River Valley High School by Zh4AKU

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 18

									River Valley High School
Digital Photography – Jane Anybody



Glossary
  A           B   C         D         E         F        G         H         I         J
  K           L   M         N         O         P        Q         R         S         T
  U           V   W         X         Y         Z


A
Absorption        Occurs when light is partially or completely absorbed by a surface,
                  converting its energy to heat.
Aboriginal art    Art created by indigenous people of a geographical area that is not
                  influenced by any other cultural group or outside people.
abstract          In the photographic sense, an image that is conceived apart from
                  concrete reality, generally emphasizing lines, colors and
                  geometrical forms, and their relationship to one another. Art that
                  looks as if it contains little or no recognizable or realistic forms from
                  the physical world. Focus on formal elements such as colors, lines,
                  or shapes. Artists often "abstract" objects by changing, simplifying,
                  or exaggerating what they see.



Abstract          Art that rejects true visual representation. It has few recognizable
Expressionism     images with great emphasis on line, color, shape, texture, value;
                  putting the expression of the feelings or emotions of the artist above
                  all else.
acrylic           A synthetic plastic resin used as a binder for paint.
Address/Netsite   In browser context, the drop-down list in the
                  Address (IE) or Netsite (Navigator) text box that keeps a history of
                  the sites visited during the current session and past sessions; a
                  URL is an address.
aerial view       Viewing a subject from above, looking downward.
aesthetic         Relating to standards of beauty and art.
aesthetics        The philosophical study that explores questions about "what is art?"
                  or "what is beauty?"
allegory          A work of art created to represent something else but disguised by
                  use of symbols and symbolic ideas.
analogous         Any set of three or five adjacent or neighboring colors of the color
colors            wheel. An example of such a set would include blue, blue-green,
                  green - or- blue, blue-green, green, yellow-green, yellow. Because
                  each set of colors shares similar colors, there is a harmony to
                   analogous colors.
analysis           The second stage in the art critiquing process focusing on
                   identifying how an artist uses the elements of art and principles of
                   design.
Anti-Ailiasing     Smoothing the edges of objects in a digital image to reduce the
                   appearance of "stair steps".
Aperture           A circle-shaped opening in a lens (a hole, really) through which light
                   passes to strike the film. The aperture is usually created by an iris
                   diaphragm that is adjustable, enabling the aperture to be made
                   wider or narrower, thereby letting in more or less light. The size of
                   the aperture is expressed as an f-number, like f/8 or f/11.
appliqué           A sewing technique in which a piece of fabric or textile decoration is
                   attached to a larger piece of material.
armature           In sculpture, a skeleton-like framework to support material being
                   modeled.
Artifacts          Sometimes spelled "artefacts" - Picture degradations that occur as
                   a result of image-processing tasks, such as compressing an image
                   which can result in an increase in digital "noise".
Artificial Light   Illumination that comes from a man-made source, such as
                   electronic flash.
assemblage         A three-dimensional collage created from a group of everyday
                   objects, many times pre-made and put together in a specific way.
Autofocus          Ability of a lens and camera to focus automatically on an object
                   within its focusing sensors.
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B
background         In a painting or drawing, the area that seem most distant, as if in
                   the back of the picture. Often this is referred to as negative space.
balance            An equal arrangements of specific elements within a composition
                   deliberately organized by the artist. Elements could include color,
                   line, shape, or texture etc. for example.
batik              A fabric dyeing technique in which the pattern is first drawn with
                   melted beeswax onto the cloth with a metal tool. The cloth is
                   immersed in dye. The areas covered by the wax are not affected by
                   the dye, creating a pattern that can be seen when the wax is
                   removed by boiling the cloth or ironing the wax so it melts from the
                   cloth. Wax and dye applications may be repeated for color
                   variation.
book of hours      A beautifully illustrated prayer book common in Europe, the Middle
                   East and parts of Asia. Some of the finest examples are from the
                   middle ages. Often these books were decorated with gold and silver
                   leaf, hence the name "Illuminated".
Bookmark           A copy of a Web page is cached in the Internet Temporary Files
                   folder on the hard drive; it provides a quick way to navigate to a
                   URL in a Web session.
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C
calligraphy      Elegant, decorative writing, developed to an artform itself, used to
                 enhance the artistic appeal and visual beauty of handwritten papers
                 and manuscripts.
Camera Angle     Same as “shooting angle” or “viewpoint”. The position of the
                 camera relative to the position of the subject.
Candid           Candid pictures (sometimes referred to simply as "Candids") are
                 unposed and often (but not necessarily) taken without the subject's
                 knowledge.
canvas           A cotton-like cloth stretched over a wooden frame. Usually primed
                 with gesso, the fabric surface is ideal for painting with oils and
                 acrylics.
