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					A TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INTERTIDAL, SAND-DWELLING

      DINOFLAGELLATES OF THE NORTH EASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN

                                           by

                            KENNETH DALE BAILLIE

          B.Sc,     University         of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968




          A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF

                  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE "DEGREE OF

                              MASTER OF SCIENCE




                              i n the Department

                                           of

                                        Botany




           We a c c e p t t h i s    t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e

           required      standard




                  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

                                    November, 1971
In presenting       t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r

an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that

the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study.

I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive             copying of t h i s t h e s i s

f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may     be granted by the Head of my Department or

by h i s representatives.              I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n

of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my

w r i t t e n permission.




Department

The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia
Vancouver 8, Canada




Date
                                ABSTRACT
       The primary purpose of this study was to deal with the taxonomy

of the sand-dwelling dinoflagellates occurring i n the North East

P a c i f i c Ocean. A preliminary examination of the community and the

major ecological parameters affecting these organisms (exposure,

grain size, temperature and s a l i n i t y ) was also undertaken.   Although

the study was mainly confined to those species inhabiting the inter-

t i d a l zones of five marine beaches i n B r i t i s h Columbia, some subtidal

work was done. The conclusions are based on the analysis of approx-

imately 120 samples from 15 f i e l d trips over a one year period.

       Forty-one species were recorded of which 12 could not be i d e n t i -

fied and may warrant being described as new species.          In general, the

number of both species and individual c e l l s increased from winter to

spring and summer with maximum comentrations between March and Septem-

ber.    Out of the environmental parameters measured, grain size (which

i s primarily determined by tides and currents) i s probably the most

important factor i n determining the distributions of these organisms

i n the summer months.
                                                                                iii.




                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                         Page

ABSTRACT                                                                  i i

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                       i i i

LIST OF FIGURES                                                             v

LIST OF TABLES                                                          v i i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                         viii

INTRODUCTION                                                                1

MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                       3

   A.     Sampling                                                          3

   B.     A n a l y s i s o f Samples                                       5

RESULTS                                                                    11

   A.     Taxonomic                                                        11

   B.     Ecological                                                       67

          1) P o p u l a t i o n R e s u l t s                             67

          2) E n v i r o n m e n t a l Parameter R e s u l t s             67

DISCUSSION                                                                 89

   A. Taxonomic S e c t i o n                                              89

   B. E c o l o g i c a l S e c t i o n                                    90

        1) S e a s o n a l Trends i n P o p u l a t i o n s                90

             ( i ) S p e c i e s v a r i a t i o n p e r month             91

             ( i i ) T o t a l c e l l v a r i a t i o n p e r month       91

              ( i i i ) A s s o c i a t i o n s between s p e c i e s      92

        2) P o p u l a t i o n S u r v i v a l                             93

        3) E n v i r o n m e n t a l Parameters                            94

              ( i ) Exposure                                               94

              ( i i ) Grain size                                           95
         ( i i i ) Temperature                  97

         (iv) S a l i n i t y                    98

         (v) Comparison o f beach communities   99

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS                         101

REFERENCES                                      103
                                                                                            V.




                                   LIST OF FIGURES

Figure                                                                               Page

  1      Southwest B r i t i s h Columbia and a s s o c i a t e d waters
         showing the p o s i t i o n of the f i v e beaches which
         s e r v e d as c o l l e c t i o n s i t e s .                                7

  2      Boundary Bay c o l l e c t i o n s i t e .                                    8

  3      Brady's Beach c o l l e c t i o n s i t e .                                   8

  4      Pachena Beach c o l l e c t i o n s i t e .                                   9

  5      W i l s o n Creek c o l l e c t i o n s i t e ,   Sechelt.                    9

  6      Willows Bay c o l l e c t i o n s i t e , Oak Bay, V i c t o r i a .         10

  7      Sand sampler.                                                                10

  8      S e a s o n a l g r a i n a n a l y s i s o f Boundary Bay s i t e .         77

  9      S e a s o n a l g r a i n a n a l y s i s o f Brady's Beach s i t e .        77

  10     S e a s o n a l g r a i n a n a l y s i s of Pachena Beach s i t e .         78

  11     S e a s o n a l g r a i n a n a l y s i s o f W i l s o n Creek s i t e .    78

  12     S e a s o n a l g r a i n a n a l y s i s o f Willows Bay s i t e .          78

  13     Monthly temperature o f i n t e r s t i t i a l water a t
         Boundary Bay.                                                                79

  14     Monthly temperature of i n t e r s t i t i a l water a t
         Brady's Beach.                                                               79

  15     Monthly temperature of i n t e r s t i t i a l water at
         Pachena Beach.                                                               79

  16     Monthly temperature of i n t e r s t i t i a l water a t
         W i l s o n Creek.                                                           80

  17     Monthly temperature o f i n t e r s t i t i a l water a t
         Willows Bay.                                                                 80

  18     Monthly s a l i n i t y     o f i n t e r s t i t i a l water at Boundary
         Bay.                                                                         81

  19     Monthly s a l i n i t y     of i n t e r s t i t i a l water a t Brady's
         Beach.                                                                       81

  20     Monthly s a l i n i t y     o f i n t e r s t i t i a l water a t Pachena
         Beach.                                                                       81
                                                                                          VI.




21   Monthly     s a l i n i t y o f i n t e r s t i t i a l water a t W i l s o n
     Creek.                                                                          82

22   Monthly     s a l i n i t y o f i n t e r s t i t i a l water a t Willows
     Bay.                                                                            82

23   V a r i a t i o n i n the number o f s p e c i e s / c m     3
                                                                      p e r month
     a t Boundary Bay.                                                               83

24   V a r i a t i o n i n t h e number o f s p e c i e s / c m   3
                                                                      p e r month
     a t Brady's Beach.                                                              83

25   V a r i a t i o n i n the number o f s p e c i e s / c m     3
                                                                      p e r month
     a t Pachena Beach.                                                              84

26   V a r i a t i o n i n t h e number of s p e c i e s / c m    3
                                                                      p e r month
     at W i l s o n Creek, S e c h e l t .                                           84

27   V a r i a t i o n i n the number o f s p e c i e s / c m     3
                                                                      p e r month
     a t Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a .                                              85

28   V a r i a t i o n i n t h e t o t a l number o f c e l l s / c m   3
                                                                            per
     month a t Boundary Bay.                                                         86

29   V a r i a t i o n i n the t o t a l number o f c e l l s / c m     3
                                                                            per
     month a t Brady's Beach.                                                        87

30   V a r i a t i o n i n t h e t o t a l number o f c e l l s / c m   3
                                                                            per
     month a t Pachena Beach.                                                        87

31   V a r i a t i o n i n t h e t o t a l number o f c e l l s / c m   3
                                                                            per
     month a t W i l s o n Creek, S e c h e l t .                                    88

32   V a r i a t i o n i n t h e t o t a l number o f c e l l s / c m   3
                                                                            per
     month a t Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a .                                        88
                                                                                                    Vll.




                                   LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                                                        Page

  1     Seasonal g r a i n a n a l y s i s     of a l l beaches.                              68

  2     Monthly temperature of i n t e r s t i t i a l water a t a l l
        beaches.                                                                              69

  3     Monthly s a l i n i t y of i n t e r s t i t i a l water a t a l l beaches.            70

  4     Monthly v a r i a t i o n i n p o p u l a t i o n at Boundary Bay.                    71

  5     Monthly v a r i a t i o n i n p o p u l a t i o n a t Brady's Beach.                  72

  6     Monthly v a r i a t i o n i n p o p u l a t i o n a t Pachena Beach.                  73

  7     Monthly v a r i a t i o n i n p o p u l a t i o n a t W i l s o n Creek,
        Sechelt.                                                                              74

  8     Monthly v a r i a t i o n i n p o p u l a t i o n a t Willows          Bay,
        Victoria.                                                                             75

  9     The g r o u p i n g o f organisms as determined by j o i n t
        o c c u r r e n c e a n a l y s i s by the method of Fager (1963).
        J o i n t o c c u r r e n c e s of 0.5 o r g r e a t e r i n d i c a t e c l o s e
        affinity.                                                                             76
                                       ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

        I w i s h to express my              s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n to Dr. F.J.R. T a y l o r

who    s e r v e d as t h e s i s a d v i s o r and whose i n t e r e s t , guidance               and    friendly

c r i t i c i s m d u r i n g the course of t h i s study was               invaluable.

        Dr.    R.F.       S c a g e l deserves    s p e c i a l mention and           thanks.        I   am

deeply i n d e b t e d to him not o n l y f o r h i s time and a d v i c e g i v e n                       through-

out t h i s study but a l s o f o r the h e l p and                 guidance          he p r o v i d e d d u r i n g

my    undergraduate y e a r s making i t p o s s i b l e f o r me                 to complete my              B.Sc.

        I would l i k e to express my                 a p p r e c i a t i o n to my    mother who         has

p r o v i d e d h e l p i n so many ways throughout                 my    entire l i f e .         Without

h e r , t h i s t h e s i s would never have been p o s s i b l e .

        I t i s a l s o my      p l e a s u r e to extend      s p e c i a l thanks to Mrs.              Marian

E. S l a t e r f o r h e r numerous hours spent i n t r a n s l a t i n g v a r i o u s papers

and    articles for            me.

        I a l s o wish to thank my b r o t h e r Brenton                    to whom I s h a l l f o r e v e r

be i n d e b t e d .      H i s i n v a l u a b l e h e l p i n so many ways w i l l always be

remembered.

        F i n a l l y i t i s my     p l e a s u r e to thank my         b r o t h e r Dwight and          Mr;

D.R.    Pace f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , c o - o p e r a t i o n and    company on many of

the c o l l e c t i n g    t r i p s made.
                                               INTRODUCTION

        T h i s study had          t h r e e aims:        firstly,       as t h e r e has been no pub-

lished      study of any           type on s a n d - d w e l l i n g     d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s i n the

n o r t h e a s t e r n P a c i f i c Ocean, the c r i t i c a l         taxonomy of B r i t i s h Colum-

b i a n s p e c i e s was     c o n s i d e r e d of primary         interest.          Secondly,         in'view

of    the r a r i t y of s t u d i e s on t h i s group o f d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s , the s p e c i e s

composition          of t h i s community was                considered d e s i r a b l e .        Thirdly, a

p r e l i m i n a r y examination         of some e c o l o g i c a l parameters of t h i s commu-

n i t y might a s s i s t any          f u t u r e , more d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s .

         Sand samples were c o l l e c t e d on a monthly b a s i s from f i v e marine

beaches i n B r i t i s h Columbia.                    The beaches were chosen i n an attempt

to    o b t a i n a d i v e r s e range of h a b i t a t s .          Additional collections                 from

miscellaneous           beaches were a l s o made whenever p o s s i b l e .                       The major

environmental           parameters c o n s i d e r e d were g r a i n s i z e , s a l i n i t y ,            expo-

s u r e , temperature and              season.          I t was     hoped t h a t community s t r u c t u r e

and    s p e c i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n might be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h one or more of                 these.

         S t u d i e s on the sand m i c r o - f l o r a have d e a l t p r i m a r i l y w i t h diatom

populations          (Aleem 1950;              Castenholz      1963;     Hopkins 1963,            1964,      1966)

w i t h o n l y scant a t t e n t i o n b e i n g p a i d to the s a n d - d w e l l i n g d i n o f l a g -

ellates.         The     first     n o t a b l e works on s a n d - d w e l l i n g       dinoflagellates

were the b r i e f and            s u p e r f i c i a l s t u d i e s of W.A.     Herdman (1911a-, b;

1912a, b;.         1913a, b; 1914)               who   was    one    o f the f i r s t      to r e p o r t   dis-

c o l o u r a t i o n of i n t e r t i d a l    sand due      to d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s on the beaches

of    P o r t E r i n , I s l e of Man.           He p o i n t e d out t h a t these           flagellates

were e x c l u s i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i n t e r s t i t i a l    water of sand

grains.         He a l s o observed             t h a t they underwent v e r t i c a l m i g r a t i o n         and

a l t e r n a t e d i n abundance w i t h diatom p o p u l a t i o n s                 throughout the summer.
                                                                                                                   2.




        The    next major s t u d i e s on t h i s t o p i c were by h i s daughter,

E.C.    Herdman (1921, 1922,                 1924a, b)       i n the same l o c a l i t y .       Her    series

of papers comprise the f i r s t works d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h                   the

taxonomy of t h e s e organisms.                     In them she l i s t e d and           described     approx-

imately       forty     s p e c i e s , c o n s i d e r i n g most of them as             new.

        Balech       (1956) and Dregesco                (1965) have a l s o d e s c r i b e d     several

new    s p e c i e s and   r e d e s c r i b e d some of E.C.        Herdman's forms i n t h e i r

s t u d i e s on the beaches of R o s c o f f ,             France.

        Hulbert       (1957) l i s t e d      twenty-six        p l a n k t o n i c and    benthic     species

i n h a b i t i n g the s h a l l o w    embayments on Cape Cod,               Massachusetts, s e v e r a l

of which are known to occur                     i n sand.

        A l l o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s are of minor importance d e a l i n g e i t h e r

s u p e r f i c i a l l y with   the s u b j e c t    (Storrow 1913;         Whitehead 1914;            Laurie

1914;     Jorgensen 1918,               Bursa 1968), or are d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of            only

one    or a few       species       ( K o f o i d and    Swezy 1921;        Lebour 1925;         Von    Bernuth

1967).

        T h i s b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s almost a complete         literature

c i t a t i o n of works d e a l i n g w i t h        the taxonomy of s a n d - d w e l l i n g         dino-

flagellates.            Papers d e a l i n g w i t h      the ecology        of the         sand-dwelling

community as a whole a r e mentioned where r e l e v a n t i n the d i s c u s s i o n

section.
                                                                                                                   3.




                                     MATERIALS AND METHODS

A. Sampling

        Samples were taken on a monthly b a s i s from f i v e                            marine

beaches i n lower B r i t i s h Columbia.                   Three of these (Willows Bay,

V i c t o r i a , F i g . 1, F i g . 6; Pachena Beach, B a m f i e l d , F i g . 1, F i g . 4,

and Brady's Beach, B a m f i e l d , F i g . 1, F i g . 3) were l o c a t e d on Van-

couver I s l a n d .       The remaining two (Wilson Creek, S e c h e l t , F i g . 1,

F i g . 5; and Boundary              Bay, Tsawwassan, F i g . 1, F i g . 2) were s i t u a t e d

on the mainland.                The beaches were chosen i n an attempt t o o b t a i n a

d i v e r s e range of e n v i r o n m e n t a l parameters               (e.g. g r a i n s i z e ,    salinity,

temperature and e x p o s u r e ) .            C o l l e c t i o n s were made d u r i n g low t i d e

and as near to the middle day o f each month as p o s s i b l e .                                Due to

the s h i f t i n g d i u r n a l p e r i o d i c i t y of the t i d a l c y c l e a f i x e d time of

day f o r c o l l e c t i n g    c o u l d n o t be s c h e d u l e d .     Each beach was            sampled

once p e r month.

        On each beach, t e n random d e p r e s s i o n s were dug, r a n g i n g from

the h i g h t i d e mark to the low water l i n e .                        A f t e r each had seeped

f u l l w i t h i n t e r s t i t i a l water, the water i n i t was t h o r o u g h l y s t i r r e d

and a 250 ml sample                  taken.    Care was taken t o i n c l u d e some sand w i t h

each sample.           The t e n samples were then poured i n t o a t h r e e                          litre

precooled isotherm.                  P r e c o o l i n g was done by i n s e r t i n g a s e a l e d 500

ml p l a s t i c b o t t l e c o n t a i n i n g f r o z e n s e a water i n t o the i s o t h e r m

p r i o r to c o l l e c t i n g .

        The i s o t h e r m was then t h o r o u g h l y shaken and a 250 ml                      subsample

taken and p r e s e r v e d by adding t h r e e t o f i v e drops of m o d i f i e d L u g o l s

Iodine s o l u t i o n     (10 g i o d i n e , 20 g p o t a s s i u m i o d i n e d i s s o l v e d i n

200 ml of 10% g l a c i a l a c e t i c a c i d , UtermHhl                  1958) f o l l o w e d by 25 ml
                                                                                                                     4.



of   b u f f e r e d 5% f o r m a l i n .     T h i s p r e s e r v e d sample was       used as a p e r -

manent r e c o r d o f the beach               community and as a supplement to the

taxonomic        analysis.          I t h o p e f u l l y c o n t a i n e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f most

of   the s p e c i e s p r e s e n t .

        The t h r e e l i t r e     i s o t h e r m sample was            then r e t u r n e d to the l a b -

o r a t o r y and kept a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15° C.                I t was   used to examine the

sand d i h o f l a g e l l a t e s i n t h e i r l i v i g       s t a t e and to l o o k f o r d e l i c a t e

s p e c i e s which tend to be d e s t r o y e d by p r e s e r v a t i o n methods.

        In    the m i d t i d a l r e g i o n a 25 cm        3
                                                                  sample of the sand was              taken

by u s i n g the designed apparatus                    (fig.        7).     Only the top c e n t i m e t e r

of   sand was        c o l l e c t e d as s e v e r a l a u t h o r s have shown t h a t         intertidal

communities g e n e r a l l y l i v e w i t h i n t h i s a r e a (Aleem 1950a;                    Hopkins

1963).        The chamber was               pushed i n t o the sand s u r f a c e a t a random

p o i n t i n the i n t e r t i d a l       zone.    A t h i n p l e x i g l a s s sheet was        then      slid

underneath         i t and the sampler              removed, t u r n e d u p s i d e down and             the

excess sand s c r a p e d o f f .             The r e m a i n i n g sand i n the sampler               (exactly

25 cm ) 3
             was     added to 25 ml H.A.              millipore filtered                (.45y) sea water

in   a 250 ml b o t t l e .         T h i s was     p r e s e r v e d by adding a few drops of the

m o d i f i e d L u g o l ' s s o l u t i o n f o l l o w e d by 2.5 ml of b u f f e r e d 5%         formalin.

T h i s sample would then be used f o r the q u a n t i t a t i v e enumeration                              of

the d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s p r e s e n t .

