clinician in our program.

       Clinicians make a commitment to participate each week in the PMD program.
Absences will not be tolerated. The clinician is responsible for the assigned child for the
entire 6 weeks (in the summer) and 12 weeks (during the fall and spring semesters) to provide
structure to the child’s program. In the event of an emergency, notify the Program
Director: Jackie Wilkins at 419- 530-2756 immediately. Clinicians participating in PMD
in fulfillment of a class requirement will make up all missed hours.

Child Absenteeism
       If your child is late to PMD (15 minutes) call the child’s home to inquire if the child
will be attending that day. If the child is absent, you are still required to participate in the
day’s session. Extra clinicians will help out with another child for the day.

Kids First Policy
       Clinicians are expected to attend to their designated child at all times. Although
interaction between children is encouraged, social interaction between clinicians is not really
a desired outcome. The reason for this is that many of the children we serve have significant
limitations in both cognitive and physical areas. Failure to completely attend to your child
could result in an injury. This is particularly true in the pool and locker room areas.

       As a clinician, professionalism is expected of you in regards to information about your
child. Each returning child has a file in the fine motor room. If your child is new this
semester, documents will be gathered over the course of the semester to start a file. The file
contains relevant personal data about your child, such as medical and developmental histories.
Files are to remain in the fine motor room; however, they are accessible to you, as the child’s
clinician. Portions of a child’s file may be photocopied, however, please make sure the child’s
name is removed from your copy. Further, identifying information about a child is not to be
discussed outside of the PMD program for any reason.

Parent Contact
       Parents are an important part of the PMD program. Parents are experts on their child
and therefore may be able to provide you with valuable ideas on how to work with a child
with disabilities. Contact should be maintained with the parent over the semester. A face to
face discussion at the end of the two-hour session is helpful in keeping the parent informed of
the child’s progress and activity. If face to face is not possible a phone call to the parent is
recommended. If there is a problem or concern, a phone call is more appropriate.

Expectations of Clinicians
   1. Clinicians are to focus on the child at all times.
   2. Clinicians will complete daily lesson plans (see lesson plan section of the manual).
   3. Clinicians are expected to be on time for each session.
   4. Clinicians are expected to attend all sessions of PMD.
   5. Clinicians are expected to participate in the data collection of the child’s progress (see
       gross motor section of manual).
   6. Clinicians are expected to maintain common sense safety practices, such as hands-on
       child policy.
   7. Clinicians are expected to participate in all sections of the program (including the
       pool). Note: Menstruation is not an exceptable excuse for non-participation in
       the swimming portion of the program. If you must miss a session in the pool, a

       doctor’s excuse is required. Failure to comply will result in your termination
       from the program.
   8. Clinicians are expected to maintain a professional attitude at all times.
   9. Clinicians are expected to ask questions about equipment or policies they do not

   Other Important Points to Remember
   1. Children and clinicians are not permitted in areas of the pool, gymnasium,
       classrooms, locker room, or restrooms without a group leader or program
       administrator present.
   2. The clinician is responsible for the safety and well being of the child. Never be
       more than an arms reach away from your child.
   3. If it is necessary to be away from your child you must leave the child in the care of a
       group leader or program administrator, NOT another clinician.
   4. Children are not permitted to run in the halls of the Health Education building.

Fall/Spring Saturday Program Schedule
8:00 a.m.
It is required of the clinicians to come early to help set up the equipment, the extra hands
would be welcomed and appreciated.
8:30 a.m.
Arrival and children pick-up. Parents will bring the child inside to meet the clinician. Some
children experience separation anxiety. If your child begins to cry, it is best to encourage the
parent to leave. Emphasize how much fun you and the child are going to have. If a parent
refuses to leave or makes it difficult for you to work with the child, please let one of the PMD
staff know.

Running is not permitted in the halls of the Health Education building. Maintain hands on
contact with your child, because many children are impulsive, and will run. If your child
runs, go get them.

