Providing Safe Food by HC121002141918

VIEWS: 1 PAGES: 35

									Food Safety Management Systems




                                 10-1
Apply Your Knowledge: Test Your Food Safety Knowledge

 1. True or False: Active managerial control focuses on
    controlling the most common foodborne-illness risk factors
    identified by the CDC
 2. True or False: Purchasing fish directly from a local
    fisherman would be considered a risk in an active
    managerial control system
 3. True or False: A critical control point (CCP) is a point in
    the flow of food where a hazard can be prevented,
    eliminated, or reduced to safe levels
 4. True or False: If cooking is a CCP for ground beef patties,
    then ensuring the internal temperature reaches 155°F
    (68°C) for fifteen seconds would be an appropriate critical
    limit
 5. True or False: An establishment that cures food
    must have a HACCP plan
                                                      10-2
Food Safety Management Systems

A Food Safety Management System is:
   A group of programs, procedures, and
    measures for preventing foodborne illness
   Designed to actively control risks and
    hazards throughout the flow of food

Two systematic and proactive
approaches
   Active managerial control
   Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
    (HACCP)



                                                10-3
Prerequisite Food Safety Programs
These must be in place for a food safety
management system to be effective




  Personal hygiene      Supplier selection   Sanitation and
      program           and specification     pest control
                           programs            programs




  Facility design and       Food safety
equipment maintenance   training programs
       programs                                   10-4
Active Managerial Control

Active Managerial Control:

Focuses on controlling the CDC’s 5 most
common risk factors responsible for
foodborne illness:
   Purchasing food from unsafe sources
   Failing to cook food adequately
   Holding food at improper temperatures
   Using contaminated equipment
   Practicing poor personal hygiene



                                            10-5
Active Managerial Control: The Approach

Steps for using active managerial
control:
 1   Consider the five risk factors as they
     apply throughout the flow of food and
     identify any issues that could impact
     food safety.




                                              10-6
Active Managerial Control: The Approach

Steps for using active managerial
control: continued
 2   Develop policies and procedures that
     address the issues that were identified
        Consider input from staff
        Provide training on these policies and
         procedures if necessary




                                                  10-7
Active Managerial Control: The Approach

Steps for using active managerial
control: continued
 3   Regularly monitor the policies and
     procedures that have been developed
        This step can help determine if the
         policies and procedures are being
         followed
            If not, it may be necessary to
             revise them, create new ones, or
             retrain employees




                                                10-8
Active Managerial Control: The Approach

Steps for using active managerial
control: continued
 4   Verify that the policies and procedures you
     have established are actually controlling the
     risk factors
        Use feedback from internal and external
         sources to adjust the policies and procedures
         for continuous improvement
            Internal sources: records, temperature
             logs, and self inspections
            External sources: health inspection
             reports, customer comments, and quality
             assurance audits


                                                      10-9
Active Managerial Control Example

1   Consider the five risk factors as they
    apply throughout the flow of food and
    identify any issues that could impact
    food safety
        A seafood restaurant chain identified
         purchasing seafood from unsafe
         sources as a risk in their
         establishment




                                                 10-10
Active Managerial Control Example: continued

2   Develop policies and procedures that
    address the issues that were
    identified
           To avoid buying unsafe product,
            the seafood restaurant chain
            developed a list of approved
            vendors
           Next, they created a policy stating
            that seafood could only be
            purchased from vendors on this
            list




                                                  10-11
Active Managerial Control Example: continued

3   Regularly monitor the policies and
    procedures that have been developed.
           To ensure the policy was being
            followed, the seafood restaurant
            chain decided that seafood
            invoices and deliveries would be
            monitored




                                               10-12
Active Managerial Control Example: continued

4   Verify that the policies and procedures
    you have established are actually
    controlling the risk factors.
           On a regular basis, the seafood
            restaurant chain looked at the
            criteria they had established for
            selecting seafood vendors, to
            ensure it was still appropriate for
            controlling the risk
           They also decided to review their
            policy whenever a problem arose
            and change it if necessary



                                                  10-13
HACCP: Philosophy

The HACCP Philosophy:
   If significant biological, chemical, or
    physical hazards are identified at
    specific points within a product’s flow
    through the operation, they can be:
       Prevented
       Eliminated
       Reduced to safe levels




                                              10-14
HACCP: The HACCP Plan

To be effective, a HACCP system
must be based on a written plan:
   It must be specific to each facility’s
    menu, customers, equipment,
    processes, and operations
   A plan that works for one establishment
    may not work for another




                                              10-15
HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles

The Seven HACCP Principles
1   Conduct a hazard analysis
2   Determine critical control points (CCPs)
3   Establish critical limits
4   Establish monitoring procedures
5   Identify corrective actions
6   Verify that the system works
7   Establish procedures for record keeping
    and documentation



                                               10-16
HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles

Principle One: Conduct a Hazard Analysis
   Identify potential hazards in the food served by
    looking at how it is processed
   Once common processes have been identified,
    determine where hazards are likely to occur for
    each (biological, chemical, physical)


          Salads, cold sandwiches                    Prepare      Serve


          Grilled chicken sandwiches,         Prepare          Cook        Serve
          hamburgers
          Chili, soup, sauces       Prepare   Cook         Hold           Cool       Reheat   Serve




                                                                                   10-17
HACCP Example: Conducting a Hazard Analysis

Enrico’s looked at their
menu and noted:
   Several dishes, including the spicy
    charbroiled chicken breast, are
    received, stored, prepared,
    cooked, and served the same day
They determined that:
   Bacteria were the most likely
    hazard to food prepared by this
    process