        The temperature             and d e n s i t y o f the i n t e r s t i t i a l water was             also

taken from a p o i n t i n the m i d - i n t e r s t i t i a l zone by u s i n g a U.S.                      Stan-

dard Hydrometer Set.                  The s a l i n i t y was        determined by u s i n g Sea Water

Temperature and D e n s i t y R e d u c t i o n T a b l e s , U.S.                Department of Commerce,

Coast and G e o d e t i c Survey, S p e c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n No.               298.

        Samples used f o r sand g r a i n a n a l y s i s were o b t a i n e d t w i c e d u r i n g
                                                                                                                   5.




the y e a r from each beach               (once i n the summer - J u l y ; and once i n t h e

winter - J a n u a r y ) .       S o r t i n g was c h i e f l y c a r r i e d out a c c o r d i n g t o Mor-

gan   (1956).        A f t e r d r y i n g , t h e sample was passed             through a s e r i e s o f

U.S. Standard          Sieves       (mesh s i z e s 2,000y, l,000y,              500y, 250y, 125y and

63y).      T h i s was done t o determine                i f t h e average       g r a i n s i z e on the

beach v a r i e d w i t h     season.

        M i s c e l l a n e o u s samples were taken when p o s s i b l e throughout the

year.

B. A n a l y s i s o f Samples

        The d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s were counted           at the species l e v e l using a

s e d i m e n t a t i o n method.     The counts were made w i t h a C a r l Z e i s s i n v e r t e d

" p l a n k t o n microscope".          A 25 cm     3
                                                        p r e s s u r e d sand sample was t h o r o u g h l y

shaken and a l i q u o t s o f 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 5.0 ml were p i p e t t e d

i n t o 10.0 ml. Z e i s s s e d i m e n t a t i o n chambers.             The chambers were then

f i l l e d w i t h H.A. m i l l i p o r e f i l t e r e d    (.45y) sea water and a l l o w e d t o

s e t t l e f o r a 24 hour p e r i o d .

        The    chamber s e l e c t e d f o r c o u n t i n g depended upon the amount o f

d e t r i t u s p r e s e n t i n the sample.           The e n t i r e chamber was always              counted.

Scanning was done w i t h a 6.3 X N e o f l u a r o b j e c t i v e w i t h phase con-

t r a s t i l l u m i n a t i o n and 12.5 X o c u l a r s .       A 16 X N e o f l u a r o b j e c t i v e

was used       t o scan t h e chamber when t h e r e were many c e l l s or c o n s i d e r -

a b l e amounts o f d e t r i t u s p r e s e n t .          Species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s were made

w i t h a 40 X N e o f l u a r o b j e c t i v e and 12.5 X o c u l a r s .           Counting       results

were e x t r a p o l a t e d to g i v e t h e number o f c e l l s per one cm                3
                                                                                                 o f sand.

        Species i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , s c a l e drawings and photographs were made

using both        the l i v e and p r e s e r v e d samples.             T h i s i n v o l v e d t h e use o f

a C a r l Z e i s s Photomicroscope I I , d i s s e c t i n g microscope                   and i n v e r t e d
                                                                               6.


microscope.    Plate patterns were determined either by using photo-

graphs taken on the scanning electron microsope by Dr. F..J.R. Taylor

or by the use of Iodinated Hydroiodic acid stain (von Stosch 1969).

     In order to determine whether or not certain species tended to

be grouped together, an association analysis was done as outlined

by Fager (1963).    Each beach was considered a sample station and

assigned a seperate edge-punch card (5 cards i n a l l ) .   Each dinoflag-

e l l a t e species was assigned a code number which corresponded to a
position on the margin of the edge-punch cards (e.g. Katodinium asym-

metricum #31).     The presence of each species on a particular beach

was recorded on that beach's card by notching the appropriate space

in the margin.     After this had been done for each species, the 5 cards

were placed together and by counting the number of notches opposite

each species code number a frequency number (1 to 5) was determined

for each.     The cards were again placed together and a sorting needle

run through each pair of species. The number of times 2 species

occurred together was determined by counting the number of cards

which f e l l from the needle.   These numbers were recorded as joint

occurrences "c" and placed i n the t r e l l i s diagram (Table 9). These

were then used i n the calculation of an index of joint occurrence

defined by:

                      I   = __c_ -   1
                            YaE    2VF

where a and b are the frequency of species a and b respectively, c

i s the number of joint occurrences of the two species and b> a> ^.

The values for the indices for each pair of species were tabulated

i n the t r e l l i s diagram mentioned above. Joint occurrence index values

of 0.5 or greater were taken to indicate close association (Fager 1963).
Figure 1. Southwest British Columbia and associated waters
           showing the position of the five beaches which
         . served as collection sites.
                                                   8.




Top   Figure 2 Boundary Bay collection   site




Bottom   Figure 3 Bradys Beach collection   site
                                                         9.




Top   Figure~4 Pachena Beach collection site




Bottom   Figure 5 Wilson Creek collection site Sechelt
Top   -figure 6 Willows Bay collection site Oak Bay Victoria




Bottom-   Figure 7 Sand Sampler
10.
                              RESULTS

A. Taxonomic Results.

     During this study a total of 41 species of dinoflagellates

belonging to 13 genera was encountered.     Of these 12 species could

not be positively identified and may warrant being designated new

species.   These dinoflagellates are l i s t e d below i n an alphabetical

manner. For each there has been written a taxonomic review and a

morphological description.    Distributional patterns both local and

global have been included and comments have been made where necessary.

The species found were:
                                                                                                                                                 12.


                       Adenoides          eludens     (E.C. Herdman) B a l e c h 1956: 30, f . 1-8.

                                                                 (PI.    1, f . 9)

                       Syn.:       Amphidinium eludens E.C. Herdman 1922: 22, f . 1; E.C. Herdman

                       1924: 63; Lebour 1925: 32, Tab. I l l , f . 5; S c h i l l e r 1933: 1, 288,

                       f.   279.

                                   Amphidinium k o f o i d i i E.C. Herdman 1922: 26, f . 2.

                               D e s c r i p t i o n : - T h i s i s a medium s i z e d p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s .

                       Its    body i s b r o a d l y e l l i p s o i d a l i n l a t e r a l view w i t h the dorso-ven-

                       t r a l a x i s b e i n g about 0.8        of the t o t a l l e n g t h .         An e v i d e n t t h e c a i s

                       present        b u t the p l a t e s a r e not d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e when t h e c e l l              contents

                       are present.           The epicone i s s m a l l and sometimes h i d d e n i n l a t e r a l

                       view.       The hypocone i s sac-shaped                 with i t s g r e a t e s t width           (dorso-

                       v e n t r a l l y ) between 0.4 and 0.6             o f the t o t a l l e n g t h from the p o s t e r i o r

                       end.      The g i r d l e i s s h a l l o w without obvious d i s p l a c e m e n t .                 The s u l c u s

                       extends      a p p r o x i m a t e l y halfway    t o t h e antapex and i s n o t extended                     on

                       to    the e p i t h e c a .   The t r a n s v e r s e f l a g e l l u m c o m p l e t e l y e n c i r c l e s the

                       g i r d l e and i s u s u a l l y e a s i l y v i s i b l e .      The p o s t e r i o r f l a g e l l u m    extends

                       beyond t h e antapex u s u a l l y a t 30° t o the l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s i n l a t e r a l

                       view.       The c e l l    contents a r e y e l l o w i s h - g r e e n and appear to c o n t a i n

                       o n l y one o r a few l a r g e c h l o r o p l a s t s .          One of the most s t r i k i n g             feat-

                       ures o f t h i s s p e c i e s i s the presence                 o f two l a r g e p y r e n o i d s     situated

                       m i d - l a t e r a l l y , o n l y one of which i s v i s i b l e a t any one time i n a l a t -

                       e r a l view.        Numerous c l e a r , smooth g r a n u l e s a r e u s u a l l y p r e s e n t             through-

                       out t h e c e l l .       The n u c l e u s i s l a r g e and u s u a l l y s i t u a t e d       posterior-

                       vent r a l l y .

i   l
            '   'y
                       Length 25 - 40y, w i d t h 22 - 26y

        r       - /"
..K/U-M-UH,                     L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay
       World     d i s t r i b u t i o n : - P o r t E r i n , I s l e o f Man; England; R o s c o f f ,

France-

        Comments: - B a l e c h i n 1956 c r e a t e d the genus Adenoides                 based on

Amphidinium eludens E.C. Herdman 1922: 22, f . 1.                           The specimens found

h e r e c o r r e s p o n d t o those o f B a l e c h ' s   (1956: f . 1-8).      However, B a l e c h '

f i g u r e s a r e more s i m i l a r t o Herdman's f i g u r e o f Amphidinium            kofoidii

than they a r e to her f i g u r e o f Amphidinium eludens.                      Because o f t h i s ,

Balech's c h o i c e o f f i g u r e 1 as the type s p e c i e s seems i n a p p r o p r i a t e

u n l e s s they a r e both the same s p e c i e s .          B a l e c h makes no comment o f

this i n h i s text.          In view of the d i f f e r e n c e between Herdman's A. e l u -

dens and A. k o f o i d i i , and s i n c e no one has found a s p e c i e s s i m i l a r t o

her A. eludens s i n c e she r e p o r t e d i t ,          i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the genus

may have t o be r e v i s e d i n the f u t u r e .
Amphidinium asymmetricum K o f o i d e t Swezy, 1921:                           133,     f . u5, Tab.               1, f . 1

                                          (PI.    1, f .     10)

S c h i l l e r , 1933:   279,     f . 266;      Grass**, 1952:         328,    f . 231      F non     E.

Syn.:      A. asymmetricum K o f o i d et Swezy v a r b r i t a n n i c u m E.C.                      Herdman,

1922:     21, f . 5; 1924:          62-63 (et E.C.            Herdman, 1921:           61, f .              B   2     sub

A. asymmetricum K o f o i d , 1922:               15-16).

        A. asymmetricum K o f o i d et Swezy v a r compactum E.C.                             Herdman,               1922:

22, f . 6;      1924:     62-63.

        A. b r i t a n n i c u m Lebour ex E.C.            Herdman v a r b r i t a n n i c u m 1924:                 81;

Lebour, 1925:          27, Tab.         2, f . 5, 6;       S c h i l l e r 1933:     280,    f . 268     a-c.

        A. b r i t a n n i c u m Lebour ex E.C.            Herdman v a r compactum E.C.                  Herdman

1924:     81, f . 26,        27; Lebour 1925:            27; Throndsen 1969:                f . 25.

        A. operculatum           sensu W.A.         Herdman, 1912:            372;    1913a: 63, f . 9 d,

f , k, 1, lOh v i x f . 9 c, e, i ; 1913b: 558;                         1914:      39, f . 6 f ;       sensu

L a u r i e 1913:     510.

Vix    S p i r o d i n i u m aureum Conrad 1926:            89, f . 23-27.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s which

i s moderately         flattened dorso-ventrally.                     The body i s e l l i p s o i d a l i n

v e n t r a l view and       i t s s u r f a c e can appear f a i n t l y s t r i a t e d .        The      epicone

is    extremely       asymmetrical         due    to the course o f the g i r d l e ; the                   right

s i d e b e i n g the l o n g e s t .     The    g i r d l e i s descending          (left-handed)                  and

forms a s t e e p , u n i f o r m , descending             curve.       The    s u l c u s which i s c o n f i n e d

to    the hypocone extends from the g i r d l e to the antapex of the                                    cell.

The    left    edge of the s u l c u s s l i g h t l y o v e r l a p s t h e r i g h t margin.                       The

l o n g i t u d i n a l f l a g e l l u m , which i s about equal i n l e n g t h to t h a t of                       the

body, p r o j e c t s p o s t e r i o r l y from the antapex of the c e l l .                    The     nucleus

is    l a r g e and   situated mid-ventrally.                   Numerous s m a l l ,        yellow-green
c h l o r o p l a s t s r a d i a t e out from t h e c e n t e r o f t h e c e l l .    They a r e

u s u a l l y so d e n s e l y   packed t h a t t h e appearance may be t h a t o f a s i n g l e

lobed c h l o r o p l a s t .     Many minute o i l (?) d r o p l e t s a r e s c a t t e r e d

throughout t h e cytoplasm.                 Length 37 - 60y, t r a n s v e r s e diameter 30y,

d o r s o - v e n t r a l diameter 28y.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Wilson   Creek, S e c h e l t and Willows Bay,

Victoria.

        World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - P o r t E r i n , I s l e of Man; c o a s t o f C a l i f o r n i a .

        Comments: - E.C. Herdman (1922) c o n s i d e r s her A. b r i t a n n i c u m                 a

separate                                                          .
               s p e c i e s from K o f o i d and Swezy's (1921) A ' asymmetricum. She

separated        them on t h e bases t h a t h e r s p e c i e s had d o r s o - v e n t r a l       flat-

t e n i n g and was not s t r i a t e d .        Although t h e B r i t i s h Columbian specimens

more c l o s e l y resemble the d e s c r i p t i o n and f i g u r e s f o r A.            britannicum

E.C.    Herdman, my c u l t u r e o f t h i s s p e c i e s        ( c u l t u r e number     ) has shown

t h a t these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used by E.C. Herdman a r e extremely v a r i a b l e .

T h i s suggests t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a f o r s e p a r a t i n g the two s p e c i e s a r e

d o u b t f u l and t h a t perhaps E.C. Herdman's specimens should be                           considered

o n l y v a r i a t i o n s o f A. asymmetricum K. & S.

        D i v i s i o n i n t h i s s p e c i e s i s such that one daughter c e l l may r e -

c e i v e almost a l l t h e epicone            and v e r y l i t t l e hypocone; t h e o t h e r

daughter c e l l        o f course r e c e i v e s t h e o p p o s i t e .     Because o f t h i s , t h e

daughter c e l l        c o n s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y o f epicone    may n o t appear t o f i t

the c r i t e r i a f o r t h e genus Amphidinium immediately a f t e r                     division.
Amphidinium b i p e s E.C. Herdman 1924: 78, f . 19.

                          (PI. 1, f . 3a, b; P I . 8, f . 2a, b)

Lebour 1925: 29, f . 8 f ; S c h i l l e r 1933: 280, f . 267; Lackey, J.B. and

E.W.     Lackey 1963; B u r s a , 1968: 70, f . 12, 13.

Vix    Wood, 1963: 22, f . 70.

         D e s c r i p t i o n : - A medium s i z e d , n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s    which

is flattened dorso-ventrally.                        The c e l l    i s roughly oval i n v e n t r a l

view w i t h a s t r o n g      a n t a p i c a l n o t c h c r e a t i n g a d i s t i n c t l y b i l o b e d hy-

pocone.        The g r a n u l a r    cytoplasm i s c o l o u r l e s s , but u s u a l l y           contains

strong      pigment a c t i o n i n t h e a n t a p i c a l r e g i o n s       o f the l o b e s .         The e p i -

cone i s s m a l l , r o u g h l y t r i a n g u l a r i n v e n t r a l view and overhangs t h e

dorsal side.            The g i r d l e i s deeply impressed; more so on t h e l e f t and

d o r s a l s i d e than on t h e r i g h t .          The s u l c u s   extends onto t h e e p i c o n e

curving       to t h e l e f t .     On t h e hypocone i t i s o n l y d i s t i n c t i n t h e lower

h a l f of the c e l l .        The l o n g i t u d i n a l f l a g e l l u m o r i g i n a t e s w i t h i n the

p o s t e r i o r t h i r d o f the c e l l .      The l a r g e n u c l e u s i s u s u a l l y     situated

w i t h i n the l e f t    lobe.       A s m a l l accumulation body i s commonly p r e s e n t

in    the r i g h t lobe.          Length 22 - 38u, d o r s o - v e n t r a l          diameter 16 - 22u,

t r a n s d i a m e t e r 16 - 42u.

         L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena

Beach; W i l s o n Creek, S e c h e l t ;          Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a .

         World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - P o r t     E r i n , I s l e o f Man; C a l i f o r n i a ; A l a s k a .

         Comments: - E.C. Herdman's (1924) f i g u r e o f t h i s s p e c i e s                            shows

no    d i f f e r e n c e between t h e l e n g t h o f t h e a n t a p i c e s      o f t h e hypocone.

Although both lobes                a r e sometimes e q u a l ,        the usual        situation i s for

the l e f t    one t o be          longer.
Amphidinium compressum (Calkins) Taylor et B a i l l i e comb. n.

                            (PI.   1, f . 6; PI. 8,'f. 3)

Syn.: Glenodinium compressa Calkins 1901: 430, f . 21 a, b, c.

        Description: - This i s a nonphotosynthetic species which i s

strongly compressed l a t e r a l l y .        The c e l l i s approximately sub-oval

i n l a t e r a l view.   The g i r d l e i s higher on the l e f t than on the r i g h t

and due to the f l a t t e n i n g of the c e l l , displacement i s d i f f i c u l t to

determine.        The sulcus deeply impresses the hypocone p a r t i c u l a r l y

i n the v i c i n i t y of the o r i g i n of the longitudinal flagellum.                Due

to the transparency of.the c e l l this can e a s i l y be seen i n l a t e r a l

view.     In ventral view the sulcus excavates the l e f t side more than

the r i g h t .   The p e l l i c l e i s firm, lacking surface s t r i a t i o n s and

numerous minute depressions can sometimes be seen covering i t s sur-

face.     The cytoplasm i s granular and may                   appear either colourless

or s l i g h t l y brownish, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the    periphery of the c e l l .

One or more accumulation bodies may be present.                            The nucleus i s large

and situated central dorsally.                 Length 36 - 40u, dorso-ventral d i a -

meter 24 - 32y, transdiameter 16 - 18p.

        Comments: - This species i s very similar to Amphidinium semi-

lunatum and for this reason a new                 combination has been proposed.

It can be distinguished from A. semilunatum by i t s shape i n l a t e r a l

view (the l a t t e r i s cuneiform and has a greater degree of excavation

of the sulcus i n the region of the o r i g i n of the longitudinal f l a g -

ellum) .

        Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a .

        World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

        Comments: - Calkins (1901) places this species i n the wrong
genus even though he points out that i t s "shell i s soft and struc-

tureless".   This species should be placed into the genus Amphidinium

as above.
Amphidinium         corpulentum K o f o i d et Swezy 1921: 134,                       f . 6, 13, Tab. 1, f .

                                              (PI.     5, f . 5)

Syn.:      ? Amphidinium            ovum E.C. Herdman 1924b: 78, f . 25.