Catchlight       The reflection of a light in the subject’s eyes in a portrait.
Center of        (or center of focus). All good pictures have a center of interest, a
Interest         point or feature that draws the eye's attention. Visit Center of
                 interest for more information.
ceramics         The art of making objects such as pottery out of clay. This term is
                 used to describe these objects as well.
charcoal         Compressed, burned wood used for drawing.
chiaroscuro      In drawing or painting, the treatment and use of light and dark,
                 especially the strong contrasting of light and shade to produce the
                 effect of modeling.
Close-Up         Generally, a picture of a subject that fills the frame, usually with the
                 subject looking particularly close to the camera.
collaboration    To work together in an artistic undertaking.
collage          From the French word "coller" which means "to paste". A collage is
                 any artistic composition made by gluing assorted materials to a flat
                 surface.
color            The element of art that is derived from reflected light.
Color Balance    (1) The manner in which color film reproduces a scene's colors
                 under different types of lighting (daylight or tungsten). (2) The
                 adjustment of colors in making color prints.
color wheel      The spectrum of colors studied as a circular wheel, with the colors
                 arranged in a predetermined order.
complementary    Colors which appear opposite one another on a color wheel. When
colors           placed next to one another, complementary colors are intensified
                 and often appear to vibrate. When mixed, brown or gray is created.
composition      In the visual arts, the structure or organization of a work.
conceptual art   Art that focuses on the idea expressed and the process of creating
                 the work.
contour          A visible border of a shape or figure. An outline that creates the
                 illusion of mass and volume in space.
contrast         The amount of darkness or brightness between colors. (1) the
                 range of difference between highlights and shadow areas in an
                 image. Many factors affect an image’s contrast, including the
                 degree of development and the contrast grade of the paper on
                 which an image is printed. (2) The range of brightness in a scene or
                 in the light striking a subject. (Sometimes contrast is also referred to
                 as "Density.")
cool colors      On one half of the color wheel are the cool colors, from yellow-
                 green to violet. Psychologically, cool colors are calming.
criticism        The process of describing, analyzing, interpreting, and judging
                 works of art.
Cropping         (1) Removal of parts of an image in order to improve the image’s
                 composition. Cropping occurs when an area that is smaller than the
                 entire image frame is printed or reproduced. (2) Cropping is
                 sometimes also used in reference to a photographer moving closer
                 to a subject, thereby eliminating (cropping) unnecessary
                 surrounding elements from the composition.
Cubism           An art movement which came into being c. 1909, led by Picasso
                 and Braque. It was an attempt to capture, on a flat, two-dimensional
                 surface, all aspects, points of view, and angles of what the artist
                 sees in three dimensions.
culture          Culture is the values, customs, language, history, and traditions of a
                 group of people.
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D
Dada             An art movement which often tried to shock the public into realizing
                 the destruction and inhumanity so apparent during WWI.
diagonal         Any straight edge or line that is not parallel to the horizon line and is
                 not truly vertical.
digital camera   A camera that captures an image digitally, without the use of film.
dimensions       A means of measuring the amount of space an object occupies.
                 Usually these are measured in height, width and depth.
diorama          A three-dimensional replicated scene in which figures, stuffed
                 wildlife, or other objects are arranged in a thematic setting against a
                 painted or decorated background.
diptych          A two paneled art structure (often a religious painting) joined at the
                 center like a screen.
distort          To deliberately exaggerate or manipulate an image to the extreme.
                 This is often done to draw attention to a feeling or mood of the work
                 of art.
Domain name      A registered Web site name. This name is included in the unique
                 URL following the www. Part of the URL.
dominant         An area, element of art or principle of design that is a main focal
                 point in a work of art.
drawing          Representing an image on a surface by means of adding lines and
                 shades, as with a pencil, crayon, pen, chalk, pastels, etc.
dry brush        Lightly touching the surface with a brush coated in ink, paint or
                  other medium.
                  This lends itself to a scratchy, textured effect.
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E
earth colors      Those colors obtained naturally from the earth including many
                  shades of tans, browns and reds. These colors are often used in
                  the works of indigenous artists.
egg tempera       A medium created by mixing pure, ground pigments with egg yolk.
                  This was a very common medium before the invention of oil paints.
Elements of Art   The language of art of the basic elements used when producing
                  works of art. Those elements are color, value, line, shape, form,
                  texture, and space. They can be used to describe a work of art.
elongate          Stylizing an image by stretching it to distort the overall image.
emboss            A decorative technique usually used with paper that creates raised
                  patterns or lines by pressing the underside of the paper. This
                  creates an interesting visual and tactile texture.