8:30 – 9:20
Approximately one hour is allotted for time spent in the Fine/Gross motor room (adjacent to
the gymnasium) and Gross motor area (gym).
       Fine Motor. There are many activities to develop fine motor skills available in the
fine motor room. Please refer to the fine motor section of the manual. Putting toys, games,
craft supplies, etc. away after you and your child are finished using them is beneficial, both
for cleaning purposes, and to encourage the child to take responsibility for what s/he has
played with. Even very young children can help put things in the proper place.
       Gross Motor. There are many activities to promote gross motor development. Group
games are encouraged, for both gross motor and socialization purposes. In the gymnasium
there will be climbing equipment set up for your child to use. If what the child is climbing
on is taller than the child’s height a spotter is required. In general, the clinician should
have a common sense attitude towards safety. A hands-on policy is necessary for the safety
of the child. Please be sure children wear the necessary safety apparel available, such as a
helmet when riding bikes. An air mattress is available for you child to use. Shoes must be
taken off before jumping on the air mattress. Clinicians are not allowed on the air mattress.
No more than four children are allowed on the air mattress at one time. Spotters should be
placed on the four sides of the mattress.

9:30 – 10:20 a.m.
       Pool. If the child experiences difficulty with dressing independently, assist only to the
extent necessary to help out. For many children, dressing independently involves the
development of fine motor skills. A viable goal for your child in the pool can be to dress
more independently over the course of the program (check with parents).
       There are a variety of pool toys and devices for your child to use, including kick
boards, beach balls, foam rafts, and squirt toys. Toys and other equipment are stored on carts
rolled into the pool area. At the end of the pool time, please have your child clean up the
equipment and toys s/he used.
       Group activities are encouraged during pool time. A group game is typically held at
the end of the pool time. However, interaction between children is encouraged outside of the
group game.

       The Health Education Building is open during the PMD session. Clinicians are
encouraged to bring a lock to store any valuables in a locker. PMD is not responsible
for any items lost or stolen.

10:30 a.m.
       Pick-up. Clinicians will deliver child to parent, and discuss the session with them.

Clinicians are required to help with any extra clean up after the session is over. A group
meeting after the children have gone may be called.

                                         Chapter 3

       Gross motor is defined as large muscle activity which involve the whole body
(Pangrazi, 1998). Gross motor activities include the following:

      Locomotor skills such as running, jumping, galloping, skipping, sliding, and leaping
       (Ulrich, 1985). These activities are used to move the body from one place to another.
      Object control skills include sport related activities such as batting, throwing,
       catching, dribbling, shooting a basket, and generally any activity which is aimed at
       utilizing implements and/or balls in physical activity.
      Activities that combine movements and involve changing directions also fall in the
       category of gross motor movements.
      An additional category of gross motor activities we encourage you to work on (after
       consulting the parents of the child) are functional lifetime skills such as bike riding,
       recreational games, and fitness type activities.
      Swimming is also a gross motor skill. Given the importance we place on swimming, a
       separate section is provided later to help you work with your child in the pool.

   This portion of the PMD training manual is aimed at introducing you to some major
concepts that we believe are important for helping children and their families benefit from
our program. Further, we feel that these suggestions will help you enjoy working with
your child in the gross motor area. First, a section will explain how gross motor skills fit
in with the overall perceptual motor focus of our program. Second, approaches will be
introduced to help you work with your child and his/her parents to develop a program for
the next 12 sessions that leads to gains in the motor area. Finally, a section will be
provided to help you address play skills in your child (if appropriate). Please note that
some children fit in with peers so that skills we teach generalize beyond our program. For
example, if a child knows how to shoot a basketball, this skill is only meaningful if the
child can use this at home, in school, or even out in the community.

Gross Motor and Perceptual Motor Programming
   Perceptual motor programming involves gross and fine motor activities. Most of the
children who attend the PMD program have some form of unique gross motor needs. In
this regard children should be encouraged to participate in gross motor activities, which
serve three main purposes. First, children who are physically active are improving in
health-related fitness. This includes cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular
strength/power, and flexibility. Many children with disabilities tend to be behind same
age peers in motor skill and performance (Holland, 1987; Rarick, 1980). This becomes an
issue when we consider that children make social comparisons by age seven and in this
regard, children base their overall competence on physical competence (Rose, Larkin, &
Berger, 1997). Children who do not move well in comparison to peers may not feel good
about themselves. Given that our pool and gym facilities are perhaps better than most
schools that our children attend, we have the unique opportunity to successfully target
gross motor movement. Further, our PMD program offers a one student to one clinician
ratio, which allows us to exclusively focus on a child’s unique motor needs.