        ? C h i l o d i n i u m c r u c i a t u m Massart 1920:           128, f . 12 A,        B.

        ? Amphidinium           p e l l u c i d u m E.C. Herdman 1922:              27, f . 7; 1924a: 63;

1924b: 77, f . 14-16; Lebour 1925: 28, f . 8 d; S c h i l l e r 1933:                                 309,    f . 309

G a n a p a t i , Rao   & Rao     1959.

Non A. p e l l u c i d u m E.C. Herdman 1924b: f . 17, 18; sensu Conrad & Kuf-

f e r a t h 1954:       83, Tab. 9, f . 1; sensu Dragesco 1965:                         97, f . 9.

Non A. p e l l u c i d u m Redeke 1935:              391, f . 1.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A medium s i z e d s p e c i e s which may             contain chloro-

plasts?        The c e l l   i s e l o n g a t e d , r o t u n d and moderately compressed                   dor-

soventrally.            The g i r d l e may     or may     not be d i s p l a c e d i n a descending

( l e f t - h a n d e d ) manner.     The epicone i s a s y m m e t r i c a l , b e i n g l a r g e r        on

the    right.       The s u l c u s i s extended onto the epicone and c u r v e s to the

left    forming a s l i g h t        s e m i - c i r c l e around the apex.             On the hypocone

the    left    s i d e of the s u l c u s o v e r l a p s the r i g h t s i d e and notches the

antapex s l i g h t l y .       The c y t o p l a s m can c o n t a i n numerous, d i s c o i d ,            yel-

l o w i s h c h l o r o p l a s t s or may   appear c o l o u r l e s s . w i t h r e d d i s h - o r a n g e accum-

u l a t i o n b o d i e s s c a t t e r e d throughout.           The n u c l e u s i s l a r g e ,   slightly

e l o n g a t e d arid u s u a l l y s i t u a t e d i n the r i g h t s i d e o f the c e l l .         Length

34 - 54u, t r a n s d i a m e t e r 24 - 34u, d o r s o - v e n t r a l diameter                17u.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's     Beach.

        World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - C a l i f o r n i a .

        Comments: - T h i s s p e c i e s c o r r e s p o n d s extremely w e l l to the

d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n by K o f o i d & Swezy; i t d i f f e r s o n l y i n t h a t          the

s i z e range tends to be s m a l l e r f o r the B.C.                      form.
Amphidinium k e s s l i t z i S c h i l l e r 1933: 297, f . 291 a, b.

                                             (PI.    6,   f.   3)

Syn.:      ? Gymnodinium nanum S c h i l l e r 1933: 389, f . 401.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A v e r y s m a l l , n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s which

i s extremely f a s t moving.                   The c e l l    i s s l i g h t l y flattened      dorso-

ventrally        and a s y m m e t r i c a l , b e i n g l o n g e s t on the r i g h t     side.       The

epicone i s r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e , r o u g h l y t r i a n g u l a r and curves t o t h e

right.       The hypocone i s s a c - l i k e w i t h i t s r i g h t              side being s l i g h t l y

concave;        i t s l e f t b e i n g convex.           The g i r d l e i s asymmetrical,            origin-

ating j u s t to the l e f t              of the m i d - v e n t r a l l i n e .    There i s no d i s -

placement,        b u t the furrow r i s e s more s t e e p l y on t h e r i g h t               than on

the l e f t .     The s u l c u s extends            posteriorly        from the g i r d l e , c u r v i n g

s l i g h t l y to the r i g h t .         I t t r a v e r s e s t h e hypocone f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y

3/4 o f i t s l e n g t h ; i t does not r e a c h t h e antapex.                      The cytoplasm i s

c o l o u r l e s s and h y a l i n e .      The n u c l e u s c o u l d not be observed.              Length

10 - 12y, t r a n s d i a m e t e r 6 - 7p.

        Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Sechelt.

        World d i s t r i b u t i o n : -

        Comments: - THis form d i f f e r s from t h a t o f S c h i l l e r ' s i n t h a t

the B.C. s p e c i e s i s s l i g h t l y l a r g e r         (10 - 12p x 6 - 7\i, whereas

S c h i l l e r g i v e s a s i z e o f 7 - 8u x 4.5 - 5y) and i s n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c .

A l s o , the g i r d l e i s not as deeply                   impressed.
Amphidinium k l e b s i K o f o i d e t Swezy 1921:                     144,     f.   u-14.

                              (PI.    3, f . l a , b; P I . 7, f . 3)

E.C. Herdman 1922:             25, f . 4;       1924a: 63; 1924b: 76, f . 6-10;                        Lebour

1925:    23, Tab. 2, f . 1; S c h i l l e r 1933:                    298,      f . 292 a - f ; Conrad et

K u f f e r a t h 1954:     77; Dragesco        1965:        101, f . 11 A, B, C, 12 A,                  B;

Bursa 1968:         70, f . 12/11.

        A. operculatum C l a p , e t Lach. sensu K l e b s 1884:                          723,       726,     732,

739, Tab. 10, f . 11,                12.

        A. operculatum C l a p , e t Lach. sensu P a u l s e n 1908:                           96, f . 128.

Vix   A. operculatum C l a p , et Lach. sensu M a r t i n 1929:                           13, Tab.          3, f . 24.

Vix   A. operculatum C l a p , e t Lach. sensu Massart 1920:                                  f . 13 A, B,       P,

sensu Conrad          1926:     72, f . B/A,        B,       P.

Vix   A. operculatum C l a p , et Lach. sensu C a l k i n s 1901:                             432,    f . 27;

sensu Grasse 1952:              328, f . c.

Non A. k l e b s i i . K o f o i d et Swezy sensu C a r t e r 1937:                    58, Tab. 8, f .           12-15

Non A. k l e b s i i K o f o i d et Swezy sensu D.L.                      Taylor      (1971).

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - a medium to l a r g e s p e c i e s which u s u a l l y c o n t a i n s

obvious c h l o r o p l a s t s .     The c e l l     i s roughly e l l i p t i c a l         to s u b - o v a l i n

v e n t r a l view and d o r s o - v e n t r a l l y f l a t t e n e d .        The epicone i s s m a l l ,

t o n g u e - l i k e and curves to the l e f t ,                 s l i g h t l y overhanging the a n t e r i o r

rim   o f the hypocone.              The l e f t    s i d e of the hypocone i s somewhat                       lar-

ger than the r i g h t , r e s u l t i n g i n an u p s l o p i n g of the p o s t e r i o r                  margin.

The g i r d l e i s d e e p l y impressed and not o b v i o u s l y d i s p l a c e d .                  The

s u l c u s extend from the g i r d l e o b l i q u e l y to the r i g h t and ends on

the   r i g h t margin of the c e l l .             The c y t o p l a s m i s g r a n u l a r and a p y r e -
                                                         O   I




n o i d and/or      a b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d a c c u m u l a t i o n body i s o f t e n p r e s e n t .

The n u c l e u s l i e s    i n the p o s t e r i o r t h i r d of the c e l l .             Length 30-46u,
transdiameter       28 - 36y, d o r s o - v e n t r a l diameter

       L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena

Beach; Wilson       Creek, S e c h e l t ; Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a .

       World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Barnegat Bay, New J e r s e y ; Bay o f N a p l e s ;

sand a t P o r t E r i n , I s l e o f Mann; sand a t C u l l e r c o a t s , Northumberland.

       Comments: - T h i s s p e c i e s has been separated              from o t h e r morphol-

ogically similar        s p e c i e s o f Amphidinium      [e.g. A. ovoideum (Lemm.)

Lemm. 1900 and A. c a r t e r a e H u l b e r t 1959] on t h e b a s i s of i t s p h y s i c a l

size   (30y o r g r e a t e r i n l e n g t h ) and on i t s number o f c h l o r o p l a s t s .

Because both these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s   seem extremely v a r i a b l e , t h e v a l -

i d i t y of t h i s being   a separate      s p e c i e s may be d o u b t f u l .
Amphidinium         latum Lebour 1925: 26, Tab. 2, f . 3.

                      (PI.   2, f . 10; P I . 6, f . 4; P I . 10, f . 4)

E.C. Herdman 1924: 78, f . 20; S c h i l l e r 1933: 302, f . 298 a-c; Conrad

and K u f f e r a t h 1954: 79.

         D e s c r i p t i o n : - A s m a l l , f a s t moving      s p e c i e s which does n o t

appear t o c o n t a i n c h l o r o p l a s t s .   The c e l l i s somewhat r e c t a n g u l a r

i n v e n t r a l view and moderately to s t r o n g l y compressed                       dorso-ventrally.

The e p i c o n e i s v e r y s m a l l and almost f l a t .              The hypocone        i s notched

s l i g h t l y a t the antapex and minute d e p r e s s i o n s can sometimes                       be seen

covering i t s surface.               The g i r d l e i s r e l a t i v e l y wide, deeply e x c a -

v a t e d and may o r may not be s l i g h t l y d i s p l a c e d to the l e f t                 (descend-

ing) .      The s u l c u s can appear t o c o m p l e t e l y t r a v e r s e the hypocone and

i s extended onto the r i g h t s i d e o f the e p i c o n e c u r v i n g d o r s a l l y t o

form a s e m i - c i r c l e around the apex.                  The c y t o p l a s m i s c o l o u r l e s s and

may become s l i g h t l y brownish and g r a n u l a r towards the p o s t e r i o r of

the    cell.      The p o s i t i o n o f the n u c l e u s i s m i d - v e n t r a l o r s l i g h t l y

anterior.         A s m a l l r e d d i s h brown a c c u m u l a t i o n body i s sometimes               pres-

ent.      Length 10 - 20y, t r a n s d i a m e t e r 9 - 18y

         L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach;                  Pachena

Beach; W i l s o n Creek, S e c h e l t ; Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a .

         World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - P o r t E r i n ,    I s l e o f Man; C u l l e r c o a t s ,

Northumberland; F r a n c e .
Amphidinium manannini                 E.C.     Herdman 1924b: 79, f . 21

                                            (PI.    1, f .      12)

Lebour      1925:     34, f . 80; S c h i l l e r 1933:               303, f . 301; Conrad             and    Kuf-

f e r a t h 1954:     81, Tab. 2, f . 5.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A medium s i z e d , n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s which

i s moderately          to s t r o n g l y f l a t t e n e d d o r s o - v e n t r a l l y .   The   cell is

e l l i p s o i d a l to r e c t a n g u l a r i n v e n t r a l view.         The epicone i s moder-

a t e l y l a r g e , c o m p r i s i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - q u a r t e r of the c e l l .      There

may    or may     not be         l e f t - h a n d e d (descending) displacement of the g i r -

dle.      The s u l c u s extends           from the hypocone, where i t s l i g h t l y                     notches

the antapex,          up onto the e p i c o n e .             The     cytoplasm v a r i e s i n c o l o u r :

i t may     appear      f a i n t l y y e l l o w i s h - o r a n g e , o r i t may     be c o l o u r l e s s w i t h

s m a l l , b l u i s h - g r e e n o i l (?) d r o p l e t s and o r a n g i s h - y e l l o w a c c u m u l a t i o n

b o d i e s s c a t t e r e d throughout.            C h l o r o p l a s t s appear      to be    absent.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Willows Bay,             Victoria.

        World      d i s t r i b u t i o n : - P o r t E r i n , I s l e of Man;          c o a s t of France.

        Comments: - T h i s appears t o be an extremely r a r e s p e c i e s as i t

was    found o n l y a few times d u r i n g the course of t h i s s t u d y .                               E.C.

Herdman (1924b) notes t h a t i t was                       laterally         f l a t t e n e d whereas the

B r i t i s h Columbian        specimens are compressed                     dorso-ventrally.
Amphidinium m a s s a r t i i B i e c h e l e r 1952: 24, f . 4, 5, 64.

                             (PI.     3, f . 4; P I . 7, f .          l a , b)

V i x : A. ovoideum (Lemm.) Lemm. 1900.

        A. r o s t r a t u m P r . Lavrenko          1945.

        A. rhynchocephalum Anissimova                         1926.

        A. w i s l o u c h i i H u l b e r t   1957: 199, Tab. 1, f . 2.

        A. sp. W i s l o u c h 1924: 121, Tab. 3, f . 11.

        A. c o r a l l i n i u m Conrad e t K u f f e r a t h 1954:           75, P I . 9, f . 8 a, b.

        A. dubium Conrad e t K u f f e r a t h 1954:                  76, Tab. 10, f . 4.

        A. coeruleum Conrad                 1939:    X,   10,   f.    13-16;     Conrad e t K u f f e r a t h

1954: 74,        Tab.     10, f . 2        A, B.

        A. c e l e s t i n u m   Conrad e t K u f f e r a t h 1954:          74, Tab. 10, f . 3 A, B, C.

        A. o r n i t h o c e p h a l u m Conrad 1939: 10, 7, f . 1-5.

        A. purpufeum Conrad e t K u f f e r a t h 1954: 86, Tab. 2, f . 7 a, b.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : — A s m a l l t o medium s i z e d p h o t o s y n t h e t i c      species

which i s f l a t t e n e d d o r s o - v e n t r a l l y .    The c e l l    appears roughly            ellip-

s o i d a l i n v e n t r a l view.         The epicone        i s small, tongue-like, deflected

to    the l e f t    and may s l i g h t l y overhang t h e a n t e r i o r r i m o f t h e hypocone.

The    hypocone i s not s t r i a t e d and i s d i v i d e d a s y m m e t r i c a l l y          by t h e

s u l c u s so i t s l e f t     side i s s l i g h t l y     larger.        The g i r d l e i s r e l a t i v e l y

deeply      impressed and t h e r e appears t o be no displacement.                               The s u l c u s

extends from the g i r d l e t o the antapex, c u r v i n g s l i g h t l y t o the l e f t .

The    cytoplasm        c o n t a i n s numerous d i s c o i d c h l o r o p l a s t s which may be so

densely      packed that they g i v e the appearance of b e i n g a s i n g l e l o b e d

chloroplast.            Minute o i l (?) d r o p l e t s a r e commonly p r e s e n t              and t h e

occurrence          of a p y r e n o i d    seems v a r i a b l e .    No eyespot c o u l d be observed.

Length 9 - 29y, t r a n s d i a m e t e r           8 - 21u, d o r s o - v e n t r a l diameter approx-
imately 8 - 20u.
     Local distribution: - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; Pachena

Beach; Sechelt; Victoria.

     World distribution: - A t l a n t i c , east and west coasts.

     Comments: - Most of the B r i t i s h Columbian specimens best f i t

the description of A. massafti Biecheler.       But forms closely resem-

bling A. ovoideum (Lemm.) Lemm. 1900, A. rhynchocephalum Anissimova

1926, A. rostratum Pr. Lavrenko 1945 and A. wislouchii Hulbert 1957
have also been found. Whether or not these are a l l distinct species

i s questionable as their separation has been based primarily on the

number and shape of the chloroplasts and the size of the c e l l ; both

these characteristics seem extremely variable and upon preservation

the cells tend to round up and become more distorted.
Amphidinium p e l l u c i d u m E.C.         Herdman 1922:           27, f . 7.

                                           (PI.    6, f . 6)

E.C.    Herdman 1924a: 63; 1924b: 77, f . 14-16; Lebour                              1925:      28, f . 8d;

S c h i l l e r 1933:    309, f . 309;        Conrad     and K u f f e r a t h 1954:      83, Tab.       9,

f.    1; Dragesco        1965:    97, f . 9.

Vix    Amphidinium p e l l u c i d u m E.C.          Herdman 1924b: 83, f i g s .            17 and      18;

G a n a p a t i , Rao   and Rao      1959:

Non A. p e l l u c i d u m Redeke 1935:            391, f . 1.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A medium-sized, n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i s which

i s dorso-ventrally flattened.                    The c e l l     i s roughly e l l i p s o i d a l i n

v e n t r a l view w i t h a slight a p i c a l n o t c h .        The epicone i s l a r g e          and

s l i g h t l y narrower     than the hypocone.               The hypocone i s s a c - l i k e .            The

g i r d l e , which i s extremely deeply impressed, i s d i s p l a c e d about                          one

g i r d l e w i d t h i n a l e f t - h a n d e d (descending) manner.               The s u l c u s extends

p o s t e r i o r l y from the g i r d l e as a wide furrow and g r a d u a l l y becomes a

narrow groove which reaches the antapex.                             The r i g h t margin        of the

s u l c u s o v e r l a p s the l o n g i t u d i n a l furrow f o r most of i t s l e n g t h .

The s u l c u s extends onto the e p i c o n e as a t h i n groove.                       The    apical

notch suggests t h a t i t a c t u a l l y reaches the apex of the c e l l                          although

t h i s c o u l d not be d e f i n i t e l y determined.             The cytoplasm           appears

s l i g h t l y y e l l o w i s h but no c h l o r o p l a s t s c o u l d be seen.       The    nucleus

i s l a r g e , e l o n g a t e d and s i t u a t e d i n the hypocone.             Numerous l a r g e

reddish-brown           accumulation masses can be seen s c a t t e r e d                   throughout

the cytoplasm.            Length     32 - 36y;        t r a n s d i a m e t e r 22 - 24y; d o r s o - v e n t r a l

diameter a p p r o x i m a t e l y 17 -       19u.

        Local distribution: - Victoria.

        World     d i s t r i b u t i o n : - P o r t E r i n , I s l e of   Man.
     Comments: - This form f i t s the description of E.C. Herdman

(1922) except that i t i s approximately one-half the size of the

cells she found.   Since this species was observed only once during

this study i t may have been an abnormally small specimen.
                                                                                                                       29.




Amphidinium s c i s s u m K o f o i d        e t Swezy 1921

                     (PI. 2, f . 2; P I . 7, f . 4; P I . 8, f i g . 4 a, b)

E.C.    Herdman 1922: 28; 1924a: 63, f . 5; Lebour 1925: 26, Tab. 2, f . 4;

S c h i l l e r 1933: 314, f . 316 a-c; Grass€ 1952: f . 231D.

