Basic First Aid - Download as DOC by BevHde9


									Basic First Aid
First aid experts stress that knowing what to do for an injured person until a doctor or
trained person gets to an accident scene can save a life, especially in cases of stoppage of
breath, severe bleeding, and shock.

People with special medical problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, epilepsy,
or allergy, are also urged to wear some sort of emblem identifying it, as a safeguard
against use of medication that might be injurious or fatal in an emergency.

Most accidents occur in homes. Figures show that home accidents exceed those in other
locations, such as in cars, at work, or in public places.

In all cases, get medical assistance as soon as possible.

                          Wound should be washed with soap under running water and
     Animal bite
                          animal should be caught alive for rabies test.
                          Start mouth-to-mouth resuscitation immediately after getting
                          patient to fresh air.
                          Elevate the wound above the heart if possible. Press hard on
     Bleeding             wound with sterile compress until bleeding stops. Send for
                          doctor if it is severe.
                          If mild, with skin unbroken and no blisters, plunge into ice
                          water until pain subsides. Apply a dry dressing if necessary.
     Burn                 Send for physician if burn is severe. Apply sterile compresses
                          and keep patient quiet and comfortably warm until doctor's
                          arrival. Do not try to clean burn, or to break blisters.
                          With patient lying down, pour cupsful of water immediately
                          into corner of eye, letting it run to other side to remove
     Chemical in eye
                          chemicals thoroughly. Cover with sterile compress. Get
                          medical attention immediately.
     Choking              Do not use back slaps to dislodge obstruction.
                          Place person on back on bed or rug. Loosen clothing. Turn head
     Convulsions          to side. Do not place a blunt object between the victim's teeth.
                          If convulsions do not stop, get medical attention immediately.
                          Apply mild antiseptic and sterile compress after washing with
     Cut (minor)
                          soap under warm running water.
                          (See Mouth-to-Mouth Resuscitation) Artificial breathing must
                          be started at once, before victim is out of the water, if possible.
     Drowning             If the victim's stomach is bloated with water, put victim on
                          stomach, place hands under stomach, and lift. If no pulse is felt,
                          begin cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. This should only be done
                   by those professionally trained. If necessary, treat for shock.
                   If possible, turn off power. Don't touch victim until contact is
                   broken; pull him from contact with electrical source using rope,
Electric shock
                   wooden pole, or loop of dry cloth. Start mouth-to-mouth
                   resuscitation if breathing has stopped.
                   Touch object with moistened corner of handkerchief if it can be
Foreign body in
                   seen. If it cannot be seen or does not come out after a few
                   attempts, take patient to doctor. Do not rub eye.
                   If victim feels faint, lower head to knees. Lay him down with
                   head turned to side if he becomes unconscious. Loosen clothing
Fainting           and open windows. Keep patient lying quietly for at least 15
                   minutes after he regains consciousness. Call doctor if faint lasts
                   for more than a few minutes.
                   Send for physician if patient has continued pain. Cover wound
                   with sterile dressing and stop any severe bleeding. Do not move
                   patient unless absolutely necessary — as in case of fire — if
                   broken bone is suspected. Keep patient warm and comfortable.
                   If a limb is severed, it is important to properly protect the limb
                   so that it can possibly be reattached to the victim. After the
                   victim is cared for, the limb should be placed in a clean plastic
Loss of Limb
                   bag, garbage can, or other suitable container. Pack ice around
                   the limb on the OUTSIDE of the bag to keep the limb cold. Call
                   ahead to the hospital to alert them of the situation.
                   Call doctor. Use antidote listed on label if container is found.
                   Call local Poison Control Center if possible. Except for lye,
Poisoning          other caustics, and petroleum products, induce vomiting unless
                   victim is unconscious. Give milk if poison or antidote is
                   Keep the victim lying down; if uncertain as to his injuries, keep
                   him flat on his back. Maintain the victim's normal body
Shock (injury-
                   temperature; if the weather is cold or damp, place blankets or
                   extra clothing over and under the victim; if weather is hot,
                   provide shade.
                   Immediately get victim to a hospital. If there is mild swelling or
                   pain, apply a constricting band 2 to 4 inches above the bite.
                  If possible, remove stinger and apply solution of ammonia and
Sting from insect water, or paste of baking soda. Call physician immediately if
                  body swells or patient collapses.
                Send for doctor and place person on his back. Start
Unconsciousness resuscitation if he stops breathing. Never give food or liquids to
                an unconscious person.

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