   The basis for our perceptual motor programming is built around the premise that
children need to be evaluated first on perceptual motor skills. Following evaluation, PMD
clinicians are expected to contact parents and solicit their input in the development of

    program goals and objectives for the child. A book by Bossenmeyer (1998) can be used
    as a reference tool when assessing your child. This book is available for your viewing in
    the PMD Clinic. Please note that in assessing your child you may not be able to utilize the
    entire book, however, sections of the book may be used as a pre-programming tool. For
    example in Appendix C, we have provided you with some sheets to help you assess your
    child. When we assess children we do two things. First, we collect information on
    children. This can include how long a child stands on one foot or perhaps how many
    times a child can throw at and hit a target. Second, in assessment the teacher “brings
    meaning to the scores.” In this you may need to ask Jackie Wilkins or one of the group
    leaders to help you determine if your child has unique needs in a particular area. Also,
    parents can help you determine what areas need work. The idea is to determine at what
    level your child is currently functioning, developing a plan, following the plan, and then
    testing at the end to determine if your program was effective. More will be provided in
    the lesson planning section to help you program for the 12 sessions.

    Some recommendations to help you successfully work with your child:
   In working with kids we learn from experience. Some days we find things that work well
    and you want to repeat these experiences. Conversely, you will find that some things you
    try do not work for a particular child. In the end, we want children to enjoy movement.
    To do this, we need to use a lot of positive reinforcement and also problem solve to
    determine which activities help children progress towards goals.
   Take small steps and recognize when your child has made progress. For some kids this
    means that they are involved in an activity for a few seconds a day and gradually increase
    their participation.
   Progress can be seen in two ways. First, when a child moves better – meaning that they
    balance longer, or throw further, or hit a target more often is only one type of
    improvement. Second, if a child completes a task with less prompting on your part
    (meaning that at first you have to help the child every step of the way and later you help
    them less). An example of this later point would occur if you played catch with a child
    and she began by throwing to you every time you asked her to and later she threw without
    a verbal reminder, progress is made and should be documented!

Programming Approaches: Developmental versus Functional
       In gross motor activities we can teach kids using one of two approaches. First, a
developmental approach is typically used for kids without disabilities when we teach simple
prerequisite movements first and build on these with more complicated movements later. For
example, if we want a child to learn to throw we teach that child to throw underhand, then
overhand, then we teach them to step with the opposite foot, and later they can even learn to
use this skill in a game.
       Another approach is a functional one where we identify a handful of skills to help a
child develop physical activity related skills. In a functional approach, we would target
critical skills that help the child move independently. Functional programming is not a
decision made by one person. Please ask parents if they have some favorite activities, which
they want their child to specifically focus on instead of a more general program. An example
of a functional approach would be to teach a child with a serious disability to walk
independently at a pace, which helps the child become fit rather than teaching a child several
different locomotor patterns. Functional programming aims to improve a child’s ability to
ride a bike (we have several bikes in the PMD program and areas to ride – check with
program leaders). Any sport or recreational skill which is important to a family can be
addressed using a functional approach.

Play Skills
       Play is an important part of gross motor activities, which we target in the PMD
program. In this we help kids learn to play on equipment, with balls and eventually with
peers. Your child needs to be assessed relative to his or her ability to play. At the end of each
gymnasium session we will attempt to encourage each child to get involved in a group
activity. We ask that you help your child become involved at a level which is comfortable for
the child and you. This means that once your child becomes comfortable with you and the
program, he or she may play in the group activity with your verbal prompting and
demonstrating. Not all children are willing or at a level which allows them to enjoy group
activities for you over the 12 sessions.

       If you decide (along with the child’s parents) that play skills are the area which you
want to address over the next few weeks, then the Play Log (included in Appendix C) will
help you keep track of where the child is in relation to play behaviors. The play log found in
Appendix D will help you and others see the benefits of your efforts to develop play skills in
your child. This log is provided to help you document play along a continuum of basic to
more complex activities. As you move down the chart, play becomes more dynamic and
interactive. Experts from all disciplines agree that play follows a sequence which is seen in
most children (Sherrill, 1998; Zelazo & Kearsley, 1980). Simply put, play has stages and
children must proceed along these stages to reach the more advanced levels, which are
associated with playing a game or sport (Sherrill).