V i x A. cornutum Digby N.S. sensu Bursa 1968: f . 4-6.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A l a r g e , . n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s which i s

s t r o n g l y compressed d o r s o - v e n t r a l l y .        The c e l l i s r o u g h l y      rectangular

to s u b - o v a l i n l a t e r a l view.        The e p i c o n e i s a s y m m e t r i c a l l y    divided

i n t o two p a r t s .     Its left        s i d e i s f l a t t e n e d and u s u a l l y t i l t e d t o -

wards the c e n t r e ;       i t s r i g h t side i s considerably                l a r g e r and s l o p e s

dorso-ventrally.              The hypocone i s s a c - l i k e , w i t h a deep, p o s t e r i o r ,

semicircular notch.                A clear, colourless projection                        (flap?) located

v e n t r a l l y covers t h i s excavated r e g i o n .              The g i r d l e appears t o be

displaced       i n a left-handed             (descending) manner.                 The s u l c u s     i s ex-

tended onto t h e e p i c o n e ; on the hypocone i t i s d i f f i c u l t                       to d i s t i n -

guish.       An i n v e r t e d   "Y"-shaped s t r u c t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e hypocone,

j u s t a n t e r i o r to t h e excavated a r e a and a p p a r e n t l y             i n t e r n a l l y ; whether

or n o t t h i s i s r e l a t e d t o the s u l c u s         i s unknown.          The l o n g i t u d i n a l

f l a g e l l u m p r o j e c t s p o s t e r i o r l y from t h e excavated r e g i o n .            The c y -

toplasm i s c o l o u r l e s s , becoming more g r a n u l a r               towards the p e r i p h e r y

of t h e c e l l .     One or more b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d         a c c u m u l a t i o n b o d i e s and

numerous minute o i l (?) d r o p l e t s               a r e common.         The n u c l e u s i s l a r g e

and    s i t u a t e d approximately mid-ventally.                      Length 38 - 60y; t r a n s -

diameter 30 - 50u; d o r s o - v e n t r a l            diameter 18 - 25y.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach; W i l s o n

Creek, S e c h e l t ;     Willows Bay, V i t o r i a .

        World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - C a l i f o r n i a .
     Comments: - This description differs from that given by Kofoid

and Swezy (1921) i n that the B r i t i s h Columbian specimens appear to

be less colourful, non-striated, and have their sulcus indistinct on

the hypocone.
Amphidinium semi lunar, um D.C. Herdman 1924a: 59, f . 7.

                            (PI.    1, f . 8 a, b ; P I . 10, f . 7)

Lebour     1925: 33, f . 9 b ; S c h i l l e r 1933: 315, f . 317; Bursa 1968:

70, f . 12/8.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A l a r g e , n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s which i s

r o u g h l y c u n e i f r o m i n l a t e r a l view    (the d o r s a l s i d e b e i n g almost

s t r a i g h t , the v e n t r a l s i d e convex).          The c e l l i s s t r o n g l y    flattened

laterally.         The g i r d l e u s u a l l y curves h i g h e r on t h e l e f t            s i d e than

on the r i g h t and d i s p l a c e m e n t , i f any, i s hard to determine.                         The

s u l c u s deeply excavates t h e hypocone, a f e a t u r e which i s c l e a r l y

v i s i b l e i n l a t e r a l view due t o t h e c e l l ' s t r a n s p a r e n c y , and extends

from t h e g i r d l e t o t h e antapex.                The p e l l i c l e i s f i r m and surrounds

a g r a n u l a r cytoplasm which ranges                  i n c o l o u r from almost c l e a r t o

s l i g h t l y brownish, p a r t i c u l a r l y towards t h e p e r i p h e r y o f the c e l l .

The nucleus i s s i t u a t e d m i d - v e n t r a l l y and one o r more b r i g h t l y                col-

oured accumulation b o d i e s may be p r e s e n t .                  Length      38 - 55u, d o r s o -

v e n t r a l diameter 28 - 40y, t r a n s d i a m e t e r 12 - 20y.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's               Beach; Pachena Beach;

W i l s o n Creek, S e c h e l t ; Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a .

        World     d i s t r i b u t i o n : - P o r t E r i n , I s l e o f Man; A l a s k a .

        Comments: - E.C. Herdman noted t h a t the g i r d l e i s h i g h e s t i n

the r i g h t d o r s a l r e g i o n whereas w i t h t h e B r i t i s h Columbian                specimens

i t was u s u a l l y h i g h e s t on t h e l e f t       l a t e r a l side.     This species, a l -

though     relatively         common, never appeared                i n g r e a t abundance.
Amphidinium testudo E.C.                  Herdman 1924b: 76, f . 2, 3, 5, non                          f . 4.

                  (PI.    1, f . 7; P I . 6, f . l a , b; PI. 10, f . 6)

Lebour 1925:         29, f . 8 e;          S c h i l l e r 1933:     318,      f . 322     a-e.

       D e s c r i p t i o n : - A medium s i z e d p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s .        The : c e l l

i s o v a l i n v e n t r a l view and extremely                flattened dorso-ventrally.                       The

epicone i s s m a l l , v e n t r a l l y p l a c e d , and not p r o j e c t i n g beyond the                   an-,

t e r i o r of the hypocone.              Under o i l immersion i t can be seen to be b i -

lobed.      The hypocone i s l a r g e ; i t s v e n t r a l s i d e i s s l i g h t l y               concave

and i t s d o r s a l s i d e i s s t r o n g l y convex.             The      a n t e r i o r r i m can be     curved

d o r s a l l y and i s more o r l e s s notched               and    connects w i t h t h e deeply              im-

pressed g i r d l e .        The    s u l c u s i s narrow, becoming i n d i s t i n c t              i n the pos-

t e r i o r r e g i o n of the c e l l where i t widens.                    I t may      n o t c h the antapex.

The    cytoplasm         i s f i l l e d w i t h numerous y e l l o w i s h - g r e e n d i s c o i d c h l o r o -

p l a s t s and    g r a n u l e s which r a d i a t e from the c e n t e r of t h e body.                    Around

the complete p e r i p h e r y of the c e l l              lies      a d i s t i n c t h y a l i n e zone.       The

nucleus     i s e l o n g a t e and      appears as a s l i g h t l y l i g h t e r r e g i o n i n the

p o s t e r i o r t h i r d of the c e l l .       A p y r e n o i d may       be p r e s e n t ,    suggesting

the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t o n l y one      c h l o r o p l a s t may    be p r e s e n t .    Length 20        -

35u,    transdiameter            20 - 30u,       d o r s o - v e n t r a l diameter       approximately          10    -

15y.

       L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay;            Sechelt; V i c t o r i a .

       World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - P o r t E r i n , I s l e of             Man.
Amphidinium sp. 1 sp.                  n.

                     (PI.      2, f . 5 a, b, c; P I . 7, f . 6 a,                  b)

V i x Amphidinium p e l l u c i d u m           E.C.      Herdman 1924b: f . 17,             18;    Ganapati,

Rao    & Rao        1959.

Non   A. p e l l u c i d u m    E.C.    Herdman 1922:            27,     f . 7; 1924a: 63;          1924b:          77,

f.    14-16; Lebour 1925:               28,     f . 8 d; S c h i l l e r 1933:        309,    f . 309;         Conrad

and   K u f f e r a t h 1954:     83,       Tab.    9,    f . 1; Dragesco 1965:            97,     f.    9.

Non   A. p e l l u c i d u m    Redeke 1935:             391,   f . 1.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A l a r g e , non-photosynthetic                species.          The       cell

i s broadly         fusiform with            the apex rounded and              the antapex u s u a l l y

drawn i n t o a s l e n d e r p o i n t .           Even when the p o s t e r i o r of the c e l l i s

more b l u n t l y shaped, a d e f i n i t e a n t a p i c a l p r o t r u s i o n e x i s t s .              The

c e l l s are u s u a l l y rounded but s l i g h t d o r s o - v e n t r a l compression                      may

occur.        The    g i r d l e i s descending            (left-handed).           The    s u l c u s runs         the

complete l e n g t h of the body.                    I t d i v i d e s the epicone           asymmetrically,

making the r i g h t s i d e the l a r g e s t , and                i t notches the apex.                 On    the

hypocone the s u l c u s g r a d u a l l y f a d e s , becoming o n l y a f a i n t                     depression

near the antapex.                The    l o n g i t u d i n a l f l a g e l l u m emerges from i t i n the

p o s t e r i o r t h i r d of the c e l l .         The    cytoplasm       i s colourless.             One     of

i t s most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s i s the presence of two                    l a r g e pusules        which

occupy much of the p o s t e r i o r r e g i o n of the c e l l .                    Minute o i l (?) drop-

l e t s and    one    or more b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d accumulation                bodies        are common.

The    nucleus       i s s i t u a t e d approximately            mid-ventrally.             Length 50 -             80u,

transdiameter           22 - 40u,           d o r s o - v e n t r a l diameter 22 -       40p.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Pachena Beach; Wilson                 Creek, S e c h e l t .

        Comments: - E.C.               Herdman's (1922-1924) d e s c r i p t i o n and                  figures

of A. p e l l u c i d u m      correspond          very    c l o s e l y to t h a t g i v e n by K o f o i d        and
Swezy (1921) for A. corpuletitum.       E.C. Herdman's (1924b) figures

17 and 18 are the only ones which vaguely bear some s i m i l a r i t y to

the species described above. This dinoflagellate can easily be dis-

tinguished from A. scissum and A. diabolum as the hypocone i s not

divided into right and l e f t lobes.
Amphidinium sp. 2 n.              sp.

                                         (PI.    2,   f.   6)

       D e s c r i p t i o n : - A l a r g e , n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s which i s

flattened dorso-ventrally.                   The c e l l    i s r o u g h l y r e c t a n g u l a r i n ven-

t r a l view.      The e p i c o n e i s s l i g h t l y narrower         than the hypocone and

almost f l a t .       I t s shape i s " h a t - l i k e " , h a v i n g the c e n t r a l and o u t e r

r e g i o n s p r o j e c t i n g more a n t e r i o r l y than the middle r e g i o n .            The      hy-

pocone i s l a r g e , h a v i n g i t s p o s t e r i o r b l u n t l y rounded.            The    girdle

i s narrow, not deeply impressed                    and w i t h o u t d i s p l a c e m e n t .    The    sul-

cus i s c o n f i n e d t o the hypocone.              I t i s s t r a i g h t f o r most of i t s

l e n g t h and f o l l o w s the m i d - v e n t r a l l i n e f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2/3      of the

d i s t a n c e t o the antapex.          At t h i s p o i n t i t curves s l i g h t l y          to the

r i g h t and notches the p o s t e r i o r - r i g h t margin            of the c e l l .         The    cy-

toplasm i s c l e a r and c o l o u r l e s s .         I t becomes q u i t e g r a n u l a r and i s

packed w i t h reddish-brown              a c c u m u l a t i o n masses i n i t s p o s t e r i o r r e -

gions.      Length 44 - 48u,             t r a n s d i a m e t e r 32 - 36u.,    dorso-ventral dia-

meter a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 -      28u.

        Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Sechelt.

        Comments: - T h i s appears t o be an extremely r a r e s p e c i e s as i t

was   o n l y observed once d u r i n g t h i s            study.
Amphidinium sp. 3

                                 (PI.     2,   f.   3; P I . 8,       f.   5)

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - One o f the l a r g e s t n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c        species

found i n t h i s study.               The c e l l i s roughly r e c t a n g u l a r           i n ventral

view and i s s t r o n g l y         flattened dorso-ventrally.                       The epicone i s

r e l a t i v e l y small     and a s y m m e t r i c a l l y   d i v i d e d by the s u l c u s .           Its left

s i d e i s f l a t t e n e d and u s u a l l y s l o p e s      towards the c e n t e r ;          the r i g h t

s i d e i s l a r g e r and i s t i l t e d        dorso-ventrally.                The hypocone has a

l a r g e , s e m i c i r c u l a r e x c a v a t i o n a t t h e antapex, g i v i n g i t a d i s t i n c t

bilobed      appearance.             The g i r d l e appears to be s l i g h t l y d i s p l a c e d i n

a descending          (left-handed)            manner.          The s u l c u s    extends from the apex

onto t h e hypocone where i t becomes d i f f i c u l t                         to d i s t i n g u i s h .     An

inverted       "Y"- shaped s t u r c t u r e i s s i t u a t e d on t h e hypocone j u s t an-

t e r i o r t o the excavated r e g i o n             and a p p a r e n t l y     i n t e r n a l l y ; whether

or n o t t h i s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e s u l c u s         i s unknown.           The l o n g i t u d i n a l

f l a g e l l u m o r i g i n a t e s from the excavated r e g i o n .                 The cytoplasm i s

c o l o u r l e s s and becomes q u i t e g r a n u l a r          towards t h e p e r i p h e r y           of t h e

cell.      One or more b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d           accumulation b o d i e s and numer-

ous   minute o i l (?) d r o p l e t s           a r e common.          The n u c l e u s i s l a r g e ,

e l o n g a t e and s i t u a t e d i n t h e p o s t e r i o r o f the c e l l .             Length 42 - 51M,

t r a n s d i a m e t e r 30 - 36y, d o r s o - v e n t r a l      diameter a p p r o x i m a t e l y 14 - 20u.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach;                          Sechelt.

        Comments: - T h i s            species       d i f f e r s from A. s c i s s u m K o f o i d          e t Swezy

1921 i n the f o l l o w i n g ways:               no c o l o u r l e s s f l a p covers t h e excavated

region;      t h e g i r d l e i s not so s t r o n g l y d i s p l a c e d ;          the o r i g i n of t h e

g i r d l e and s u l c u s     lies     on t h e m i d - v e n t r a l l i n e and i s not s h i f t e d

to t h e r i g h t as i n A. scissum.
Amphidinium sp. 4

                           (PI.      3,   f.   8   a, b; P I .     10,    f.   9)

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A l a r g e , non-photosynthetic              s p e c i e s which i s

l a t e r a l l y compressed.           The c e l l    i s roughly r e c t a n g u l a r i n v e n t r a l

view.      The e p i c o n e i s b i - l o b e d , s l o p i n g both t o the l e f t         and    ven-

trally.       The hypocone i s l a r g e w i t h a d i s t i n c t p o s t e r i o r e x c a v a t i o n .

The g i r d l e i s wide and i n c o m p l e t e ; i t fades out on the r i g h t                    ven-

tral    side.       The s u l c u s i s continuous w i t h the g i r d l e and                descends

to   the a n t a p i c a l end of the c e l l .             Here i t d e e p l y excavates          the

complete       l e n g t h of the p o s t e r i o r r e g i o n and c o n t i n u e s forward t o

n o t c h the p o s t e r i o r - d o r s a l margin of the hypocone.                 The    cytoplasm

is   c o l o u r l e s s and   contains clear spheroid bodies.                       The n u c l e u s i s

usually situated mid-ventrally.                          Length     40 - 64y, d o r s o - v e n t r a l

diameter       30 - 44y,          t r a n s d i a m e t e r 26 -   40y.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay;          Brady's        Beach; Pachena

Beach; S e c h e l t ; Willows            Bay^     Victoria.

        Comments: - T h i s s p e c i e s l o o k s most s i m i l a r t o Amphidinium

sulcatum K o f o i d e t Swezy but d i f f e r s from i t i n the course of i t s

s u l c u s and g i r d l e and i t does not have s t r i a t i o n s on i t s e p i c o n e .
Amphidinium sp. 5

                               (PI. 2, f . 4; P I . 10, f . 4)

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A medium-sized, n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s

which i s s l i g h t l y f l a t t e n e d d o r s o - v e n t r a l l y .     The body i s r o u g h l y

e l l i p s o i d a l i n v e n t r a l view.      The e p i c o n e i s s m a l l and almost             tri-

a n g u l a r ; i t curves to the r i g h t and s l i g h l y overhangs                     the d o r s a l

edge o f the c e l l .          The hypocone i s s u b - o r a l .              The g i r d l e i s s h a l l o w ,

r e l a t i v e l y wide and meets w i t h o u t d i s p l a c e m e n t .           I t i s extended

p o s t e r i o r l y on the hypocone f o r a s h o r t d i s t a n c e .               The s u l c u s i s a

s h a l l o w f u r r o w which extends           a n t e r i o r l y from the antapex;            i t becomes

i n d i s t i n c t j u s t b e f o r e j o i n i n g the g i r d l e .       The cytoplasm i s c o l o u r -

l e s s and v e r y g r a n u l a r .      The n u c l e u s i s s i t u a t e d s l i g h t l y   posteriorly.

        Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Sechelt.

         Comments: - T h i s s p e c i e s d i f f e r s from A. m a s s a r t i i              Biecheler

i n t h a t i t s g i r d l e and s u l c u s do not j o i n .                A r a r e s p e c i e s as i t was

o n l y observed         once.
Amphidinium sp. 6 sp.                 n.

                                 (PI. 2,       f . 8; P I . 9, f .           6)

E.C.    Herdman 1924b: 76,                 f i g . 4 (sub Amphidinium                 testudo).

        Description: - A large, photosynthetic                                (or c o l o u r l e s s )     species

which i s extremely f l a t t e n e d d o r s o - v e n t r a l l y .               The    cell   is       ellip-

s o i d a l i n v e n t r a l view and         surrounded by            a thick, hyaline               pellicle.

The    epicone i s s m a l l , roughly              t r i a n g u l a r and       curves to the            left.

Its    apex i s b l u n t l y rounded w i t h the a n t e r i o r r e g i o n a p p e a r i n g c l e a r

and    colourless.           The    a n t e r i o r margin of the epicone b a r e l y                      projects

beyond the a n t e r i o r r i m o f the hypocone.                          The    g i r d l e i s narrow,

s h a l l o w and w i t h o u t d i s p l a c e m e n t .    The     sulcus        i s confined        to    the

hypocone and          i s a t h i n groove which p r o j e c t s p o s t e r i o r l y from                   the

bottom of the e p i c o n e .              In the a n t a p i c a l r e g i o n of the c e l l i t fades

and    becomes d i f f i c u l t      to d i s t i n g u i s h .     The     cytoplasm i s d e n s e l y

packed w i t h s m a l l , i r r e g u l a r l y - s h a p e d c h l o r o p l a s t s     ( t h i s may    be     one

extremely lobed            c h l o r o p l a s t ) which mask almost a l l o t h e r                 cellular

detail.         The   n u c l e u s appears as a c l e a r , r e n i f o r m              shaped r e g i o n       sit-

uated c e n t r a l l y i n the hypocone.                   Length 70 - 70y;               transdiameter

38 - 52u;        dorso-ventral             diameter 20 -             30u.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay;                Sechelt.

