PowerPoint Presentation by HC121002145759

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									                  Phases of a Disaster


                    Honeymoon
Pre-disaster                                  Reconstruction

                        Disillusionment
 Threat                                   Recovery
               Impact
 Warning




  Time


                                                         1
                  ASSESSMENT OF NEED
The Goal is to understand -
       How disaster populations differ from one another
       The key variables affecting survival and welfare
       How relief organizations can be most effective
       How disaster management could be improved
Design a System
•   Which cannot be easily skewed by the perspectives of one
    individual or a political party
•   A process that is inherently more stable and reliable
•   Is “ground-truth based” and implies a consultative process
•   Engaging a wide variety of individuals from a variety of
    professional and personal vantage points
                                                                 2
                 LARGE GROUP TRAUMA
Communities are confronted with the enormous
  consequences
•   Lives lost
•   Numbers injured
•   Societal insecurity and disruption
•   Destruction of Institutions
•   Economic burden
•   Psychological problems – long term
But,
Disaster affected communities are rarely homogeneous
                                                  3
    HELPLESSNESS AND THE PERCEPTION OF WEAKNESS
•   A crisis could be an opportunity for genuine help or can lead to
    harm
•   Spectacle of helplessness may evoke strong emotions
•   Evoke everything from compassion to cruel exploitation - best and
    worst of human emotions and behavior
•   Profiting from the suffering of others is not unknown
•   Helplessness creates a need/fear dilemma - succumb to need
    satisfaction at the cost of fearing (hostile) dependency and control
“How About Us Syndrome”
•   HAUS is aroused in the needy whenever the needs of others are
    fulfilled
•   Communities with a self-help orientation recover much faster than
    those demanding external assistance while delaying to re-build on
    their own
                                                                       4
   HELPLESSNESS          - THE PERCEPTION OF WEAKNESS
People in crisis are highly malleable and easily influenced
In the desperate search for safety and security the distressed are
liable to accept almost anything that is offered to them
After cataclysmic events like the Tsunami of December 2004
governments seemed willing to do whatever it takes to get aid,
even if it meant:
       Making alliances with former enemies
       Racking up a huge debts
       Agreeing to sweeping policy reforms


In crisis people tend to look to their leaders for guidance in much
the same way that children turn to their parents when they are
distressed. transference
                                                                  5
                  THE DISASTER OF POVERTY
•   Poverty fuels conflict
•   When states are poor they cannot fully control their territory or
    Resources
•   Lack capable police and border control agencies
•   Lack well functioning judiciary or military
•   Officials are especially vulnerable to corruption
•   Tendency to apply draconian measures
Also, weak in other respects
•   Unable to meet their citizens basic needs, food, education and
    health care
•   Often are prey for extremist religious groups and charities
•   Deadly disease and the burden of mental distress falls heavily on
    low or middle income countries
                                                                        6
 AID ASSISTANCE: Managing the flood?
In the wake of a disaster:


The channels through which aid assistance both in
  material and services is received, are difficult to
  regulate, supervise or monitor.


Everybody asks for coordination but many refuse to
                   be coordinated

                                                   7
      AID ASSISTANCE: Managing the flood
Number of NGO’s multiplies whenever a disaster strikes
BANDA ACEH, 250 after the tsunami.
SRI LANKA was 1000. Add-on’s not been estimated?
  Massive NGO influx, Experts arrive, some invited, many
 come anyway …….
 UN system, (WHO, UNHCR, UNICEF, WFP, etc).
Intn’l Professional Groups (Medical Associations), World
Bank, Expatriate organizations, University departments,
Faith-based organizations, International rapid response
teams, foreign military emergency relief operations, Red
Cross and Red Crescent teams from different nations.
                                                           8
      AID ASSISTANCE: Managing the flood
Locally hired relief personnel may not assert themselves
even when policies of the foreign organization are clearly
lacking in cultural sensitivity.
Biting the hand that funds you could cost the loss of your job
The HAUS syndrome may create resentment and divisions
within nations and communities. “Phuket got more publicity
that Banda Aceh.”
Inequity in aid distribution is a common feature (and
complaint) in aid assistance that became the focus of
internal tensions as evidenced in Sri Lanka over establishing
a Joint Mechanism for tsunami relief efforts.