       Please note that more information is provided in this section and in Appendix C than
you need for any one particular child. For example, not all children need to be assessed and
programmed for all the areas described in this section. We ask that you select one or two
gross motor areas to work with your child during the gymnasium and pool times. When you
begin programming, using some of the information provided in Appendix C will help us keep
track of how a child is doing over time (beyond the length of this semester’s sessions). Don’t
hesitate to ask the program staff to help you if you do not understand what to do or if your
child does not appear to be responding to your efforts to program in the gross motor area.

                                          CHAPTER 4
               From an adapted physical education perspective, no better activity exists for
children with disabilities than aquatics programming. From a therapeutic perspective, the
buoyancy of the water allows kids to move independently in a manner that is not always
possible on land. For these reasons, the PMD program places a high premium on use of the
pool. All clinicians involved in the program are required to swim with their children.
The following are some recommendations for the pool and a basic swim progression.

                                       Some Suggestions
   Maintain hands – on contact or within arm’s reach of your child. The tiles in the pool
    area and locker rooms are slippery when wet.
   Always take your child to the bathroom prior to going to the pool.
   A lifeguard is available if an emergency occurs, otherwise ask a program
    leader/administrator for assistance.
   If your child’s eyes become red while in the pool, remove the child from the pool and
    rinse his/her eyes with clean water.
   If the child’s fingers or lips turn blue while in the pool, remove the child from the pool
    and allow the child to stand under a warm shower.
   Always give the child a warm shower after the pool time, to rinse the chlorine from
    his/her body and suit.
   Please dry child’s hair before leaving the locker room.
   Allow the child to independently dry his/her body. If necessary you can instruct the child
    with verbal feedback and reinforcement.
   If your child wears diapers encourage the parents to bring Swimmies, which are diapers
    made for swimming.
   Diapers must be thrown out in the blue containers marked PMD.

                                        Swim Progression
Adjustment to the Aquatic Environment
Your child needs to be comfortable in the water before any other skills can develop. The
child’s muscles may tense, or s/he may display an unwillingness to go near the water if the
child is not familiar with the environment. A calm, firm, verbal, and physical approach is
necessary on the part of the teacher. Allow the child to sit at the edge of the pool and dangle
his/her feet in the water. The teacher should emphasize how comfortable the child will feel in
the water, and that the child will be safe with the teacher.
Breath Control
The ability to hold one’s breath when submerged in the water is important for future skills and
water safety. Bobbing is an effective way to practice breath control. The child inhales above

the water and exhales beneath the water. The child may need to be taught to hold his/her nose
before going under water. A physical prompt by the clinician may be necessary. Blowing
bubbles is another important skill.
When floating, a child must shift from a vertical position to a horizontal position. Some
children who have gravitation insecurity, or who have limited sensation or limb control/loss
have difficulty floating. Floating is typically taught as a prerequisite skill to propulsion skills.
The ability to move through water is known as propulsion. Use of the arms is usually the
primary force, with the legs kicking as extra support. The beginning stroke is a propulsion
stroke, which encourages the use of arms and legs together. A child who is hesitant to put
his/her face in the water may learn to kick by floating on his/her back, or by holding a kick
board or other device with extended arms in a supine position.

Swimming Progression
Can the child:
       ~ walk around the pool area without fear
       ~ enter the pool with/without assistance
       ~ get his/her face wet
       ~ hold his/her breath
       ~ blow bubbles
       ~ front float with/without support
       ~ back float with/without support
       ~ glide with kick
       ~ kick on front with/without support
       ~ kick on back with/without support
       ~ beginner stroke (dog paddle)
       ~ change direction while swimming
       ~ turn over
       ~ survival float
       ~ combined stroke on back

       ~ jump into the water
       ~ participate in group water games
       ~ adhere to water safety rules
       Swimming is a vital part of adapted physical education and therapy based
programming. For successful programming, clinicians must first consider the safety aspects
of utilizing the pool. This includes constant one-on-one supervision of all children at all
times. You should never take your eyes off your child. Furthermore, children may
demonstrate some apprehension towards the pool at first. If this is the case, issues of water
adjustment should take priority over basic swim skills. A child who is forced to go into the
water before he or she is ready will not want to swim later. One of our goals should be to first
make the pool a fun place to be. In this, use toys and fun activities to help kids enjoy the
pool. Please do not hesitate to ask questions as you begin to work with the child.