         Comments: - S e v e r a l          c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s s p e c i e s d i s t i n g u i s h

it     from Amphidinium operculatum Claparede et Lachmann.                                        These a r e :

(a) the s u l c u s       does not         d i s t i n c t l y extend to the antapex, (b)                     there

i s no s m a l l s p h e r o i d body ( p y r e n o i d ? ) i n the c e n t e r of the hypocone,

(c) the c h l o r o p l a s t s do not           r a d i a t e out    from a c e n t r a l p o i n t ,        (d)    the

s i z e i s much g r e a t e r ,      (e) the a n t e r i o r r e g i o n of the epicone appears

c l e a r and    colourless.
C h i l o d i n i u m c r u c i a t u m Massart    1920:       128,      f.    12.

                                                 (PI.     2,   f.   1)
Conrad      1926:     77, Tab.        1, f .      6-10.

Syn.: Gymnodlnlum c r u c i a t u m Massart                    i n S c h i l l e r 1935:       350,    f . 357      a-d

Massart      1901:       82.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A l a r g e , n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s which i s

roundly e l l i p t i c a l      i n v e n t r a l view.        The      c e l l may     be s l i g h t l y com-

pressed l a t e r a l l y .        The epicone i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same s i z e                 as

the hypocone and possesses a d i s t i n c t                        apical projection.                This finger

l i k e l o b e o r i g i n a t e s on the r i g h t s i d e of the epicone and curves                             dor-

s a l l y and t o the l e f t ;           i t i s c l o s e l y appressed            to the c e l l ' s s u r f a c e

throughout          i t s complete         length.        The g i r d l e i s d i s p l a c e d i n a       descend

ing    ( l e f t - h a n d e d ) manner about        two g i r d l e w i d t h s .         The s u l c u s , which

i s r e l a t i v e l y wide and deeply impressed                     on the hypocone, descends

from the g i r d l e to notch the antapex of the c e l l .                                 On the     epicone

it    i s o n l y a narrow, f a i n t d e p r e s s i o n which reaches the apex and

f o l l o w s the curve of the a p i c a l l o b e .                 The      cytoplasm i s c o l o u r l e s s

and    the n u c l e u s i s s i t u a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y     i n the c e n t e r of the         cell.

Length      39 - 50y,          t r a n s d i a m e t e r 30 - 38y,       d o r s o - v e n t r a l diameter

approximately           30 -       38y.


        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's          Beach.

        World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - N i e u p o r t , F r a n c e .

        Comments: - A r e l a t i v e l y r a r e s p e c i e s which was                     o n l y observed       a

few    times throughout              this     study.
                                                                                                                                      41.



E x u v i a e l l a marina Cienkowski 1881:                  12;    159,        f . 36,        37.

                                 (PI.    3, f . 2; P I . 10,         f.     3)

K l e b s 1884,      T.    10,    f . 10,     13,    14;    1912    I.e.        370,        f . 1 D,         E,    F;

C a l k i n s 1901:       429,    f . 19;     E.C.    Herdman 1924b: 75,                     82,     f . 1; Lebour

1925:    13,    Tab.       I , f . l a - I d ; C a r t e r 1937:       57,       Tab.        6,    f . 32-34; B i e c h -

e l e r 1952:     20;      Chatton i n Grass e' 1952:               323,        278,        f . 225     A, B;           Conrad

and   K u f f e r a t h 1954:        71; Dragesco 1965:             93,     f . 5, 6,             7, 8; Pouchet

1885:    50, T2,          f . 6-8;      non   Schlltt 1895:         T.I, f .           1.

Syn. :     E x u v i a e l l a lima      (Ehrenberg) B U t s c h l i 1885,                   T. 51,          f . 2, p.         5;

Schlltt 1896,         I.e.,       7, f . 9; P a u l s e n 1908,           Nord. Tab.               5, K l e b s          1912,

I.e.,    373,       374;     C a l k i n s 1901:     428,    f . 18;      E.C.      Herdman 1922:                       21;

M a r t i n 1928:     11, Tab.          1, f . 1-2,        Tab.    3, f .        7-9.

E x u v i a e l l a marina v a r l i m a S c h i l l e r 1933:             21,    f . 16 a,             b.

Exuviaella laevis                ( S t e i n ) Schrtfder 1900:            15.

Amphidinium operculatum Pouchet 1883:                              427,     Tab.        18r-19, f .               7-7b.

Cryptomonas l i m a Ehrenberg 1859:                        793,    f . 73,       Tab.        I , f . 25,           in Schiller

1933.

Dinopyxis       l a e v i s S t e i n 1883,         Tab.    I , f . 27-30? or f . 31-33?

Prorocentrum l i m a Kent i n C a l k i n s 1901:                      428.

P y x i d i c u l a Ehrenberg i n C a l k i n s 1901:               428.

        Description: - A large, photosynthetic                                  s p e c i e s which i s o v a l

i n v e n t r a l view.          The    c e l l i s strongly flattened dorso-ventrally                                        and

the a n t e r i o r ends of b o t h v a l v e s are i n d e n t e d .                   The       two    flagella             ori-

g i n a t e from t h i s a p i c a l dep r e s s i o n .          There a r e no             spines.              The     walls

of the v a l v e s        are r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k and     enclose         two       large yellow-green

chloroplasts.              Numerous s t a r c h g r a n u l e s      and        o i l (?) d r o p l e t s are                 scat-

t e r e d throughout the cytoplasm; these may                             be so densely                 packed t h a t
they mask the appearance of o t h e r c e l l u l a r i n c l u s i o n s .              The    nucleus

i s s i t u a t e d i n the p o s t e r i o r of the c e l l .      A l a r g e p u s u l e can o f t e n

be seen c o n n e c t i n g w i t h the a p i c a l d e p r e s s i o n .   Length 36 -          50y,

transdiameter         28 - 32u,       d o r s o - v e n t r a l diameter    approximately         17 -       20y

       L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay;       Brady's Beach; Pachena Beach

W i l s o n Creek, S e c h e l t ; Willows       Beach, V i c t o r i a .

       World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - c o a s t s of Europe and           the U n i t e d S t a t e s .
Glenodinium marinum Massart                     1920:     133,    f . 23.

                                            (PI. 5, f . 4)

Vix:       Glenodinium danicum P a u l s e n 1908:                  23 N o r d i s c h e s P l a n k t o n ; Mar-

t i n 1928:       21, Tab.      2, f . 11, Tab.           3, f . 27-30; Lebour              1925:      86,     Tab.

12, f . 6; Wailes 1928:                3, Tab. 1, f . 25, 26,                32; W a i l e s 1939:           25,

f . 72     a-c.

         Glenodinium         cinctum Ehrenberg              sensu C a l k i n s 1902:         430,     f . 22.

         Gymnodinium a g i l e K o f o i d et Swezy 1921:                    184,    f . Y, 9, Tab.            3, f .

         Gymnodinium hamulus K o f o i d e t Swezy 1921:                        218,     f . Y, 5, Tab.             9,

f.   97.

         Gymnodinium oppressum Conrad                     1926:     82, Tab.        1, f . 17, 18,            19.

         Gymnodinium v a r i a b i l e E.C.           Herdman 1924b: 80, f . 35-45;                      Dragesco

1965:      112,    f . 17.

         D e s c r i p t i o n : - A s m a l l to medium p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s which i s

s u b c i r c u l a r i n v e n t r a l view.      The    t h e c a i s t h i c k h y a l i n e and may            be

s l i g h t l y compressed d o r s o - v e n t r a l l y ; i t i s not d i v i d e d i n t o           plates.

The epicone i s s l i g h t l y            l a r g e r than the hypocone and may                 possess a

small a p i c a l notch.           The g i r d l e i s wide, s h a l l o w and may               o r may       not

be d i s p l a c e d i n a l e f t - h a n d e d (descending) manner.                    The s u l c u s i s

wide and extends from the g i r d l e to the antapex.                                The cytoplasm i s

d e n s e l y packed w i t h s m a l l , d i s c o i d , y e l l o w - g r e e n c h l o r o p l a s t s .     A

d i s t i n c t r e d stigma      (eyespot) i s u s u a l l y v i s i b l e near the j u n c t i o n

of the two f u r r o w s .         No p y r e n o i d s or a c c u m u l a t i o n b o d i e s c o u l d be

seen but may          be p r e s e n t .     The n u c l e u s i s p r o b a b l y s i t u a t e d i n the

epicone.          Length 18 - 30y,            t r a n s d i a m e t e r 18 - 28y, d o r s o - v e n t r a l

diameter a p p r o x i m a t e l y 17 -         28y.

         L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay;          Brady's       Beach; Pachena Beach.
      World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - N i e u p o r t ,   France.

      Comments: - T h i s was one o f the most abundant s p e c i e s found i n

Boundary Bay i n A p r i l , 1970.              I t reached a c e l l d e n s i t y o f 27,540

individuals/cm .     3
Gymnodinium a g i l e K o f o i d et Swezy 1921:                             184,     f . Y,     9,   Tab.       3,    f.     31.

                                               (PI. 7,      f.    5)

S c h i l l e r 1928:     139;     S c h i l l e r 1933:         328,        f . 331;       Wood 1963:           10,     f.    29.

Non   E.C.    Herdman 1924:              81,    f . 29;      Lebour 1925:                 40,    f . 11c;         E.C.

Herdman 1922:            29;     E.C.    Herdman 1923:              62,       f.     2.

        Description:             - A medium-sized, p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s which i s

dorso-ventrally             flattened.              The    cell     i s oval          to s u b c i r c u l a r    in     ventral

view and      possesses a d i s t i n c t a p i c a l p r o j e c t i o n                   (notch).         This        finger-

l i k e projection          curves d o r s a l l y         and    to the            left.       The   epicone          and

hypocone are            sub-equal.            The    g i r d l e i s median, r e l a t i v e l y wide                    and

has   no     displacement.              The    s u l c u s extends from the g i r d l e p o s t e r i o r l y

t o n o t c h the       antapex s l i g h t l y ; i t may               be    extended onto the                  epicone

a l t h o u g h t h i s was      difficult          to determine.                   The   cytoplasm i s c l e a r

and   c o n t a i n s a number of g r e e n i s h - y e l l o w d i s c o i d c h l o r o p l a s t s .                     The

nucleus i s s i t u a t e d        anteriorly.              Minute o i l (?) d r o p l e t s                are        scattered

throughout the             cell.        Length 20          - 28u,        t r a n s d i a m e t e r 14    - 26u,          dorso-

v e n t r a l diameter a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10          -      20u.

        Local     d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Sechelt; V i c t o r i a .

        World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - C a l i f o r n i a ; A u s t r a l i a .

        Comments: - T h i s s p e c i e s i s s i m i l a r to Gymnodinium hamulus

K o f o i d et Swezy (a form not                    found d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y ) i n the                 posses-

s i o n of the      apical projection;                    however i t d i f f e r s from G_. hamulus

in i t s larger          s i z e and     absence of s t r i a e .
Gymnodinium sp. 1 (sp.                       n.)

                               (PI.     3, f . 5, 6; P I . 10,                 f . 2)

Syn.:       Gymnodinium a g i l e K o f o i d et Swezy sensu E.C.                             Herdman 1922:           29;

1924a: 62,           f . 2; 1924b: 81, f . 29; sensu Lebour 1925:                                   f.   11c.

Vix     Gymnodinium sp. E.C.                   Herdman 1921:             61.

Non     Gymnodinium a g i l e K o f o i d e t Swezy 1921:                         184,     f . Y,    9, Tab.     3, f . :

     D e s c r i p t i o n : - An a v e r a g e - s i z e d , n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c   s p e c i e s which

has     undergone d o r s o - v e n t r a l f l a t t e n i n g .           The    cell      i s sub-circular i n

v e n t r a l view w i t h a d i s t i n c t a p i c a l p r o j e c t i o n ( s p i n e ) which                curves

to     the l e f t .      Minute pores             can o c c a s i o n a l l y be seen c o v e r i n g the s u r -

f a c e of the c e l l .              The    o r i g i n of g i r d l e and s u l c u s i s to the l e f t              of

the m i d - v e n t r a l l i n e .          The g i r d l e i s u s u a l l y e q u a t o r i a l , however i t

may     be s h i f t e d s l i g h t l y      towards the a n t e r i o r of the c e l l .                 The    girdle

is     incomplete,           f a d i n g on the r i g h t v e n t r a l s u r f a c e ( j u s t b e f o r e i t

s h o u l d r e j o i n the s u l c u s ) .          The    s u l c u s extends from the g i r d l e              post-

eriorly         to n o t c h    the antapex and i s a s y m m e t r i c a l l y               placed, being

n e a r e r the l e f t margin of the c e l l .                      I t s r i g h t margin o v e r l a p s       the

l o n g i t u d i n a l furrow         and    i s drawn i n t o a d i s t i n c t p o s t e r i o r p r o j e c t i o n

( s p i n e ) p o s s i b l y w i t h a f i n . The            cytoplasm          i s c o l o u r l e s s and may       be

extremely          g r a n u l a r and packed w i t h numerous minute o i l (?) d r o p l e t s .

One     or two       l a r g e p u s u l e s are o f t e n p r e s e n t i n the hypocone.                      The

nucleus         i s e l o n g a t e d and       u s u a l l y s i t u a t e d i n the e p i c o n e .      Length

30 - 35y,          transdiameter              30 - 35y,        d o r s o - v e n t r a l diameter        20 -    25y.

          L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay;               Brady's Beach; Pachena

Beach; S e c h e l t ; Willows                Bay,     Victoria.

          Comments: - T h i s has been c o n s i d e r e d a new                         s p e c i e s as i t d i f f e r s

from the o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of Gymnodinium a g i l e K o f o i d e t Swezy
1921 i n the following ways:     the girdle i s incomplete; the right

margin of the sulcus overlaps the longitudinal furrow and i s drawn

into a sharp posterior spine; there are no coral-red pusules and no

orange-green chromatophores; the nucleus i s usually situated i n the

epicone; the protoplasm (cytoplasm) i s always colourless and may be

hyaline or densely granular.

     There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that this species may possess a theca.

If so, then i t w i l l have to be placed into another genus determined

by i t s plate pattern.
Gymnodinium sp. 2

                                           (PI. 3,       f.   3)
        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A medium-sized, n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c form.                The

c e l l i s b r o a d l y f u s i f o r m w i t h both the apex and antapex b e i n g                      rounded.

There i s no d o r s o - v e n t r a l compression                of the c e l l .      The epicone i s

s u b - c o n i c a l i n shape, s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r than the hypocone and asym-

m e t r i c a l ; i t s r i g h t s i d e b e i n g the l a r g e s t     (longest).         The    amphiesma

on b o t h the epicone and hypocone i s covered w i t h l o n g i t u d i n a l                            striae

extending from the apex to the antapex.                                The g i r d l e i s r e l a t i v e l y

wide, s h a l l o w , and d i s p l a c e d i n a l e f t - h a n d e d (descending) manner.

On the hypocone the s u l c u s i s a sinuous furrow e x t e n d i n g from the

g i r d l e to the antapex;            on the e p i c o n e i t becomes i n d i s t i n c t            just

b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the apex.         The cytoplasm i s c l e a r and c o n t a i n s min-

ute o i l (?) d r o p l e t s .        The n u c l e u s i s s i t u a t e d m i d - v e n t r a l l y .    Length

a p p r o x i m a t e l y 32y,   t r a n s d i a m e t e r 20y,   d o r s o - v e n t r a l diameter       20y.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's         Beach.

        Comments: - T h i s s p e c i e s was              o n l y seen once d u r i n g t h i s        study.

Its    h a b i t a t i s p r o b a b l y more p l a n k t o n i c than i n t e r t i d a l .       I t i s sim-

ilar    t o Gymnodinium abbreviatum K o f o i d e t Swezy 1921                            but d i f f e r s i n

the course of i t s s u l c u s , and i n b e i n g c o l o u r l e s s and much s m a l l e r .
Gymnodinium sp. 3

                                         (PI.   1, f . 5)

Syn.:      ? Gymnodinium b i c i l i a t u m Ohno 1911:               77-91, Tab.          1, f .     1-37;

S c h i l l e r 1933:   336,    f . 341; K o f o i d and Swezy 1921:                190,     f . X*   14.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A s m a l l , p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s which i s compressed

dorso-ventrally.            The c e l l    i s e l l i p s o i d a l to s u b - o r a l i n v e n t r a l    view.

Both the e p i c o n e and hypocone a r e sub-equal.                       The g i r d l e i s wide and

originates slightly             to the l e f t     of the m i d - v e n t r a l l i n e .       It i s dis-

p l a c e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y one g i r d l e w i d t h i n a l e f t - h a n d e d (descending)

manner.       The s u l c u s i s a wide s h a l l o w furrow which descends                        to the

antapex.        I t extends onto the e p i c o n e f o r a s h o r t l e n g t h then fades

and becomes obscure.                 The cytoplasm appears y e l l o w i s h - g r e e n due                to

the presence of one             (?) or s e v e r a l     (?) c h l o r o p l a s t s .    The n u c l e u s i s

located approximately m i d - v e n t r a l l y .            Length 13 —           15p,    transdiameter

9 - l i p , d o r s o - v e n t r a l diameter 8 - 9y.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's   Beach; Pachena Beach; S e c h e l t .

                                                                _
        Comments: - T h i s s p e c i e s i s s i m i l a r to G . b i c i l i a t u m Ohno.

         _
However G . b i c i l i a t u m d i f f e r s i n t h a t i t p o s s e s s e s 3 f l a g e l l a     (prob-

ably a d i v i d i n g c e l l ) ,    i s found i n f r e s h water and i s s l i g h t l y             larger.
Gyrodinium l e b o u r a e E.C.           Herdman 1924b: 81,                f.    28.

                                          (PI. 2,      f.   8)

Lebour 1925:          53,    f . 14f;     S c h i l l e r 1933:    476,      f.        506.