Emphasis          The principle of design that appears to be the dominant, or the most
                  noticeable quality of a work of art. Artist deliberately manipulates
                  the elements of art to create such emphasis.
emotionalism      The belief that the greatest importance of a work of art is its
                  emotional impact on the viewer.
engraving         A printing process in which a metal plate is coated. Images are
                  scratched into the coating revealing the metal surface. An acid is
                  used to cut into the metal surface revealed by the scratches. The
                  coating is removed. These grooves are then filled with ink, the
                  excess removed, and paper is pressed into the grooves. Each print
                  pulls up a drawing of the lines and scratches.
environment art   Refers to art which involves the creation or manipulation of a large
                  or enclosed space, many effectively surrounding its audience.
                  Architectural (including landscape architectural) design might be
                  said to qualify as environment art, although the term usually refers
                  to artworks which do not function as either of these kinds of
                  environmental design typically do.
etching           An etching is a print produced by the printing method known by the
                  same name. It is done by coating a copper or zinc plate with a wax
                  or similar protective shield and then the drawing is produced on the
                  surface with a needle. Only the coating is cut, not the plate. When
                  the drawing is complete, the plate is submerged in an acid bath and
                  the areas that were exposed by the needle are cut by the acid.
                  Then the plate is cleaned and inked and then wiped so ink is only in
                  the recesses. The plate is then put in a press where it is pressed
                  hard against a damp print paper. The resulting print is a reverse of
                  the original drawing on the plate.
exhibit and       Displaying pieces of art to an audience.
exhibition
Expressionism    An art style that focuses on the emotions of the personal feelings of
                 an artist, not on formal composition.
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F
façade           The front of a building. This area is often more detailed.
fantasy          Fanciful or grotesque images and scenes of pure imagination such
                 as those of dreams, hallucinations, daydreams, etc.
Fauvism          A twentieth century painting style emphasizing brilliant, often
                 unnatural, colors and the forms created by this.
fiber            Various threads or strands of synthetic and natural materials used
                 to assemble or decorate textiles works such as tapestries, quilts,
                 baskets, etc.
figurative       Artwork representing the human form or an animal.
firing           An extremely high temperature baking process used to harden
                 ceramic works. This is usually done in a kiln or by building
                 extremely hot, smoldering fires in the ground around clay works.
focal point      A specific area, element or principle that dominates a work of srt.
                 The viewer's eye is usually drawn there first.
folk art         Often textile or decorative arts made by people who have had little
                 or no formal art training. Many of these folk arts are native to
                 particular regions and have been produced over many generations.
foreground       The area of a painting or drawing, usually located near the bottom
                 third of a work, that represents the space "closest" to the viewer.
foreshortening   A drafting illusion in which, depending on the viewer's point of view,
                 an object, or part of an object is distorted to imply the compacting of
                 space.
form             An element of art that is represented by three-dimensions (height,
                 width, and depth) and encloses space. For example, a triangle,
                 which is two-dimensional, is a shape, but a pyramid, which is three-
                 dimensional, is a form. Cubes, spheres, pyramids, cone, and
                 cylinders are examples of various forms.
formal balance   A work of art that when optically divided in half , each side is
                 arranged almost exactly as the other.
formalism        One of the three theories of art, this one emphasizes the design
                 qualities of a work.
freehand         Drawing without the use of any mechanical devices.
fresco           A painting in which the artist applies pigments directly into wet or
                 dry plaster usually applied to a wall. As the plaster dries, the
                 pigments are absorbed and become permanently bonded with the
                 plaster.
frontal          The visual perspective of looking directly at the front of a person or
                 object and representing it as such.
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G
genre             A style or category of art characterized by representing scenes of
                  everyday images of life.
gesture drawing   Usually a quick and loosely drafted image used as a preliminary
                  effort before producing a much more details and accurate drawing.
geometric         Recognizably named areas based on straight lines, angles and
shapes            curves such as square, circle, triangle, etc.
Golden Mean       Rooted in Greek mathematics, the Golden Mean is a study of
                  perfect ratio of one area in proportion to another. This would meam
                  1 to 1.6.
Gothic            A style attributed to the 12th - 16th centuries of architecture. The
                  style is recognizable by such architectural elements as flying
                  buttresses, pointed arched windows, stained glass, and the
                  humanization of people in sculpture.
gouache           An opaque watercolor paint.
graphic design    Commercial reproduction of artworks such as printing, including
                  text, decorative techniques and illustration.
grotesque         Description of art images and sculptures that often use human and
                  animal images. These forms are distorted proportionately to
                  produce ugly or fanciful representations.