                                         Chapter 5
                                        FINE MOTOR
       Fine motor control is defined as that dimension of behavior that involves the use of
individual body parts, especially the hands and fingers, in manipulating and/or controlling
small objects in precision acts (Williams, 1983). This portion of the program concentrates on
individual activities occurring with the assistance of each child’s clinician. Activities done
usually center around those areas of weakness found during assessment that need some work.
The object is to use weekly activities to make progress toward accomplishing overall global
goals outlined in each child’s Individual Education Plan (IEP). Some of the activities done
may include:
   Drawing
   Painting
   Memory games
   Learning how to properly write names, address, and phone number
   Improving overall writing skills (cursive or print)
   Coloring
   Various “See and Do” activities

   Improving cutting skills
   Puzzles
   Small object control
   Learning to properly tie shoes through progression activities

    Although the fine motor portion of the program concentrates on individual instruction, it
is possible to sometimes work in groups. A group activity can be used to allow the children to
interact with one another. This can assist in improving the social skills of all of the children
involved. All of these things serve to improve a child’s overall fine motor skill. This, in turn,
can contribute to improving gross motor and aquatic skills.

General Background on Development of Fine Motor Skill
       In the beginning infants pass through four general phases when dealing with objects.
Initially infants become attracted by an object and by their own hands. Secondly, there is a
general motor excitation as they are confronted with an object, with no coordinated attempt
made toward contact. In the third stage, contact and manipulation at an increasing level of
sophistication is seen. The fourth stage involves various kinds of explorations of the object
(i.e. stacking and throwing). This phase evolves into more cognitive operations as they begin
to give names to the objects with which they are confronted. Speech usually then develops
the latter part of the second year. This may not be the case for your child. He or she may not
have verbal skills.
       As children reach the age of 3 or 4, they begin to handle objects less and less. They
seem to have a much better understanding of shapes and surfaces. They have the ability to
learn about an object just by glancing at it (Cratty, 1979).
       The information available on the further development of fine motor skills for those
children ages 4-12 is difficult to evaluate. Information available does show expected age
trends and sex differences, but in no consistent direction. The research that is available only
serves to point us in a helpful direction, along with provide tasks that one might reasonably
expect a child to complete (Cratty, 1979). The activities outlined in this section should assist
you in finding an effective means to improving your child’s overall fine motor skill.

        Fine motor skills are very important to the development of all children. Many
education and functional life skills are related to fine motor abilities. For this reason, PMD
programming should take into account the fine motor needs of each child. Further, parental
input is important in developing program goals and objectives for each child.

                                      CHAPTER 6
                                    LESSON PLANNING
        One of the most critical aspects of affective teaching is planning. Educators must
develop goals and short-term objectives. Clear goals and objectives help an educator select
appropriate activities and also help educators determine which activities are working for a
particular child. It is the philosophy of the PMD program that any person who works
with children in our program have a written lesson plan from which to work during the
PMD sessions. In the following section, a format for writing lesson plans is provided. It is
not a problem if you decide to create your own format with the same basic components.
However, lesson plans must be neatly done. Please note that we will put templates on the
PMD computers for you to utilize. The PMD computers are located in the fine motor area
next to the gymnasium and we invite you to make use of these computers (talk to the PMD
staff for hours).
        The first step in PMD planning is to evaluate/assess your child. By assessing, we
mean that you collect some information (see Appendix D) and determine what areas
your child needs work on over the next 12 sessions. Parents should also be interviewed to
help you determine what areas should be targeted for assessment and later programming.
Once you have assessed your child, you should develop an individualized program for your
child, which utilizes the equipment and facilities we offer through the PMD program. A
format for this individualized program is also provided in this section. The sections that
follow in this chapter include as explanation for individualized program development and
daily lesson planning.