        Description: - A small, photosynthetic                              s p e c i e s which i s s l i g h t l y

compressed d o r s o - v e n t r a l l y .       The   c e l l i s enclosed              i n a thick, hyaline

amphiesma.           The    g i r d l e i s s h a l l o w and    d i s p l a c e d about one       third       of

the t o t a l body l e n g t h       i n a left-handed            (descending) manner.                  The

s u l c u s extends p o s t e r i o r l y as a s t r a i g h t furrow which s l i g h t l y notches

the antapex; i t i s b a r e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e between the ends of                        the

girdle.        The    c y t o p l a s m i s d e n s e l y packed w i t h what appears to                  be

numerous, y e l l o w - g r e e n d i s c o i d c h l o r o p l a s t s .        The     nucleus i s l a r g e

and   situated midventrally.                   Length 15 - 22y,              t r a n s d i a m e t e r 13 -    18y,

dorso-ventral          diameter 10 -            12y.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's Beach; Willows Bay,                      Victoria.

        World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - P o r t E r i n , I s l e of            Man.

        Comments: - A r a r e , a c t i v e species' which was                           o n l y observed a

few   times d u r i n g      t h i s study.       I t d i f f e r s from E.C.             Herdman's o r i g i n a l

d e s c r i p t i o n i n that i t i s photosynthetic                and     p o s s e s s e s a t h i c k amphi-

esma.
                                                                                                                      51.




Hemidinium ochraceum (?) Levander                       i n S c h i l l e r 1937:      91, f . 77 a, b.

                                         (PI. 5, f . 6)

V i x Amphidinium operculatum Claparede e t Lachman sensu Massart                                         1920:

f.   13e and d; S c h i l l e r 1933,           f . 304 e, f .

        Description:          - A medium-sized, n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s         which

is strongly           flattened laterally.              The    cell    i s almost o v a l i n l a t e r a l

view and surrounded by a t h i c k h y a l i n e                amphiesma.            The epicone i s a

large, f i n g e r - l i k e projection          curving       d o r s a l l y and t i g h t l y    appressed

to the s u r f a c e     of the hypocone.             The g i r d l e i s incomplete and i s a

t h i n , s h a l l o w furrow which o r i g i n a t e s on the l e f t              l a t e r a l side of

the c e l l .     I t curves d o r s a l l y and hooks around                 the a n t e r i o r    margin

of the e p i c o n e ; becoming i n d i s t i n c t on the r i g h t l a t e r a l s i d e o f the

cell.       The s u l c u s   o r i g i n a t e s v e n t r a l l y on the l e f t    l a t e r a l side of

the hypocone.            I t curves d o r s a l l y , t o the l e f t         and u n i t e s w i t h the

girdle.         The    two furrows merge i n such a manner t h a t                       the two      are

inseparable.            The cytoplasm i s c l e a r and g r a n u l a r .              The n u c l e u s i s

located      i n the hypocone.             Length 20 - 23y, d o r s o - v e n t r a l          diameter

18 - 21u,        transdiameter approximately                   12u.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay;         Brady's      Beach; V i c t o r i a .

        World     d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Finland;      Sweden.

        Comments: - T h i s         description differs slightly                      from the o r i g i n a l

in   that    the g i r d l e - s u l c u s furrow i s s h i f t e d more towards the v e n t r a l

margin o f the c e l l         and i t d i d not seem t o extend as f a r p o s t e r i o r l y

on the r i g h t l a t e r a l s i d e .      It differs        from Amphidinium              oculeatum

Daday i n K o f o i d     and Swezy 1921:            132,     f . u-17    i n that       i t has     no

spines      (no s i z e range i s g i v e n ) .         There i s some doubt              as to whether

or not t h i s form i s a c t u a l l y H. ochraceum as no p l a t e p a t t e r n was                         observed.
Hemidinium sp. 1

                               (PI.   3, f. 7 a, b)

        Description and comments: - A medium-sized, photosynthetic

species which i s s l i g h t l y flattened dorso-ventrally and i s extremely

active.      The motile c e l l was    isolated and grown as a unialgal culture

i n the hope that s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l could be obtained.   The culture

was    l e f t unattended   for f i v e months without replenishing the medium.

After i t s rediscovery the f l a s k contained a healthy culture of motile

c e l l s along with numerous, thin, green filaments.              The filaments con-

sisted of densely packed rectangular c e l l s and were associated with

an encysted stage of the motile form.               The cysts appeared green and

possessed an incomplete g i r d l e and a d i s t i n c t a p i c a l depression.

This depression may be the point at which the c e l l s are attached to

each other while i n chains.           The s u l c a l d e t a i l of the cyst could not

be determined      exactly.     A bright red eyespot        (?) was present within

most cysts.       This seems to suggest that the l i f e cycle of this spec-

ies may     consist of both a f r e e - l i v i n g motile stage and a filamentous

benthic stage.        Further investigation must be carried out before a

more detailed description can be given.                Lengh approximately 10       -

12u,    transdiameter approximately 10 -            12u.

        Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Willows Bay, Victoria.
Katodinium           asymmetricum                (Massart) L o e b l i c h I I I           1965

                     (PI.      1,   f.      4;    PI.   9,     f.    3;    PI.    10,   f.     8)

Basionym: - Gymnodinium asymmetricum Massart                                           1900:      82;    1920:         133,

f.    22     A-D.

Syn.: M a s s a r t i a asymmetrica                     (Massart) S c h i l l e r 1933:              434,      f . 460        a-c;

Biecheler           1952: 27,          f.   15/1-2.

Non    M a s s a r t i a asymmetrica               (Massart) S c h i l l e r sensu H u l b e r t 1957:                        207,

Tab.               .
           1, f . 5 , 6,         7, 8; sensu C a r t e r 1937:                    59, Tab.        8, f . 17,           18.

           ? M a s s a r t i a asymmetrica               sensu Bursa 1968:                70,       f.    12/6.

           ? Massartia globosa                    (Massart) S c h i l l e r 1933:               437,      f.     463.

           ? Gymnodinium fungiforme Anissimova                                   o r i g . S c h i l l e r 1933:        359,

f.    365    a, b ; ' H a r r i s      1939: 8,          f.    1    I-N;    Biecheler          1952: 32,          f.    9/1-4.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A r e l a t i v e l y small, non-photosynthetic species

which i s o n l y s l i g h t l y d o r s o - v e n t r a l l y f l a t t e n e d .               The    epicone i s

approximately               twice the s i z e of the hypocone, w i t h i t s apex b l u n t l y

rounded.            There i s no a p i c a l p r o j e c t i o n             (notch).           The hypocone i s

a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2/3     the w i d t h of the epicone and i s asymmetrical; i t s

r i g h t s i d e b e i n g the l a r g e s t .               The g i r d l e i s r e l a t i v e l y wide and                has

no d i s p l a c e m e n t .      The       s u l c u s o r i g i n a t e s a t the g i r d l e to the                 left

of    the m i d - v e n t r a l l i n e and curves s l i g h t l y to the r i g h t ,                          ending

at    the antapex.               The     l o n g i t u d i n a l f l a g e l l u m i s almost            twice the

l e n g t h of the c e l l and a f t e r l e a v i n g the s u l c u s i s o f t e n curved

anteriorly.             The cytoplasm i s c o l o u r l e s s and may                          c o n t a i n accumulation

b o d i e s and o i l (?) d r o p l e t s .               The nucleus i s p r o b a b l y s i t u a t e d i n

the e p i c o n e .       Length         10 - 17u,            t r a n s d i a m e t e r 8 - 14y, d o r s o - v e n t r a l

diameter        7 -      12u..

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay,                      Brady's       Beach; Pachena
Beach; Sechelt; V i c t o r i a .
      World distribution: - Nieuport, France.

      Comments: - This species has three characteristics which dis-

tinguish i t from K. glandulum and Katodinium sp. 14.       These are:

1) no apical projection; 2) hypocone not as wide as the epicone and

3) sulcus originating to the l e f t of the mid-ventral l i n e .
Katodinium glandulum                 (Herdman) L o e b l i c h I I I 1965.

                                   (PI.     1, f . l a , b; P I . 9, f . 2)

Basionym: - Gymnodinium g l a n d u l a E.C.                      Herdman 1924b: 81, f . 30,                    31;

Lebour     1925:        41, f . 11 g.

Syn.: M a s s a r t i a g l a n d u l a (Herdman) S c h i l l e r 1933:                435,     f . 461      a-b.

       M a s s a r t i a asymmetrica           (Massart) S c h i l l e r sensu C a r t e r 1937:                    59,

Tab.    8, f . 17, 18; sensu H u l b e r t 1957:                    207, Tab. 1, f . 10, 14;                   sensu

Conrad     e t K u f f e r a t h 1954:       103, Tab.         9, f . 2 a, b.

       D e s c r i p t i o n : - A n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s o f medium s i z e .            The

c e l l i s r o u g h l y o v a l i n v e n t r a l view and f l a t t e n e d to about o n e - h a l f

i t s width dorso-ventrally.                    The e p i c o n e i s l a r g e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y twice

the s i z e o f the hypocone and p o s s e s s e s a d i s t i n c t                   apical       protuberance

(notch?).         T h i s f i n g e r - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n i s appressed t i g h t l y           to the      cell

s u r f a c e and curves towards the l e f t .                    The g i r d l e i s extremely wide,

d e e p l y impressed, and has no d i s p l a c e m e n t .                  The hypocone i s almost                  as

wide as the epicone and i s r o u n d l y a s y m m e t r i c a l ; i t s r i g h t                    side being

the s m a l l e s t .      The s u l c u s o r i g i n a t e s a t the g i r d l e , s l i g h t l y       to the

r i g h t o f the m i d - v e r i t r a l l i n e and extends o b l i q u e l y t o the l e f t ,                   ending

at   the antapex.           The l o n g i t u d i n a l f l a g e l l u m p r o j e c t s p o s t e r i o r l y .    from

the s u l c u s    and i s n e a r l y t w i c e the l e n g t h o f the body.                      The    cytoplasm

is   c o l o u r l e s s and c o n t a i n s numerous, p a l e g r e e n i s h o i l (?) d r o p l e t s

throughout.             Accumulation b o d i e s a r e o f t e n p r e s e n t r a n g i n g i n c o l o u r

from r e d d i s h brown to s l i g h t l y p i n k i s h .             The n u c l e u s i s u s u a l l y     situated

in   the e p i c o n e .      Length 14 - 35y, w i d t h t r a n s d i a m e t e r 13 - 25p,                    dorso-

v e n t r a l diameter 9 -           22y.

       L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay;              Brady's       Beach; Pachena Beach;

Sechelt;       Victoria.
        World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - P o r t E r i n , I s l e of Man;         I s l e of Wight;

Woods Hole;            France.

        Comments: - E.C.                 Herdman notes t h a t on her s m a l l e r specimens             the

c u l c u s may    be extended a s h o r t d i s t a n c e onto the epicone.                   This    condi-

t i o n c o u l d not be d e t e c t e d       on any     of the B.C.      specimens.

        T h i s s p e c i e s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from K.      asymmetricum          (Massart)

L o e b l i c h 1965    and K a t o d i n i u m sp. 1 by        the w i d t h and    shape o f i t s hypo-

cone.

        The    c e l l may     possess an extremely d e l i c a t e             theca as shown i n P I .

9,   f . 2.

        The    taxonomy of t h i s s p e c i e s becomes confused                   when C a r t e r   1937

d e s c r i b e s t h i s s p e c i e s and    labels     i t as M a s s a r t i a asymmetrica i n s t e a d

of M a s s a r t i a g l a n d u l a .     I have s e p a r a t e d   the two   based on the p r e s e n c e

or absence of an p i c a l n o t c h ,              t h e i r s i z e range and     their sulcal       furrow.

In my     o p i n i o n these a r e enough c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s    on which to         separate

them d i s t i n c t l y .
Katodinium sp.              1

                    (PI.        1,    f.    2    a, b, c; P I .         9,    f.    1    a, b,     c)

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - T h i s f o r m was              the largest non-photosynthetic

species of Katodinium found.                               The     cell      is slightly           flattened        dorso-

ventrally         and h a s          an e x t r e m e l y t h i c k , h y a l i n e amphiesma on                 which

numerous m i n u t e            d e p r e s s i o n s c a n s o m e t i m e s be d i s t i n g u i s h e d .         The

e p i c o n e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i c e t h e s i z e o f t h e hypocone and                         possesses

a distinct          a p i c a l protuberance.                    T h i s f i n g e r - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n .curves

to    the l e f t     of the c e l l .              The h y p o c o n e i s a s w i d e a s t h e e p i c o n e                and

tapers elongately p o s t e r i o r l y                    i n t o a sharp a n t a p i c a l p o i n t           (triangular

shape).         The     g i r d l e i s r e l a t i v e l y w i d e and             i n c o m p l e t e , e n d i n g on       the

right ventral side.                        The    sulcus i s straight                   and   shifted         slightly         to

the r i g h t of the m i d - v e n t r a l l i n e .                  I t s l e f t margin          i s raised        into

a prominent           ridge which                i s c o n t i n u o u s b e t w e e n t h e e p i c o n e and        hypo-

cone.       The     longitudinal                 f l a g e l l u m i s almost           twice the l e n g t h of           the

cell.       The     c y t o p l a s m i s c o l o u r l e s s and may               c o n t a i n accumulation bod-

ies    which      range         i n c o l o u r from o r a n g i s h brown t o p i n k .                      Numerous

oil     (?) d r o p l e t s are s c a t t e r e d throughout                       the c e l l .        The    nucleus

lies     i n the epicone.                   L e n g t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 26      - 30u,        transdiameter

a p p r o x i m a t e l y 14     - 18y,          d o r s o - v e n t r a l d i a m e t e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12    -        16p.

         Local distribution:                      - Brady's          Beach; Pachena Beach.

         Comments: - T h i s s p e c i e s d i f f e r s                  f r o m K.      asymmetricum i n t h a t i t

is    l a r g e r and      i t possesses              an a p i c a l n o t c h      (projection).               I t can        be

distinguished              f r o m K.       glandulum          i n t h a t i t i s g e n e r a l l y l o n g e r and i t

possesses         a l o n g , t a p e r e d hypocone i n s t e a d of a b l u n t l y                         rounded      one.
O x y r r h i s marina D u j a r d i n 1841:          347,    Tab.      5, f . 4.

                                            (PI.     5, f . 3)

C a l k i n s 1901:        425,    f . 15; Massart          1920:    132,     f . 21; K o f o i d e t Swezy

1921:       117,    f . R3;       Lebour 1925:        19, Tab.       I , f . 6a-6e; Wailes               1939:       7,

14;    S c h i l l e r 1933:       264,    f . 255    a-g; B i e c h e l e r 1952:       22,       93,   f.    53,

54;    Chatton        i n Grass£ 1952:             107,    f . 49, 50,      233 G, H;         Conrad e t Kuf-

f e r a t h 1954:      72; H u l b e r t 1957:        197;     Bursa     1968:     f . 12/13.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A s m a l l to medium, n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c         species.

Its    body i s e l o n g a t e d , f l a t t e n e d , r o u g h l y e l l i p s o i d a l , w i t h    the

p o s t e r i o r r e g i o n b e i n g asymmetrical.             The    epicone      i s broadly         conical.

It    i s approximately             twice the s i z e of the hypocone.                       The    hypocone

i s d i s p l a c e d to the r i g h t , b e i n g d e f i c i e n t on the l e f t .               Its anta-

pex    i s b l u n t l y rounded.           The     g i r d l e i s i m p e r f e c t as i t fades out           on

the r i g h t d o r s a l s i d e .        The     s u l c u s i s underdeveloped and               represented

o n l y by a broad,           p o s t e r i o r e x c a v a t i o n , which i s d i v i d e d m i d - v e n t r a l l y

by a t e n t a c l e - l i k e l o b e .     The     two    f l a g e l l a are s e p a r a t e d by     this

s t o u t l o b e ; the l o n g i t u d i n a l f l a g e l l u m o r i g i n a t i n g on    the r i g h t s i d e

of    i t and      the t r a n s v e r s e one      on the l e f t .      The    cytoplasm          i s colourless

w i t h the n u c l e u s     l y i n g i n approximately            the c e n t e r of the          epicone.

An o r a n g i s h brown accumulation                 body i s o f t e n p r e s e n t i n the p o s t e r i o r

of    the    cell.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Pachena Beach; V i c t o r i a .

        World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - A t l a n t i c , e a s t and west c o a s t s .

        Comments: - Only              the major r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s s p e c i e s have

been g i v e n .       For a more complete l i s t                see K o f o i d and        Swezy 1921         or

Schiller           1933.
P o l y k r i k o s l e b o u r a e E.C. H e r d m a n 1 9 2 4 : 6 0 , f . 6.

                           (PI. 1, f . 1 1 ; P I . 8, f . 1 a , b )

L e b o u r 1 9 2 5 : 6 8 , T a b . X, f . 3; S c h i l l e r 1 9 3 3 1 ( 3 ) : 5 4 9 , f . 5 7 9 / a - b ;

Grasse" 1 9 5 2 : f . 243/A; B a l e c h 1 9 5 6 : 3 5 , f . 2 3 - 2 5 ; H u l b e r t 1 9 5 7 : 2 1 6 ;

D r a g e s c o 1 9 6 5 : 1 0 5 , f . 14/A-K, 15/A-B.

Non B u r s a 1 9 6 8 , f . 12/12, 13/9.

Mididentifications:                P o l y k r i k o s s p . ? , E.C. H e r d m a n 1 9 2 1 : 4, f . A.

                                   Polykrikos          S c h w a r t z i , s e n s u E.C. Herdman 1 9 2 2 : 3 0 .

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - Both p h o t o s y n t h e t i c and n o n p h o t o s y n t h e t i c     strains

of    this    species exist.              The c o l o n y      i s b r o a d l y o v a t e and c o n s i s t s o f

8 zooids flattened l a t e r a l l y .               The b o d y i s o v a l i n l a t e r a l v i e w .         The

girdles       are s l i g h t l y displaced, the displacement being left-handed

(descending).            The s u l c u s , w h i c h     i s continuous            throughout            the length

of    t h e body, s l i g h t l y notches           the antapex.             The 8 l o n g i t u d i n a l    flag-

e l l a a r e l o n g and c o n s p i c u o u s .      Two n u c l e i a r e p r e s e n t .         I n t h e non-

photosynthetic strain                  t h e c y t o p l a s m i s c o l o u r l e s s b u t commonly c o n t a i n s

large accumulation bodies.                      The p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s t r a i n    c o n t a i n s numer-

ous    s m a l l , y e l l o w i s h green     chloroplasts.              T h e r e a r e no      nematocysts.