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H
Harlem            In the 1920s, the Harlem, NY community became the economic,
Renaissance       political, and cultural center of black America. Various literary and
                  artistic works were created celebrating the African-American
                  experience.
harmony           The principle of design that creates unity and harmony by stressing
                  separate but
                  related parts. Repetition is one example of a way that harmony is
                  achieved.
hatching and      Lines drawn with consistent, parallel strokes used to emphasize
cross-hatching    shading. Often these lines would be drawn crossing as well as
                  parallel.
hierarchal        The distortion of the sizes of things according to their importance,
proportion        rather than how they actually exist.
History           A record of the pages visited during a Web session so that you can
                  return to them using Back, Forward, and History buttons.
horizontal        A straight line parallel to the horizon line.
horizon line      The ever changing line that separates the sky from the land or sea.
                  This line changes depending on the line of vision of the viewer.
Hot word          A hypertext selection that allows you to jump directly to the subject
                  on a Web page.
hue               Another word for color.
humanities        The study of the manmade arts such as art, literacy, music that
                  convey the cultural aspects of humanity.
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I
icon             A pictorial representation of a person. Originally referring to the
                 images of adoration of saints and religious leaders, the term has
                 now become a pop culture term referring to anyone or thing
                 recognizable by the public masses.
illusion         A misleading image visually represented.
illustrate       The creation of images and designs for commercial reproduction
                 such as in magazines, newspapers and books.
Image map        Graphic equivalents of hypertext links; can be sections of a main
                 image connecting to different anchors, or URLs.
imagination      The mental creation of an idea or thought representative of a quality
                 of uniqueness.
imitationalism   A theory of art which the realistic representation of objects is
                 considered the most important means of measuring the success of
                 a work of art.
implied          To express an intended meaning through suggestions or
                 inferences.
Impressionism    A style of painting that started in France during the 1860s. Artists
                 focused on everyday scenes and the effect of sunlight on objects.
indigenous       Having originated in a land or region: being native to a geographical
                 or cultural group.
installation     An artistically designed environment constructed in a gallery. Often
                 these are photographed and archived, as the original structures are
                 usually only temporary.
intensity        A term referencing the brightness or dullness of a color. The purity
                 of a color is affected by adding other colors to the original, changing
                 its intensity.
intermediate     Intermediate (tertiary) colors are located between the primary and
colors           secondary colors on a color wheel. When neighboring primary and
                 secondary color are mixed, an intermediate color is produces. If you
                 mix red with orange, the color red-orange is created.
irony            A misleading use of a visual image to present one thing to the
                 viewer, but actually representing the opposite.
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J
judgment         The final step in the Art Critiquing Process in which the viewer
                 determines the merit or success of a particular work of art.
juxtaposition    The conscious positioning or arranging of objects.
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K
kiln             A commercially produced oven designed to each very high
                 temperatures. Kilns are used to fire ceramics.
kinetic art      Art that utilizes movement.
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L
landscape       A work of art that represents a view of natural scenery.
life drawing    Drawing from a live model.
line            A mark created by moving a point along in one direction.
loom            A frame-like tool designed to create weavings by interlacing threads
                or yarn at right angles to create cloth.
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M
mandala         A symbolic circular design.
mannequin       A wooden or plastic jointed doll capable of very natural poses.
                These are used by artists instead of live models when study of
                human movement is necessary.
mask            An artform designed to cover the face. Masks have a long history
                and many styles can be indigenous to specific cultural groups
meander         A line or site of view that follows a winding or rambling path.
media           The plural form of medium.
medium          The material used to create a work of art.
Middle Ages     The period of European history placed roughly between 1000s and
                the 1500s. This period is often referred to as the Dark Ages or the
                Medieval period.
middle ground   The section of a drawing or painting that exists between the
                foreground and the background. It is usually found in or near the
                middle third of a picture.
miniature       A work of art on a much smaller scale than is typical.
Minimalism      A style of art in which the artist reduces the work to a minimum of
                elements.
mixed media     A work of art utilizing more than one medium and/or material.
mobile          A moving sculpture, usually suspended. The shapes and areas are
                balanced.
modeling        Shaping or molding a three-dimensional form from a malleable
                medium such as clay. Modeling can also be used to describe the
                degrees of tinting and shading used to achieve a three-dimensional
                look on a two-dimensional surface.
modern          Contemporary.
mola            A several layers of cloth are sewn together and the top layers are
                cut and turned to show the colors underneath. This textile art is a
                folk art of the Kuna Indians of Panama.
monochromatic   Different shades and tints of a single color.
mood            A feeling inferred by an artist and felt by the viewer.
mosaic          An artform consisting of patterns of small pieces of tile or glass
                inlaid in cement or grout.
motif           A design or designed image that is repeated over and over with
                little to no differences.
movement        An illusion created by the artist to convey action in a piece of
                 stationery art. This can be achieved by repetition, adding lines, or
                 careful placement of objects.
mural            A large painted picture extending over a wall or other monumental
                 surface.
museum           An organized space devoted to preserving, viewing and studying
                 works of art and other manmade elements.