Individualized Program Planning
        The program plan is designed to provide you with a framework to follow over the 12
PMD sessions. In this framework, please note that this is not a contract. If you do not reach
the goals and objectives you still have been successful if you put forth effort to help your
child improve. Even goals and objectives which are not reached help future persons working
with your particular child to perhaps target the same goals (during future sessions) or perhaps
help determine that the goals you selected are not as important as goals in other areas. Our
program’s success is not based on how well you teach, but in how positive the experience is
for both you and the children we serve. To do this, hold the process in high regard. The
process refers to you planning and working each day to the best of your ability. The
volunteers, future educators, and therapists who work with our children are here to learn. We
feel that the following format will provide you with the necessary foundation to plan on a
daily level.
        An individualized program plan (IPP) includes the child’s name and date, along with
the person’s name and educational program at the top. After this preliminary information the
key components are general goals (for the semester), “baseline” or present level of
performance information, short-term instructional objectives, and a list of any special
activities you are to attempt with your child. It is our belief that one of the areas you must
address with your child in the gross motor area. Also, since all children will use the pool, a
goal and some objectives in this area are important. Please refer to a previous chapter for the
areas and assessment tools to obtain this information. One critical aspect to take into account
when creating the IEP for your child is that we value parent input in our program. For this
reason, it is impossible to create an appropriate program plan without obtaining some input
from parents or guardians of the child.

These are broad general statements, which provide direction to the overall program for the
child you are working with during the semester. Goals are long-term statements about what
area the child will improve upon over the course of the 12 sessions. For example: improving
physical fitness; improving balance; improving object control skills (throwing, catching, etc);
and improving locomotor skills are all long-term goals.

Another term for baseline is present level of performance. These are statements which are
based on our assessment/evaluation of the child that tell what he/she “can do”. If a child can
balance on one foot for 5 seconds, then present level of performance should read something
like this: “Sally is able to balance on one foot for 5 seconds on the gymnasium floor”. The
baseline or present level of performance describes a situation which can be re-created by
someone else who may want to test the child again in this same area. Some additional points
about baseline information are that it never indicates that a child “cannot do something”
(Sally cannot walk across a balance beam), or represents a zero (“Sally completed zero sit-

Short-term instructional objectives (STO)
These are statements, which represent the short-term objectives, which a child will
accomplish. Each goal should have about three short-term objectives under the statement.
For example, if we have the following goal:
                                Child will improve on balance
Baseline: Sally is able to balance on one foot for 5 seconds on the gymnasium floor.

Short-term objective #1 – Sally will be able to hop on one foot five times in a row by the end
of the second PMD session (dynamic balance).

Short-term objective #2 – Sally will be able to walk a 2 inch balance beam forward a distance
of 8 feet by the end of the third PMD session.

Short-term objective #3 – Sally will be able to balance on a 2 inch balance beam ten seconds
by the end of the 8th PMD session.

Shot-term objective #4 – Sally will be able to balance and manipulate objects while walking
the length of the balance beam by the 12th PMD session (bouncing a ball while walking).

Special activities/equipment/considerations
Some children require special activities or equipment. For example, a parent wants a child to
ride a bike or do something over and above what is traditionally offered in a PMD program.
Please list this suggestion here and how you will accommodate this special request. If a
parent has a child in T ball and wants you to help the child learn to run the bases, please
include this here. Also, any special accommodations, such as the child needs earplugs in the
water, should be included here.
Daily Lesson Planning
       Daily planning varies from discipline to discipline. Some of you may have a set
format for planning and it is our goal to let you plan in the way that best suits your needs.
However, several critical components must be addressed in any lesson-planning format you
use. Furthermore, your daily planning should be consistent with your overall plan. By this
we mean that you select activities which help you reach your goals and objectives which you
and the parents of your child agreed upon at the beginning of the program. A daily plan
includes the following steps:

Step 1: Look at your overall program plan and take note of objectives and the criteria you
want to reach for a particular activity. Also, take note of the baseline information you
collected. This will help you create a clear set of lesson objectives in the area (gross, fine
motor, aquatics, and/or any other area you identified).

Step 2: Create two or three objectives using the ABC method. In this method, A- audience or
the context in which you will work on the objective. For example, the pool or gymnasium can
be the desired place to work on the objective. Further, group versus individual settings are
also relevant. If you want your child to interact with others in the program, a good time to do
this would be during the group activity at the end of each gymnasium session. This is the type
of information you would put down as the audience.
       The B- behavior refers to what the child will actually do for you. This is observable
behavior. For example, if the child were to stand on one foot, this would be the behavior. If
you want the child to walk across a balance beam or throw a ball to you, these are behaviors
that we write in the objective.