Length       52 - 6 0 y , w i d t h 40 - 5 0 y .

        Local distribution:                - Pachena Beach; Wilson Creek,                          Sechelt;

Willows Bay, V i c t o r i a .

        World     distribution:            - Port Erin,            I s l e o f Man; R o s c o f f , F r a n c e ;

Woods H o l e ,      Massachusetts.

        Comments: - B a l e c h 1956 i n c o r r e c t l y              lists      this     a s a "comb. n . " .

B u r s a 1968 i n c o r r e c t l y    lists     this      as b e i n g d o r s o - v e n t r a l l y    compressed

a n d h i s f i g u r e i s p r o b a b l y n o t P_. l e b o u r a e .
S i n o p h y s i s e b r l o l a (E.C.     Herdman) B a l e c h 1956:                 32,    f.      9-22.

                               (PI. 6,        f . 2; P I .     9,    f.    4)

Syn.:      Phalacroma e b r i o l a E.C.            Herdman 1924:               79,     f.     24.

         Phalacroma e b r i o l u m Lebour 1925:                    77,    f . 20       c.

         D i n o p h y s i s e b r i o l a E.C.    Herdman 1924:                82.

         Thecadinium e b r i o l u m K o f o i d          et Skogsberg 1928:                    32.

         Thecadinium e b r i o l u m S c h i l l e r 1933:                51,    f.     50.

         Description:          - This        i s a medium s i z e d , n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c spec-

i e s which i s extremely f l a t t e n e d l a t e r a l l y .                  The     epitheca         is       small

and     slanted      d o r s a l l y ; i t s a n t e r i o r - d o r s a l edge may           be drawn i n t o a

sharp p r o j e c t i o n .        The    hypotheca i s r o u g h l y s a c - l i k e w i t h i t s a n t e r i o r -

v e n t r a l margins o f t e n p r o j e c t i n g h i g h e r than the e p i t h e c a ;                    i t s anterior

d o r s a l edge i s o f t e n drawn i n t o a sharp, s p i k e - l i k e p r o j e c t i o n                        also.

The     g i r d l e i s wide and          deeply impressed.                The        sulcus       extends approx-

imately       3/4    of the d i s t a n c e       to the antapex.                I t s l e f t margin i s drawn

into a definite l i s t              or f i n .     The     c y t o p l a s m i s c l e a r and          colourless.

Two     l a r g e p u s u l e s o f t e n l i e i n the a n t e r i o r r e g i o n           of the      hypotheca.

The     n u c l e u s i s l o c a t e d near the antapex.                  Length 32           - 41y,         dorso-

v e n t r a l diameter 25.5              - 34u,    t r a n s d i a m e t e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12      -    15y.

         L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay;              Brady's Beach; Pachena

Beach; S e c h e l t ; V i c t o r i a .

         World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - P o r t      E r i n , I s l e of Man;             Roscoff, France.

         Comments: - For             the     detailed plate pattern                     f o r t h i s species          see

B a l e c h 1956:     32,     f.     9-22.
Thecadinium         h i r s u t u m B a l e c h 1956:    40, f . 38-40.

                    (PI. 4, f . 2; P I . 6, f . 5; P I . 9, f . 5)

V i x Amphidinium sp. S i l v a 1952:                29, Tab.        2, f . 6,      6a.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A l a r g e , n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s which i s

flattened dorso-ventrally.                     The   c e l l i s r o u g h l y square to r e c t a n g u l a r

i n v e n t r a l view.      Minute d e p r e s s i o n s can be seen c o v e r i n g the t h e c a l

p l a t e s of t h i s s p e c i e s .    The e i p t h e c a i s s m a l l i n h e i g h t , but i s as

wide as the hypotheca.                   I t s apex can be almost f l a t or                slightly

rounded;        an a p i c a l s p i n e may    occur.        The hypotheca          i s almost       square;

i t s o u t l i n e c o n s i s t s o f both smooth and rough s e c t i o n s .                The    girdle

i s s l i g h t l y d i s p l a c e d i n a r i g h t - h a n d e d (ascending) manner.               The

s u l c u s i s wide, c o n f i n e d t o the hypotheca                and extends        from the         gir-

d l e t o the antapex.             A large, d i s t i n c t       f i n a r i s e s from the l o n g i t u -

d i n a l furrow and p r o j e c t s towards the r i g h t s u l c a l margin.                       The      cy-

toplasm i s c o l o u r l e s s .        The n u c l e u s i s p r o b a b l y l o c a t e d i n the hypo-

theca.       Length 48 - 51u,             t r a n s d i a m e t e r 43u,   d o r s o - v e n t r a l diameter

18 -     20y.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Brady's      Beach; Pachena Beach; W i l s o n

Creek S e c h e l t ; Willows Bay,             Victoria.

        World      d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Roscoff, France.

        Comments: - For the p l a t e p a t t e r n of t h i s s p e c i e s see B a l e c h

1956:     40, f . 38-40.           T h i s i s one of the few s p e c i e s i n which                 right-

handed      (ascending) displacement o f the g i r d l e o c c u r s .                      It differs

from Thecadinium            sp. 1 i n t h a t i t (T. hirsutum)                  i s l a r g e r , and does

not have i t s s u l c a l f i n drawn i n t o a d i s t i n c e a n t a p i c a l            projection.

A l t h o u g h the p l a t e p a t t e r n s have not been f u l l y determined                   f o r the

two, both w i l l no doubt               f i t i n t o t h i s genus.
Thecadinium i n c l l n a t u m B a l e c h 1956: 40, f . 34-37.

                       (PI. 3, f . 9; P I . 5, f . 1 a-c; P I . 7, f . 2 a-b)

Von    Bernuth 1967: 58 pp.

V i x T. k o f o i d i sensu S c h i l l e r 1933: 51, f . 51 f and g.

V i x Phalacroma K o f o i d i E.C. Herdman i n Lebour 1925: 77, Tab. X I , f . I f

and l g .

        Description: - A large, photosynthetic                            s p e c i e s which i s u s u a l l y

o v a l i n v e n t r a l view.        The c e l l    i s sometimes s l i g h t l y compressed                lat-

e r a l l y w i t h i t s apex and antapex rounded.                     The t h e c a   consists of thick,

armoured p l a t e s h e a v i l y ornamented w i t h p o r e s .                I t s p l a t e p a t t e r n i s 2',

3'',    5''', 1^, 1''''.               The epicone i s s t r o n g l y a s y m m e t r i c a l , b e i n g       long-

est    on the r i g h t and e x t e n d i n g over much o f the v e n t r a l s u r f a c e .                  The

g i r d l e i s deeply impressed.                I t r i s e s s h a r p l y on the l e f t        and s p i r a l s

down t o converge w i t h the s u l c u s               on the r i g h t .       The s u l c u s    i s deep,

short, confined             t o the hypocone and sometimes s l i g h t l y t o the r i g h t o f

the m i d - v e n t r a l   line.      The edges o f the 5th p o s t c i n g u l a r and the f i r s t

p o s t e r i o r i n t e r c a l a r y p l a t e s form f i n s which b o r d e r b o t h s i d e s o f the

sulcus.        There a r e u s u a l l y two i r r e g u l a r , s t e l l a t e c l u s t e r s o f s m a l l ,

b e a d l i k e , yellow-brown c h l o r o p l a s t s , one a n t e r i o r and one p o s t e r i o r t o

the n u c l e u s .     The n u c l e u s i s l a r g e , e l l i p t i c a l   and e a s i l y v i s i b l e as a

c l e a r i s h area a p p r o x i m a t e l y i n the c e n t e r     o f the c e l l .     Starch       and l i p i d

g r a n u l e s a r e s c a t t e r e d throughout the c e l l           (Von Bernuth 1967).                Length

30-65y (51y u s u a l l y ) , t r a n s d i a m e t e r 30-40y, d o r s o - v e n t r a l          diameter 30-

40y    (usually).

        Local distribution: - Victoria.

        World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - B l a i n e , Washington; R o s c o f f ,          France.
Thecadinium petasatum K o f o i d e t Skogsberg 1928: 32.

                                      (PI.     5, f . 7 a-c)

Syn.: Amphdinium k o f o i d i v a r petasatum E.C. Herdman 1922: 26, f . 3.

        Phalacroma k o f o i d i E.C. Herdman 1924a: 60; 1924b: 79, f . 23;

Lebour 1925: 77, Tab. 11, f . 1 a-g ( v i x f.- 1 f and g ) .

        Thecadinium K o f o i d i K o f o i d e t Skogsberg sensu S c h i l l e r 1933:

51, f . 51 a-g ( f i g s ,                                  _
                                   f and g l o o k l i k e T . i n c l i n a t u m       [ K o f o i d and

Skogsberg d i d n ' t make t h i s comb.]; Wood 1963: 3, f . 4; Dragesco 1965:

103,    f . 13 a-g; Grasse* 1952: 324, f . 226 b-d; Lackey and Lackey 1963.

        Amphidinium         sulcatum K o f o i d e t Swezy sensu E.C. Herdman 1921:

61, f . c ^ , C.2.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A medium s i z e d n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s .   The

c e l l i s s t r o n g l y compressed         l a t e r a l l y and i s n a r r o w l y e l l i p s o i d a l i n

v e n t r a l view.      The o u t l i n e o f t h e body may be e i t h e r smooth o r i r r e g -

ular.      The e p i t h e c a i s s m a l l and f l a t ;       the hypotheca i s s a c - l i k e .

The hypotheca has numerous, l o n g i t u d i n a l rows o f minute pores which

g i v e i t a s t r i a t e d appearance          ( t h e s e a r e n o t p r e s e n t i n the zone im-

m e d i a t e l y t o the l e f t o f t h e s u l c u s ) .      Near the bottom q u a r t e r o f t h e

hypotheca these rows o f pores d i s p e r s e t o form an a p p a r e n t l y random

network o f a r t i c u l a t i n g p l a t e s .      The g i r d l e i s wide, deep and under-

cuts the hypotheca e s p e c i a l l y on the d o r s a l s i d e .                  The s u l c u s i s

wide and descends             s l i g h t l y o b l i q u e l y from the g i r d l e t o the antapex.

A d i s t i n c t horizontal indentation                 ( s t e p - l i k e ) can be seen w i t h i n the

s u l c u s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1/3 o f the way from the antapex.                     The r i g h t an-

t e r i o r margin o f the s u l c u s i s drawn i n t o a s m a l l f i n .                  The c y t o p l a s m

i s g r a n u l a r , c o l o u r l e s s and may c o n t a i n a c c u m u l a t i o n b o d i e s o r amyloid

bodies.       The n u c l e u s i s p r o b a b l y s i t u a t e d near t h e c e n t e r o f the
hypotheca.      Length 29 - 35u, d o r s o - v e n t r a l diameter 20 - 25y, t r a n s -

diameter 15y.

      L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Brady's Beach; V i c t o r i a .

      World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - P o r t E r i n , I s l e of Man;   Roscoff, France;

San Diego     Bay.

      Comments: - Lebour 1925: 77 g i v e s a d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h " d i s t i n c t

yellow   chromatophores r a d i a t i n g     from the c e n t e r " .      No   photosynthetic

forms o f t h i s s p e c i e s were seen i n B.C.
Thecadinium swedmarki B a l e c h                1956: 42,        f.   41-42.
                            (PI.     4,    f.   4   a-f; PI.      10,     f.   1)

Syn.: ? A m p h i d i n i o p s i s k l e b s i i Woloszynska             1929:     174,   Tab. V I I , f .

1-17.

        D e s c r i p t i o n : - A l a r g e , n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c s p e c i e s which   has

undergone s l i g h t l a t e r a l compression.                  The c e l l i s r o u n d l y r e c t a n -

g u l a r i n v e n t r a l view.         I t s p l a t e p a t t e r n i s 3',     1 , 8'',      3(?)g,

5'*', 2''''.           The e p i t h e c a p o s s e s s e s a d i s t i n c t a p i c a l pore and i s

b l u n t l y rounded so as t o appear almost f l a t .                        The hypocone i s almost

r e c t a n g u l a r w i t h a smooth margin.              The g i r d l e appears to have                little

or no d i s p l a c e m e n t ; but i f d i s p l a c e d then i t i s i n a r i g h t - h a n d e d

(ascending) manner.                The s u l c u s i s wide, moderately c u r v e d , and

extends from the g i r d l e to the antapex.                           A large d i s t i n c t    f i n arises

from the l o n g i t u d i n a l furrow and p r o j e c t s towards                  the r i g h t     sulcal

margin.       The cytoplasm i s c l e a r and c o l o u r l e s s .                 The n u c l e u s i s

l o c a t e d p o s t e r i o r l y and d o r s a l l y i n the hypotheca.              Two    large pusules

o f t e n appear a l o n g the v e n t r a l margin of the c e l l .                    Numerous o i l (?)

d r o p l e t s are s c a t t e r e d throughout.            Length 32 - 48u,              dorso-ventral

diameter 28 - 36u,              t r a n s d i a m e t e r 25 -   30u.

        L o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary       Bay; Brady's Beach;               Victoria.

        World d i s t r i b u t i o n : - R o s c o f f , F r a n c e .

        Comments: - T h i s s p e c i e s bears a s t r o n g resemblance                        t o Amphi-

d i n i o p s i s k l e b s i i Woloszynska         1929:    174,      Tab. 7, f . 1-17          but      differs

i n t h a t the e x a c t p l a t e p a t t e r n s a r e not the same.                 However, the

b a s i c p l a t e p a t t e r n seems to be i d e n t i c a l , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t        further

study may       m e r i t a r e v i s i o n of t h i s      genus.
Thecadinium sp. 1

                              (PI.   4, f . 1 a-c)

      Description: - A medium-sized, non-photosynthetic species

which has not undergone any compression.                The c e l l i s sub-oval i n

ventral view with a d i s t i n c t antapical spine.          The epicone i s s l i g h t l y

narrower than the hypocone and i s asymmetrical; i t s l e f t side being

the longest.      The hypocone i s s a c - l i k e with a thick hyaline margin.

The g i r d l e i s r e l a t i v e l y wide and deeply impressed.    The sulcus

extends from the apex to the antapex.              On the hypocone i t i s a wide

furrow curving s l i g h t l y to the l e f t .   Its l e f t margin i s drawn into

a large hyaline f i n which terminates as a sharp antapical spine.

This spine curves s l i g h t l y to the r i g h t .     On the epicone, the sulcus

i s only a narrow groove.          The cytoplasm i s colourless and contains

various-sized, clear, spheroid bodies.                 The position of the nucleus

could not be determined.           Length 32 - 35y,       transdiameter 25 -       28y,

dorso-ventral diameter 25 -          28y.

      Local d i s t r i b u t i o n : - Boundary Bay; Pachena Beach; Sechelt;

Victoria.

      Comments: - Although the exact plate pattern of this species

was not completed, i t w i l l most l i k e l y f i t into the genus Thecadinium.

It i s very d i s t i n c t i v e i n that i t s s u l c a l margin i s drawn into a

d i s t i n c t antapical spine.
                                                                                                                        67.




B. E c o l o g i c a l   Results

        The    e c o l o g i c a l d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r the 5 beaches has been d i v i d e d

into 2 categories:                (1) P o p u l a t i o n r e s u l t s       (2) E n v i r o n m e n t a l parameter

results.

        1)     Population         Results

                 These a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t a b u l a r           o r g r a p h i c form and i n d i c a t e

major t r e n d s i n t h e community s t r u c t u r e .                   They c o n s i s t o f the f o l l o w -

i n g t a b l e s or f i g u r e s :

                 T a b l e s 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 r e p r e s e n t v a r i a t i o n i n t h e t o t a l

number o f s p e c i e s      and cells/cm /month/beach. 3




                 F i g s . 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27 - r e p r e s e n t v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e

t o t a l number of species/cm /month/beach.     3




                 F i g s . 28, 29, 30, 31 and 32 - r e p r e s e n t v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e

t o t a l number o f c e l l s / c m / m o n t h / beach.
                                           3




                 T a b l e 9 - r e p r e s e n t s an a s s o c i a t i o n a n a l y s i s between the

species       showing t o what degree they o c c u r r e d                       together.

         2)    E n v i r o n m e n t a l Parameter           Results

                 These r e s u l t s a r e a l s o expressed i n t a b u l a r                o r g r a p h i c form

i n d i c a t i o n major changes o c c u r r i n g            i n t h e parameters measured.                They

c o n s i s t of t h e f o l l o w i n g       f i g u r e s and t a b l e s :

                 T a b l e 1 and F i g s . 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 - r e p r e s e n t v a r i a t i o n

i n g r a i n size/beach/season                      (summer v e r s u s     winter).

                 T a b l e 2 and F i g s . 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 - r e p r e s e n t v a r i a -

t i o n i n temperature/month/beach.

                 T a b l e 3 and F i g s . 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22 - r e p r e s e n t v a r i a t i o n

i n s a l i n i t y o f i n t e r s t i t i a l water/month/beach.
                                 TABLE I

                               SIEVE ANALYSIS

Location         Time                        S i z e F r a c t i o n (y)
                         <63       63      125       250           500     1,000   2,000

                Summer   .30     4.10      5.44        .11        .01
                (July)
Boundary Bay
                Winter   .20      3.50     4.25      2.01         .01        -      -
                (Jan.)

                Summer   —         .44     9.02        .48        .03                „


                (July)
Brady's Beach
                Winter   .01       .35     7.92      1.64         .03        .02     -
                (Jan.)

                Summer   .01      2.28     5.20        .97        .47       1.04     _

                (July)
Pachena Beach
                Winter   .01       .02     6.61      1.14         .51       1.69     -
                (Jan.)

                Summer   .02       .09     1.04                 2.46                 _
                                                     5.99                    .36
                (July)
Sechelt
                Winter   -         .06      .90      4.40       4.20         .40    -
                (Jan.)