                                          10-18
HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles

Principle Two: Determine Critical
Control Points (CCPs)
   Find the points in the process where the
    identified hazard(s) can be prevented,
    eliminated, or reduced to safe levels—
    these are the CCPs
   Depending on the process, there may be
    more than one CCP




                                               10-19
HACCP Example: Determine Critical Control Points CCPs

Enrico’s identified cooking as a
CCP for the chicken breasts:
   Cooking is the only step that will
    eliminate or reduce bacteria to safe
    levels
   Since the chicken breasts were
    prepared for immediate service, cooking
    was the only CCP
   Cooking is the same CCP for other
    products prepared and cooked for
    immediate service



                                              10-20
HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles

Principle Three: Establish
Critical Limits
                                            Critical
   For each CCP, establish minimum or
                                             Limit
    maximum limits that must be met to
    prevent or eliminate the hazard or to
    reduce it to a safe level




                                             10-21
HACCP Example: Establish Critical Limits

Since cooking was the CCP for
Enrico’s chicken breasts:
   Management determined that the
    critical limit would be cooking the
    chicken to a minimum internal
    temperature of 165°F (74°C) for
    fifteen seconds

They decided that:
   The critical limit could be met by
    placing the chicken breasts in the
    broiler for 16 minutes



                                           10-22
HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles

Principle Four: Establish Monitoring
Procedures
   Determine the best way to check
    critical limits to ensure they are
    consistently met
   Identify who will monitor them
    and how often




                                         10-23
HACCP Example: Establish Monitoring Procedures

Enrico’s chose to check the
critical limit by:
   Inserting a clean and sanitized
    thermocouple probe into the
    thickest part of each breast
       The grill cook must check
        the temperature of each
        chicken breast to ensure it
        has reached 165°F (74°C)




                                      10-24
HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles

Principle Five: Identify Corrective
Actions
   Identify steps that must be taken when a
    critical limit is not met
   Determine these steps in advance




                                               10-25
HACCP Example: Identify Corrective Actions

At Enrico’s, if the chicken breast
has not reached its critical limit:
   The grill cook must keep cooking the
    breast until it has been reached
   This and all other corrective actions
    are noted in the temperature log




                                            10-26
HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles

Principle Six: Verify That the
System Works
   Determine if the plan is working as
    intended
   Evaluate on a regular basis:
       Monitoring charts
       Records
       How the hazard analysis was       Photo courtesy of Roger
        performed                         Bonafield and Dingbats

   Determine if the plan adequately
    prevents, reduces, or eliminates
    identified hazards


                                                  10-27
HACCP Example: Verify That the System Works
To verify that the system was
working, Enrico’s:
   Checked temperature logs weekly to
    identify patterns or to determine if
    processes or procedures needed to be
    changed

They noticed:
   Toward the end of each week the
    chicken breast often failed to meet the
    critical limit
   They discovered their vendor was
    delivering a slightly larger chicken breast
   They worked with the vendor to ensure
    they received the proper sized chicken
    and included a weight check during
    receiving
                                                  10-28
HACCP: The 7 HACCP Principles

Principle Seven: Establish
Procedures for Record Keeping
and Documentation

Keep records obtained when:
   Developing your HACCP plan
   Performing monitoring activities
   Corrective action is taken
   Equipment is validated
   Working with suppliers



                                       10-29
HACCP Example: Establish Procedures For Record Keeping

Enrico’s determined that:
   Time-temperature logs should be
    kept for 3 months
   Receiving invoices should be kept
    for 60 days

Enrico’s uses this information to:
   Support their HACCP plan
   Revise their HACCP plan when
    necessary




                                           10-30
HACCP: When a HACCP Plan is Required

A HACCP Plan is required
if an establishment:
   Smokes or cures food as a method of food
    preservation
   Uses food additives as a method of food preservation
   Packages food using a reduced-oxygen packaging
    (ROP) method
   Offers live, molluscan shellfish from a display tank
   Custom-processes animals for personal use
   Packages unpasteurized juice for sale to the
    consumer without a warning label
   Sprouts beans or seeds

                                                       10-31
Apply Your Knowledge: It’s the Principle of the Thing

Identify the HACCP principle
defined by each statement:
A   Checking to see if critical limits are being met
B   Retention of documents obtained when creating
    and implementing a HACCP plan
C   Assessing risk within the flow of food
D   Specific places in the flow of food where a hazard can
    be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels
E   Predetermined step taken when a critical limit is
    not met
F   Minimum or maximum boundaries that must be met to
    prevent a hazard
G   Determining if the HACCP plan is working as intended

                                                        10-32
Crisis Response: A Foodborne Illness Complaint

Responding to a foodborne illness
complaint:
   Take all customer complaints seriously
   Express concern and be sincere
   Do not admit responsibility or accept
    liability
   Listen carefully and promise to
    investigate and respond
   Consider developing an incident report
    (with legal guidance)



                                             10-33
Crisis Response: A Confirmed Foodborne Illness Outbreak

If a Foodborne Illness
Outbreak is Confirmed:
   Accept responsibility
   Cooperate with the investigation

Crisis response may include:
   Isolating suspect food
   Preventing further sale of suspect food
   Obtaining samples from affected
    customer
   Excluding suspect employees from the
    establishment


                                              10-34
HACCP: When a HACCP Plan Is Required (2010 Update)

  A HACCP plan is required if an operation:
  continued
     Packages food using ROP methods including:
         MAP
         Vacuum-packed
         Sous vide
     Treats (e.g., pasteurizes) juice on-site and packages it
      for later sale
     Sprouts seeds or beans
     Offers live, molluscan shellfish from a display tank


                                                    10-35

								
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