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N
naive art        A style of painting often associated with folk art. The paintings are
                 generated by people who have not been formally schooled in art.
narrative art    Art which visually tells a story or relays information about an
                 important event.
negative space   The empty space or seemingly unimportant background space, in
                 an artwork.
Netsite          See address
neutral colors   This color category encompasses whites, grays, blacks and
                 browns.
non-objective    Art that has no recognizable subject matter.
art
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O
objectivity      The ability to view something without influence of feelings or
                 emotions.
Offline          Working on interface programs, such as composing e-mail
                 messages, when not logged on to the Internet.
oil paint        A medium created in the 1500s. Ground powdered pigment was
                 mixed with linseed oil and compressed into a container (eventually
                 this container became the familiar tube of paint). These paints had
                 a long drying time which meant that the artist could rework the
                 piece over a period of days.
one-point        A devised drafting technique using straight lines that converge to a
perspective      single vanishing point on the horizon line. This gave the illusion of
                 three dimensional space on a two dimensional surface.
opacity          A medium that is so dense, neither light nor the background image
                 can be seen through it.
Op Art           Optical Art is a style in which visual illusions, usually of vibrational
                 movement, are created by careful placement of lines and colors.
original         A unique work considered to be the first of its kind.
originality      A quality given to ideas expressed as unique, novel or different
                 from any other previously recognized ideas of a similar nature.
organic          An shape having none of the geometric angularity associated with
                 other shapes such as squares, triangles, rectangles, etc.. Organic
                 shapes are fluid and often are associated with things that occur in
                 nature.
overlap           An important technique to achieving a sense of depth in a flat, two-
                  dimensional work. The objects appear to lie slightly on top of one
                  another object. This layering makes some objects look like they are
                  behind others or placed further back in the picture.
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P
paint             A generic name for any medium made up of grounded colored
                  pigment suspended in a liquid-like base. The base can be water,
                  oil, or a synthetic material. These mediums are usually applied with
                  a brush.
palette           A tool used by painters which affords them a surface they can hold
                  from which to apply and mix paints before stroking the canvas or
                  painting surface.
panel             Traditionally used before the invention of stretched canvas, these
                  flat, wooden surfaces of various sizes where sealed and then used
                  for painting.
Panchromatic or   Photographic film sensitive to all visible colors. Pan films record all
“Pan”             colors in tones of roughly similarly relative brightness as seen by
                  the eye in the original scene.
Panning           Technique that involves taking a picture while moving the camera at
                  a relatively slow shutter speed. It is almost always used when
                  tracking a moving object, such as a race car, as it travels across the
                  film plane. When properly carried out, the object is rendered
                  relatively sharply while its surroundings are blurred.
panorama          A sweeping, unbroken view of an expansive scene, usually
                  referring to landscapes. (1) An extended, wide view or pictorial
                  representation of a landscape or other scene. (2) A camera mode
                  that produces a proportionately wider or taller than normal image,
                  depending on the camera’s orientation.
paper             A medium created original by pressing plant fibers into flat sheets
                  as the Egyptians did when creating papyrus. Today paper is still
                  made from organic materials and comes in a wide range of colors,
                  sizes, textures and is suitable for receiving many different mediums
                  or it can be used as the main means of expression.
parody            A work created when the artist closely imitates the work of another
                  for the purpose to ridicule or poke fun at the work or what the work
                  represents.
parallel          Lines or edges on the same plane that travel equidistant, in the
                  same direction.
Parallax          The difference between what is seen through the viewfinder and
                  what the camera records on film, caused by the viewfinder being
                  separate from the camera lens.
parchment         An early paper material highly valued during the middle ages.
                  Originally made from goat or sheep skin, parchment today is made
                  from organic fibers and affords artists such as calligraphers a crisp,
                  smooth, high quality surface on which to write.