                                                             9
     AID ASSISTANCE: Managing the flood


Spontaneous Volunteers - Highly trained individuals
can present a major logistical problem
Tsunami Tourists?
Expatriate Donors may have differing motivations?
Security issues: Various nefarious activities may be
channeled through seemingly innocent humanitarian
programs, creating in addition, a serious security
(terrorism, arms smuggling) risk


                                                   10
     AID ASSISTANCE: Managing the flood


Western NGO’s and “culture competence”?
Local institutions tend to lose their cohesion?
Credibility of mercy missions and aid donors could be
compromised in an environment of suspicion or when
the significance of offerings is not understood
A military presence coordinated with established law
enforcement agencies contributes to better emergency
services


                                                   11
                 SPIRITUAL DIMENSION
The centrality of religious beliefs in most cultures
influences help seeking, finding social support,
understanding adversity. This usually takes place in the
context of the religious community
But, Religion can be used to divide people as it could to
unite them
Religious and cultural beliefs become challenged in the
face of unexplained crisis.
Following an initial phase of anger, disillusionment, and
loss of faith, stories of “miracles” to the faithful help to
re-affirm their beliefs

                                                        12
Mullaitivu, Fe b ruary 9, 2005




                                 13
                  MENTAL HEALTH
The overall goal of all disaster mental health service
workers is to provide emergency services and reduce
the number of people who could develop psychological
disorders.
Measuring Trauma ?
The psychological impact of any disaster must be
measured from different angles across several
disciplines – (psychology, psychiatry, sociology, culture,
history and anthropology etc)
Anxiety and depression are the commonest
manifestations of disaster stress.

                                                      14
                  MENTAL HEALTH
Trauma and PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
Disaster victims may not fit the category of PTSD but
show some typical signs.
Treatment can occur in the context of social influence
with limited “medical” intervention.
Cultural Factors?
The Singhalese, Tamil and Muslim communities along
the tsunami damaged east coast of Sri Lanka showed
significant differences in response to the tsunami and
the relief efforts


                                                    15
MENTAL HEALTH:

GRIEF IS THE INEVITABLE OUTCOME OF LOSS

“Death Toll” is the first index of a disaster’s damage and how
they are generally reported
Grief is the single most common consequence of disasters,
whether it is from loss of lives or of the non-human
environment.
The loss of one life can have far reaching repercussions on
the lives and futures of several families.
Novel rituals have to be invented to deal with new problems
- funerals for victims whose bodies cannot be identified or
are missing.
Grieving (as an internal process) can be delayed or
complicated by many external factors.                     16
17
MENTAL HEALTH:

                   CULTURE AND COUNSELING
Signs and symptoms of psychological distress vary widely
People of different civilizations have different views on:
    The relation between man and God
    What happens after death and how to grieve
    The individual and the group
    The citizen and the state
    Parent and children, husband and wife
    Liberty, independence, authority and hierarchy
    Shame and guilt, modesty and sexuality
    Saving face and humiliation
                                                             18
    Relative importance of rights and responsibilities
                   Lessons Missed
A fund of creative strategies have evolved in countries that
have faced severe tragedy. These developments in
medicine, psychology and social sciences in the Eastern
world have not been sufficiently disseminated.
In the field of disaster management they include mobilization
of social networks in the community, psycho-education, and
practices such as yoga, meditation, massage, and traditional
medicine.
Because past experience of disaster may render a
community better prepared for future disasters, their
example and advice tends to be overshadowed by standard
western practices.
                                                          19
Delivery of relief material, Dec 30, 2004




                                            20
Thank You   21

								
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