        Finally, C- criteria are the most critical part of the objective from a learning
standpoint. In the criteria we identify how far, how many successes/attempts, and/or how
long a child does the behavior. In the lesson format we have provided, this objective for the
day does not need to be a complete sentence. Although you may chose to do it in this way if
your course instructor requires this (for those of you who are working with the clinic as part
of a course assignment). Below is an example of how to create an objective using this ABC
For the pool an example would be….
             A- While in the pool and with me supporting her head
             B- Sally will float on her back
             C- For 5 seconds by the end of the day

For the gymnasium (individual work with you and your child)…
    A- Working one on one in the gym
    B- Sally will be able to walk forward
    C- For a distance of 8 feet without stopping

A group or play example …
    A- During the group activity in the gymnasium
    B- Sally will engage in the game by grabbing the parachute
    C- For a period of 10 seconds (after a verbal prompt)

Step 3: Identify activities which the child will enjoy that will help you reach your goal
and objectives. We strongly recommend that you use the Perceptual Motor Development
Guide. We have copies of this resource in the computer room (fine motor room). You may
opt to use other resources and content, however, keep in mind that our focus is on Perceptual
Motor Development. In this, most movement requires perception playing a role in execution.

Step 4: Develop progressions for the activities, which begin with simple movements to more
complex. An example of progression in jumping rope is to have kids first jump over
stationary objects. Next, you have kids learn to swing the rope back and forth. After kids

learn to jump and swing, you can put the two skills together to form jump roping. Have them
jump over one time, then two, and so on. Eventually you could teach kids alternate forms of
jumping rope such as single-hop, double-hop, and/or partner jumps etc. The resource by
Bossenmeyer (1988) has some progressions that you can also follow. If you have a skill that
you want kids to learn and you need help, PMD leaders are a good resource for developing
appropriate progressions. Keep in mind, a progression is simply breaking skills down to
simple components or perhaps offering modified easier versions of the skill and then building
up to the actual skills. Using training wheels is part of a progression to teaching a child to
ride a bike is one such example.

Step 5: List any equipment you will need. Also, it is a good idea to think about how you are
going to communicate to your child what you want him/her to do. We use “key points” in
physical education to help learners tune into what is important in a skill. For example, in
jumping rope, I tell a child to swing the rope first and then jump, head-up, thumbs out, and
keep your hands at waist level. One last thing to do in lesson planning is to provide a section
for lesson modifications. These modifications are what you will do if your progression does
not work. For example in jumping rope, if a child is not able to jump using a rope, I will use a
hula-hoop which is stiffer and does not close up (instead of an actual jump-rope). The hula-
hoop can be split and this serves as a piece of adapted equipment to help a child learn to jump
rope. Modifications are simply our “plan B’s” if plan A does not work.

Step 6: Evaluate your lesson. This can be writing notes to yourself or by simply reflecting on
how your lessons went before you create the next plan.

       A sample lesson plan format will be provided. Some people find it easier to use this
type of format. Again, you are free to use any format you like, however, you must provide
lesson plans. Parents who send their children to our program spend $240 per child and we
owe it to them to have planned before hand what activities we are going to do with their child.
Failure to complete lesson plans will result in you not being allowed to participate in the
Perceptual Motor Development Program.

                                         Manual Quiz

Name ________________________                               SS# _________________

Directions. Please respond to the following in 25 words or less.

Briefly explain the philosophy of the Perceptual Motor Development (PMD) program.

List the 4 components of the program.

List 3 of the 6 goals of the program.

Provide at least two safety recommendations form the Gross Motor section of this manual.

List the 3 main purposes of gross motor activities (as given in PMD manual).

When assessing a child, what 2 things are done?

When teaching children gross motor activities, what 2 approaches can be used?


Define Fine Motor Control (as given in the manual).

After obtaining preliminary information, what are the 4 key components to developing lessons
plans? Briefly explain each one.




When developing a daily lesson plan, you are told to create objectives using the ABC method.
Briefly explain what this is and give an example.

Directions: Please circle the word True or False.

True or False         If your child is absent for the day, you are still required to participate in
                      that days session.

True or False         You are allowed to take the child’s file home with you.

True or False         You are allowed to be alone with your child at any time during the
                      program (i.e. restroom, locker room)

True or False         When in the pool, it is ok to force your child into the water (after all,
                      s/he must get used to it sometime).

True or False         Progression skills are often used when teaching your child various
                      water activities.

True or False         It is required for each teacher to have a lesson plan with which to work
                      from each week.

What are your expectations for the upcoming 12 PMD sessions?


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