PDF               (Portable Document Format) - an image file type created in Adobe
                  PhotoShop that results in pictures that are viewable with Adobe
                  Acrobat, so someone (Mac or PC-user) who doesn't have
                  PhotoShop can still view the image. It is often used in forms
                  creation and for documents that require their layout, fonts and
                  images to appear unchanged from the original.
performance art   Art that employs live theatrical performances as an important
                  element of the work.
perspective       An organized set of drafting rules for representing three-
                  dimensional space on a flat surface. Technique of depicting
                  volumes and spacial relationships (a scene in three-dimensions) on
                  a flat surface (an image having two dimensions).
Photo             (1)Photograph; (2) Greek for "light"
Photogenic        Being an attractive subject for photography, or looking good in a
                  photograph.
Photograph        (1) A picture produced by photography. (2) To take a photograph.
Photographer      Someone who takes photographs, especially as a profession. It could be
                  said that a good photographer is a combination of an artist, craftsman and
                  scientist, since knowledge and skills from all three professions play a part
                  in good photography.
photography       The art of mechanically capturing images on a light sensitive plate.
                  These images can be reproduced over and over from this plate.
                  The process or art of producing images of objects on sensitized
                  surfaces by the chemical action of light. The word "photography"
                  derives from the Greek and means, literally, “light writing.”
photographic      Of or pertaining to photography.
picture plane     The drawing or painting surface of a flat, two dimensional pictures.
pigment           Various minerals and matter ground up and mixed with a fluid
                  medium to create paints and colorants. Pigments can come from
                  mined stones, plants or even from clays.
plane             A flat and level surface that can stretch out in any direction.
pointillism       A painting technique in which pure dots of color are dabbed onto
                  the canvas surface. The viewer's eye, when at a distance, is then
                  expected to see these dots merge as cohesive areas of different
                  colors and color ranges.
point of view     The angle from which the viewer's eye is looking at, up or down on
                  an object or setting.
Pop Art           An art movement in which artists frequently incorporated the mass
                  media advertising images into their works.
portfolio         A collection of works done by a single artist. Usually organized in a
                  flat cloth or leather case for protection. These works often display
                  the abilities and range of an artist and are necessary when a
                  student is considering entering an art program in college.
portrait          A rendering of a person in any medium.
positive space    The area(s) of a work of art that are filled with meaningful
                   intentions. Often, it is the positive space that contains the image the
                   viewer is expected to recognize.
poster             A work of art produced for commercial reproductions. Often posters
                   are printed on large pieces of paper.
Post-              An art movement that relied on the impact of the paintings to
Impressionism      express feelings and ideas.
primary colors     The three colors, blue, red and yellow, from which most other colors
                   can be made. Primary colors can not be mixed from other colors.
Principles of      The rules by which an artist organizes the Elements of Art to create
Design             a work of art.
printmaking        The process by which a work of art can be recreated in great
                   quantity from a single image usually prepared from a plate.
profile            The side view of an object or person.
propaganda         Psychological images and rhetoric developed to specifically
                   persuade the masses to a particular point of view. Propaganda is
                   usually seen as a form of political and/or religious advertisement.
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Q
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R
radial balance     An organized pattern or design emanating from the center of a
                   circular format. This design usually has some symmetrical
                   properties.
random             Having no plan, seemingly haphazard.
realism            An art style popular in the mid 1800's in which artists painted
                   ordinary objects, people and scenes as they actually were. The
                   artists made no attempt to romanticize the figures or add drama to
                   the settings.
relief sculpture   A sculptural art form in which the top surface of the art work
                   demonstrates some carving or three dimensional qualities.
repetition         A series of repeated elements.
rhythm             A Principle of Design that refers to the visual movement created by
                   repeating specific Elements of Art.
right brain        A theory in which the two different sides, or hemispheres, of the
                   brain are responsible for different manners of thinking. The right
                   side of the brain is believed to be the creative side, responsible for
                   producing art and making spatial decisions as well as holistic
                   thinking, while the left side is responsible for analyzing verbal tasks
                   and logical thinking.
rose window        A large stained-glass window usually the focal point in many gothic
                   cathedrals.
Royalty-free       A purchased license to use a copyright holder’s work multiple times
agreement          and for an unlimited amount of time.
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S
Safe harbor       The minimum set of rules or regulations that will provide protection
                  against a copyright infringement suit.
satire            A work (whether verbal or visual) that uses humor and wit.
Saturation        The degree of hue in color as perceived subjectively. Saturated
                  color can be termed strong, vivid, intense or deep. Desaturated
                  color can be termed weak, pale, washed out or dull.
scale             The size of an object as compared to other objects or to its
                  environment, or as compared to the human figure. (1) The relative
                  size of an object. (2) A set of marks to indicate distances at which a
                  lens is focused, often engraved near the focusing ring on a lens
Scanner           Electronic device that captures an impression of an object
                  (commonly a photographic print or other flat document) and
                  converts it into a digital image which can be edited and saved on a
                  computer.
Scenes á faire    Stock scenes, characters, and features of a work considered
                  standard or essential to the genre or field.
sculpture         A three-dimensional work of art made by carving (cutting in wood,
                  stone, etc.) modeling (a building up of a soft material such as clay
                  or wax), or making a construction or arrangement of material such
                  as an assemblage.
seascape          A picture of an ocean scene.
secondary         The colors obtained by mixing equal amounts of two primary colors.
colors            The secondary colors are orange, green, and violet. Yellow and red
                  create orange. Yellow and blue create green. Blue and red create
                  violet.
Selective Focus   Employing shallow depth of field through the use of a wide aperture
                  so that the subject is isolated from its surroundings because they
                  are not in focus.
self-portrait     A portrait an artist makes using himself or herself using a mirror.
shade             Adding black (or other dark color) to a pure color to darken it. More
                  black creates darker shades.
shading           Creating a wide range of lights and darks to visually create a
                  modeling effect mimicking three dimensional attributes.
shape             An object represented in two dimensions.
Shooting          The distance from the camera to the subject.
Distance
Shutter           A movable cover for an opening. In photography, that opening is
                  the lens - more specifically, the aperture. The shutter blocks the
                  passage of light traveling through the lens to the film when it is
                  closed, and allows light to reach the film when it is open. Shutters
                  are composed of blades, a curtain, a plate or another movable
                  cover. They control the amount of time that light is allowed to pass
                  through the opening to reach the film.
Shutter Speed     Controls the duration of an exposure - the faster the Shutter speed,
                the shorter the exposure time.
Side lighting   Light falling on a subject from the side relative to the camera
                position.
Silhouette      A dark image outlined against a lighter background.
sketch          A rough drawing capturing the most important features of a chosen
                subject and is usually used as a preliminary study.
Slide           A single frame of exposed transparency film mounted for protection
                and to facilitate use in a slide projector.
Smear           White streaks from a powerful light source, such as reflected
                sunlight or the sun itself, that appear on an image captured by a
                digital camera's CCD.
Snapshot        An informal photograph, especially one taken quickly by a simple,
                hand-held camera.
Soft Focus      A soft look achieved by bending some of the light from the subject
                so it is defocused while the rest remains in focus. Highlights are
                actually dispersed onto adjacent areas. The image still looks
                properly-focused overall, but its components are just enough out-of-
                focus that they are softened. Lines are slightly fuzzy and small
                details seem to disappear.
Soft Lighting   Low contrast illumination.
space           As an Element of Art, space is created by the emptiness between,
                around, behind or within a given object or group of objects. Space
                defines shapes.
split           One color plus the two colors that are on either side of its
complements     complement on the color wheel. For example, the complement of
                orange is blue, and the two colors on either side of blue are blue-
                green and blue-violet. Therefore the split complements of orange
                are blue-green and blue-violet.
style           An artist's personal way of using the Elements of Art and Principles
                of Design to convey his/her feelings and ideas. Style is also used to
                classify groups of artists who shared similar artist expressions.
still life      A grouping of inanimate objects usually in a pleasing composition.
                Most often we associate still lifes with bowls of fruit, vases of
                flowers or an arrangement of personal effects on a table top.
Stitch          To join together one or more pictures, usually to make a panorama.
                A "stitched" or "segmented" image involves taking two or more
                photographs of a scene from the same camera position, with the
                camera rotating on a single axis and with each image (segment)
                partially over-lapping another so they can be joined together
                ("stitched") on your computer using image-processing software,
                resulting in a single extra-wide or extra-tall picture.
Stock           Images that are not photographed for a specific client or use, but
Photography     are catalogued for review and selection by someone who may have
                a use for the image.
Stop            (1) As a noun, a stop is a single aperture setting or shutter speed
                setting. A “one stop” change in exposure is achieved by changing
              either the aperture or the shutter speed to the next incremental
              setting - i.e. doubling or halving the shutter speed or aperture value.
              (A shutter speed of 1/125 sec is a one stop change from 1/250 sec.
              An aperture of f/5.6 is a one stop change from f/8.)
              (2) As a verb, to "stop down" is to decrease exposure by reducing
              the size of the aperture or increasing shutter speed - e.g. a light
              meter reading may indicate that you should stop down by three
              stops for proper exposure.
Streaming     A video or audio file is “streamed,” or downloaded in small
              increments, to the cache memory. It is buffered, or stored, until
              there is enough of it downloaded to start playing the file. While file
              is being played, the next block is being downloaded, resulting in a
              constant stream of data.
Studio        A room specially equipped for photography
subdue        To make less intense.
subject       The image that viewers can easily recognize in a work of art. (1)
              The principal object (person, animal, thing) in a photograph or being
              photographed. (2) A theme or topic in photography. (3) The most
              essential object in a photograph, without which the photograph’s
              purpose or meaning would be unclear.
Subordinate   In a picture, an object where there is more than one object, that is
Object        given the least visual weight or importance, often appearing in the
              background, but not necessarily. It may also be less sharply-
              focused, smaller, darker or brighter, or otherwise subordinate to
              other objects in the image.
Substantial   The degree to which a second work resembles the original
similarity    copyrighted work.
subtractive   A sculptural form in which material is removed from the whole to
sculpture     achieve a finished product.
Surrealism    An art movement in which one's dreams, nightmares, subconscious
              and fantasy inspired the final works.
symbol        Something that stands for or represents something else.
symmetry      A special type of formal balance in which a work of art can be
              mentally or visually divided into two identical halves, a mirror image.
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T
tactile       Having the ability to be explored with the sense of touch.
Tags          Tags are the building blocks of formatting and hyperlinking in Web
              pages. Tags are commands inserted in a document that specify
              how the document should be formatted, what graphics should
              display, or to what other location it should be linked. They form the
              basis of markup languages. Also called metatags.
Tangible      The material object in which a work can be experienced.
medium of
expression
tapestry           A heavy, hand woven textile depicting monumental scenes.
                   Tapestries are designed to be hung on walls.
technique          The way in which an artist uses a material to achieve a desired
                   effect.
tempera            A medium in which ground dry pigments are mixed with egg yolk.
template           A pattern or guide used in making a specific design.
tensile strength   The strength of wire measured by the amount of pressure withstood
                   when pulled from both ends.
Terms of use       The rules copyright owners set for use of their work.
tessellation       A design achieved through the repetition of at least one exact
                   shapes that occupy all existing positive space.
textiles           Any material made with yarns, cloth or fibers.
texture            An element of art which refers to how a surface feels or looks like it
                   would feel.
three-quarter      A view of a face which is half-way between a full and a profile view.
view
tint               Adding white to a color to lighten the value of that color. The more
                   white that is added, the lighter the tint.
tondo              A painting in the shape of a circle.
Tooltips           Text aids inside pop-up rectangles used to orient users or to explain
                   or identify something on-screen.
totem              An object used as a symbol representing a person or clan. Often
                   the symbol takes on the look and qualities of an animal or plant.
Trade dress law    Legal protection of the appearance and size of a product or service.
Trade secret law   State-governed laws protecting secret formulas, recipes, or
                   processes.
Trademark law      Legal protection of an image, word, symbol, or design used to
                   identify goods and services.
Transformative     Work transformed by intangible input to be considered as fair use.
translucent        A surface that allows light to pass through it, but one cannot see
                   through it.
transparent        Light passes through the surface and one can see through it as
                   well.
trompe l'oeil      A type of painting, usually referring to examples painted on wall
                   with such realism that the viewer actually believes the objects in the
                   painting exist.
two-dimensional    Any object or area having height and width, but no depth; flat.
two-point          Another perspective guide using two vanishing points as references
perspective        on the horizon line.
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U
unity              The quality of wholeness achieved by such manipulation of the
                   Elements of Art to achieve simplicity and repetition.
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V
value          The measure by which a work of art is viewed to be successful or
               meaningful, worthy of being studied.
value scale    An organized linear scale of color swatches ranging from the
               darkest of shades, to the pure color and then on to the gradual tints
               of that color. A value scale usually begins with black and ends with
               white.
variety        A principle of design that refers to the way an artist uses differences
               and various contrasts to add visual interests to a work.
vertical       Directions spanning up and down. Usually referred to as the "tall
               way" of viewing something.
Vicarious      When a person or entity has direct control of the infringing activity
infringement   and benefits financially from the infringement.
viewer         The person who looks at a work of`art.
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W
warm colors    The adjacent colors in the color wheel visually emitting a warm
               temperature. These colors would be yellow-green, yellow, yellow-
               orange, orange, red-orange, red, red-violet.
warp           The strands that are interlaced perpendicular to the weft strands
               thus creating a woven material. The base strands that run up and
               down along the loom.
watercolor     A painting medium using transparent pigments mixed with water.
weaving        The interlacing of yarn or thread to make cloth.
weft           The base strands that run up and down along the loom.
weight         The psychological or visual importance of an area or element.
Willful        When the infringer uses a work and knows or should have known
infringement   that the work was protected by copyright.
Work of        The categories of work that are afforded copyright protection.
authorship
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