                Summer   —         .08     8.54      1.28         .06        _       _

                (July)
Victoria
                Winter   -         .02     3.91      4.65       1.05         .33     -
                (Jan.)
                                                  TABLE I I

                                                TEMPERATURE °C

Location                                                  Time (Months)
                 F       M        A       M         J        J      A      S       0     N      D      J

Boundary Bay    18 .0   21. 0   23. 0    25.0      32.0     30.0   30.0   15 .0    7.0   2.0    0,,0   7.0

Brady's Beach    9 .5    8.5    12. 0    14.0      17.0     15.0   13.0   11 .0   10.0   7.0    6..0   6. 0

Pachena Beach    8 .5   12. 0   10. 0    13.0      18.0     15.0   14.0    8 .0   12.0   5. 0   6,.0   5. 0

Sechelt          7 .5   10. 0   13. 0    22.0      20.0     28.0   24.0   18 .0    9.0   6. 0   2,,0   6. 0

Victoria        12 .0   11- 0   -14. 0   20.0      19.0    18.0    15.0   15 .0    7.0   5. 0   6.,0   7.0
                                                 TABLE I I I

                        MONTHLY SALINITY OF INTERSTITIAL WATER AT ALL BEACHES

Location                                                 Time (Months)
                 F         M      A       M       J         J      A        S       0      N      D      J

Boundary Bay    29.,3     31.2   33. 2   32. 8   28. 2     28. 9   30..8   29 .5   29.5   26.7   24.1   11. 8

Brady's Beach   27.,3     23.5   10. 1   27. 2   30. 3     29. 5   19..0   27 .5   22,1   19.6    9.2   10. 5

Pachena Beach   22.,3     23.0   25. 2   21. 3   24. 6     19. 6   27..7   19 .5   20.1   21.0   23.7   23. 0

Sechelt         24..9     25.9   26. 1   22. 7   19. 3     25. 0   17..0   20 .0   22.5   21.8   23.0   25. 2

Victoria        25.,0     28.9   26. 9   29. 8   30. 1     29. 8   25,.1   15 .4   28.4   30.6   25.9   28. 4
                                                                         TABLE IV

                                            MONTHLY VARIATION IN POPULATION AT BOUNDARY BAY (CELLS/CM )     3




                                               Feb.    Mar.     Apr.   May    June   July.   Aug.   Sept.       Oct.   Nov.   Dec.   Jan.

Adenoides eludens                                                P      60
Amphidinium b i p e s                           72        48
A. k l e b s i i                                72               340   100    200                                       60
A. latum                                                                40            40                        20
A. m a s s a r t i a                            72        48     P     720    240    160     160
A. semilunatum                                                   P      60            P                         10
A. t e s t u d o                               120             1,040                 240      P
A. s p . 4                                      96     1,344   1,020   160
A. s p . 6                                               432
E x u v i e l l a marina                        48            1,020    180     80     20
Glenodinium marinum                            360    18,000 27,540    240            P      40
Gymnodinium sp. 1                                                                            P                  40
Hemidinium ochraceum                                       8
Katodinium asymmetricum                                                 40     80     40
K. g l a n d u l a                                       182   1,010    40                   P                         140    12       4
S i n o p h y s i s ebroleum                                            20
Thecadinium petasatum                           24
T. swedmarki                                              96            60
T. s p . 1                                                96   3,400                  40                        20

T o t a l no. o f s p e c i e s / c m   3
                                                 8         9     10   .12       4      8       5        0        4       2     1       1
T o t a l no. o f c e l l s / c m 3
                                               864    20,072 35,373 1,720 -   600    542     203        0       90     200    12       4
                                                                           TABLE V

                                           MONTHLY VARIATION IN POPULATION AT BRADY'S BEACH (CELLS/CM )             3




                                              Feb.      Mar.   Apr.   May        June      July    Aug.    Sept.    Oct.      Nov.   Dec.   Jan

Amphidinium b i p e s                                             8                          16     P
A. corpulentum
A. k l e b s i i                                   55                       8                         48                  8
A. latum                                                                    4       48        48      64     112         32
A. m a s s a r t i a                                3                       8     252       528      240       8         64
A. s c i s s u m                                   24      6    288        88   1,464     4,028    2,920     344         88
A. semilunatum                                P                            16               P         16      56         24
A. sp. 3                                           48            16        88                 16      16     244         88
A. sp. 4                                      P                   4         4        14               16      24         16
Chilodinium cruciatum                               3
E x u v i e l l a marina                                                          218        48       16
Glenodinium marinum                                                                                  288
Gymnodinium sp. 1                                   7             8                   6
G. sp. 2                                                               P
G. sp. 3                                       P                                      2
Gyrodinium l e b o u r a e                                                            8
Hemidinium ochraceum                          P                        P                    384       48      16         12
Katodinium asymmetricum                                                                     192       32
K. g l a n d u l a                             153         3     20        24     112       288     176      264        168
K. sp. 1                                                                    8                16     P
Sinophysis e b r i o l a                       P
Thecadinium h i r s u t u m                                                           2
T. petasatum                                       31      3      4                  24      16     P         24         40
T. swedmarki                                                                                                                            4

T o t a l no. of s p e c i e s / c m   3
                                                13         3      7     11          11        12      15        9        10      3      4         1
T o t a l no. o f c e l l s / c m3
                                               331        12    348    250      2,150     5,581    3,867   1,092        540     12     48         2
                                                                 TABLE VI

                                   MONTHLY VARIATION     IN POPULATION AT PACHENA BEACH           (CELLS/CM )
                                                                                                           3




                                          Feb.   Mar.   Apr.   May       June    July   Aug.       Sept.   Oct.      Nov.   Dec.   Jan.

Amphidinium b i p e s                                     20     72      1,224           304
A. k l e b s i i                             2      8             8        192
A. latum                                     1      8            32        288                        64
A. m a s s a r t i a                                            184      5,828      4         8
A. s c i s s u m                            22      8                        8               32       64        22             8     52
A. semilunatum                                                      64     120      4        40       32         2
A. sp. 1                                                   2                30
A. sp. 3                                    56     24    120        72     624               16       80         2      8      8    136
A. sp. 4                                                            64     400               32      104
E x u v i e l l a marina                                             8      80
Glenodinium marinum                                                 48              4
Gymnodinium sp. 1                                                                            16
G. sp. 3                                                   4                10
Katodinium asymmetricum                                                    168
K. glandulum                                22     32    100    288        512      4         8      136        12            20     12
K. sp. 1                                            8                      232                8
O x y r r h i s marina                                                      16
Polykrikos lebourae                                             P           80           P
Sinophysis e b r i o l a                                                     8
Thecadinium h i r s u t u m                         8                                                 16                8
T. sp. 1                                                                                                                4

T o t a l no. o f s p e c i e s /cm   3
                                             5      7      5     11         17      4     10           7         4      4      3      3
T o t a l no. o f c e l l s / c m
                               3
                                           103     96    246    841      9,820     16    537         496        38     28     36    200
                                                                         TABLE V I I

                               MONTHLY VARIATION             IN POPULATION AT WILSON CREEK, SECHELT          (CELLS/CM )      3




                                            Feb.      Mar.     Apr.     May       June      July   Aug.    Sept.       Oct.       Nov.   Dec.      Jan.

Amphidinium asymmetricum                                                               16            120              1,392         16
A. b i p e s                                                                                                     20                  8
A. k l e b s i i                             P                                                                                      16                8
A. k e s s l i t z i                                                                                         P
A. latum                                                 5                    8                                                      8        40
A. m a s s a r t i a                         P                                     168        48      50         20
A. s c i s s u m                                                           8
A. semilunatum                                                     8     P           8                       P                                20
A. t e s t u d o                             P                   112     144       640        88   1,440   1,540            96
A. sp. 1                                         30                                                          P
A. sp. 2                                                                           P
A. sp. 3                                                                 P
A. sp. 4                                         15      5      P                                                           80            280        80
A. sp. 5
A. sp. 6                                     120        29                                            40         60                  8    P          15
E x u v i e l l a marina                                                                8             35
Gymnodinium a g i l e                                    5                   24        16                                                     20
G. sp. 1                                                                                                                    16
G. sp. 3                                                                 P
Katodinium asymmetricum                                                  P                            80     P
K. g l a n d u l a                                      14          8         8        32             40     P                                80
Polykrikos lebourae                                                                                                     P
Sinophysis e b r i o l a                                24          8         8                              P                            P
Thecadinium h i r s u t u m                                                             8                                                 P
T. sp. 1                                                10                                           160     P

T o t a l no. o f s p e c i e s / c m   3
                                               6         7         5      10         9         2       8      11          5          5      8         3
T o t a l no. o f c e l l s / c m 3
                                             168        92       137     204       897       136   1,965   1,647      1,585         56    443       103
                                                                     TABLE V I I I

                          MONTHLY VARIATION IN POPULATION AT WILLOWS BAY, VICTORIA                                      (CELLS/CM )        3




                                     Feb.       Mar.      Apr.      May           June       July       Aug.          Sept.      Oct.          Nov.       Dec.       Jan.


Amphidinium asymmetricum            1,632            19    120       548            20                   P              P
                                                               20                                                           60        16         12
A. b i p e s                            32           19

A. compressum                                         2        40        80                    10                                 P
A. k l e b s i i                      256            10        20          2
                                                                                                                                                                          2
A. latum
                                                                         30         60          2                           10
A. manannini
A. m a s s a r t i a                  128                                14          4         16                       P
A. p e l l u c i d u m                                          4                    2

                                                                         10         16          8        144                80        32          4          4
A. s c i s s u m                        64           24        80

A. semilunatum                          32           19        20        10          8                       16             20        32          4                   P
                                                                                                                        220
A. t e s t u d o                      256

A. s p . 4                                            5    140           56        136                       32                       32                              P
E x u v i e l l a marina                64                 P                         4

Gymnodinium a g i l e                            P                         8        92                       32         P
                                                           P                                                                           8                              P
G. s p . 1
Gyrodinium l e b o u r a e                  2
                                                                                                                                                             i.
Hemidinium ochraceum
H. s p . 1                                                 P
Katodinium asymmetricum                 32                 P              20             8               P
K. g l a n d u l a                               P         P         P             204                   P                  20    P
O x y r r h i s marina                                         40

P o l y k r i k o s lebourae                               P
                                                                                                                                  P                                   r
 Sinophysis e b r i o l a
Thecadinium h i r s u t u m                                P
                                                                                         5     20                           32             4
T. i n c l i n a t u m
                                                                                                                                      64
T. petasatum                                                                                                                                                              o
                                                           400                                               64                       32                                  2.
T. swedmarki                            96           33
                                                               20             6          1          8        16
 T. s p . 1

                                                                          12        13              6             9         10        11              3          2        6
T o t a l no. o f species/cm^           11           10        18
                                                                      821          560         64        307            445       223             20             8        8
T o t a l no. o f c e l l s / c m
                             3
                                    2,594        133       911
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              76.
                                                                    TABLE IX

                       THE GROUPING OF ORGANISMS AS DETERMINED BY JOINT OCCURRENCE
                                  ANALYSIS BY THE METHOD OF FAGER (1963)

                      ( J o i n t o c c u r r e n c e s o f 0.5 o r g r e a t e r i n d i c a t e c l o s e   affinity)




8    9    10    11     12        13        14        15        16        17        18         19        20      21        22   23    24    25      26    27   27     29    30   31     32   33    34    35     36    37    38     39    40     41

     -     •     •     -         •        .29        •          •         .        —          .       .35        •        _    .29    .    _             .     .    .29    .           _           .     .     _      .           .29   .29   .25
41   41   .35   .35   .41      .45        .52       .65       .35       .12       .41       .35       .65        •    .41       •    .65   .41     •    .12   .65   .12   .35   .41   .41    •    .65   .52    .41   .45   .35    .12   .12   .45
          -     -                                              -                             -                  -
78   78
     -    .50   .50
                      .78
                       -
                               .67
                               .25
                                          .55
                                          .29
                                                    .41
                                                     •          •
                                                                        .55
                                                                          •
                                                                                  .78
                                                                                   -
                                                                                                      .41             .78
                                                                                                                          -
                                                                                                                               .55   .41
                                                                                                                                     .35
                                                                                                                                           .78
                                                                                                                                           -
                                                                                                                                                  -     .55   .41
                                                                                                                                                              .35
                                                                                                                                                                    .55   -     .78
                                                                                                                                                                                -.
                                                                                                                                                                                      .78
                                                                                                                                                                                      -
                                                                                                                                                                                            .41   .41
                                                                                                                                                                                                  .35
                                                                                                                                                                                                        .55    .78
                                                                                                                                                                                                               -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     .67   -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           .50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .55
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .55
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              .67
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              .25
                                                                                              •         •        •              •                  •     •          .29   .50                •          .29          .25
     -     •     •     -       .25         •                    •       .29        -          •         •       .50       -    .29    •    -      .50   .29   .35   .29         -     -     .35    •     •     -     .25    •     .29   .29    •

     -           •     -       .25        .29       .35       .50       .29        -        .50       .35                 -     •    .35   -       •    .29    •     •     •    -     -      •     •    .29    -     .25    •      •     •    .25
78   78   -     —     .78      .67        .55       .41        -        .55       .78        -        .41       -     .78      .55   .41   .78    -     .55   .41   .55   -     .78   .78   .41   .41   .55    .78   .67   -      .55   .55   .67
     78   -     -     .78      .67        .55       .41        -        .55       .78        -        .41       -     .78      .55   .41   .78    -     .55   .41   .55   -     .78   .78   .41   .41   .55    .78   .67   -      .55   .55   .67
                -                                              -                             -                  -
5         -           .78
                       -
                               .67        .55       .41                 .55       .78
                                                                                   -
                                                                                                      .41             .78
                                                                                                                          -
                                                                                                                               .55   .41   .78
                                                                                                                                           -
                                                                                                                                                  -     .55   .41   .55   -     .78
                                                                                                                                                                                -
                                                                                                                                                                                      .78   .41   .41   .55    .78
                                                                                                                                                                                                               -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     .67   -      .55   .55   .67
1
1
     1
     1    1
                .50
                       -
                               .25
                               .25
                                          .29
                                          .29
                                                     •

                                                     •
                                                               •
                                                               •
                                                                          •

                                                                          •        -
                                                                                              •
                                                                                              •
                                                                                                        •
                                                                                                        •
                                                                                                                 •
                                                                                                                 •        -
                                                                                                                                •

                                                                                                                                •
                                                                                                                                     .35
                                                                                                                                     .35   -
                                                                                                                                                   •

                                                                                                                                                   •
                                                                                                                                                         •
                                                                                                                                                         •
                                                                                                                                                              .35
                                                                                                                                                              .35
                                                                                                                                                                    .29
                                                                                                                                                                    .29
                                                                                                                                                                          .50
                                                                                                                                                                          .50   -     -
                                                                                                                                                                                      -
                                                                                                                                                                                             •

                                                                                                                                                                                             •
                                                                                                                                                                                                  .35
                                                                                                                                                                                                  .35
                                                                                                                                                                                                        .29
                                                                                                                                                                                                        .29    -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     .25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     .25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           .50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           .50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              .25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              .25
                                                               -
5
4
     5
     4
          1
          1
                1
                1      4
                               .67        .55
                                          .32
                                                    .41
                                                    .45       .25
                                                                        .55
                                                                        .61
                                                                                  .78
                                                                                  .67
                                                                                             -
                                                                                            .25
                                                                                                      .41
                                                                                                      .10
                                                                                                                -
                                                                                                               .25
                                                                                                                      .78
                                                                                                                      .67
                                                                                                                               .55
                                                                                                                               .32
                                                                                                                                     .41
                                                                                                                                     .45
                                                                                                                                           .78
                                                                                                                                           .67
                                                                                                                                                  -
                                                                                                                                                  .25
                                                                                                                                                        .55
                                                                                                                                                        .61
                                                                                                                                                              .41
                                                                                                                                                              .45
                                                                                                                                                                    .55
                                                                                                                                                                    .32
                                                                                                                                                                          -
                                                                                                                                                                          .25
                                                                                                                                                                                .78
                                                                                                                                                                                .67
                                                                                                                                                                                      .78
                                                                                                                                                                                      .67
                                                                                                                                                                                            .41
                                                                                                                                                                                            .45
                                                                                                                                                                                                  .41
                                                                                                                                                                                                  .45
                                                                                                                                                                                                        .55
                                                                                                                                                                                                        .61
                                                                                                                                                                                                               .78
                                                                                                                                                                                                               .67
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     .67
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     .75   .25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .55
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .32
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .55
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .32
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              .67
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              .50
3    3    1     1      3         2                  .12       .29       .05       .55       .29       .52        •    .55      .05   .52   .55     •    .05   .12   .38   .29   .55   .55    •    .12   .38    .55   .32   .29    .38   .38   .61
2    2                 2         2         1                  .35       .52       .41       .35       .65        •    .41      .12   .65   .41     •    .52    •     •     •    .41   .41   .65   .65   .52    .41   .45           •     •    .45
1    1                 1         1         1         1                  .29        -        .50       .35        •        -     •    .35   -       •    .29    •     •     •    -     -      •     •    .29    -     .25           •     •    .25
3    3                 3         3         1         2         1                  .55       .29       .12       .29   .55      .38   .12   .55    .29   .72   .12   .05    •    .55   .55   .52   .12   .38    .55   .61          .05   .05   .32
5    5    1     1      5         4         3         2         1         3                   -        .41       -     .78      .55   .41   .78    -     .55   .41   .55   -     .78   .78   .41   .41   .55    .78   .67          .55   .55   .67
1    1                 1         1         1         1         1         1         1                  .35                       •    .35   -       •    .29    •     •     •    -     -      •     •    .29    -     .25           •     •    .25
2    2                 2         1         2         1         1         1         2          1                       .41      .12   .65   • 41    •    .12    •    .12    •    .41   .41    •     •    .12    .41   .10          .12   .12   .45
1    1                 1         1                                       1         1                                      -    .29    •    -      .50   .29   .35   .29    •    -     -     .35    •     •     -     .25          .29   .29    •

5    5    1     1      5         4         3         2         1         3         5         1          2       1              .55   .41   .78    -     .55   .41   .55   -     .78   .78   .41   .41   .55;   .78   .67   -      .55   .55   .67
3    3                 3         2         1         1                   2         3                    1       1      3              •    .55    .29   .38   .12   .38    •    .55   .55   .52   .12   .05    .55   .32          .38   .38   .32
2    2    1     1      2         2         2         1         1         1         2         1          1              2                   .41     •    .12   .65   .12   .35   .41   .41    •    .65   .52    .41   .45   .35    .12   .12   .45
5                                                                                                                                                 -                       -
1
     5
     1
          1     1      5
                       1
                                 4
                                 1.
                                           3         2         1         3
                                                                         1
                                                                                   5
                                                                                   1
                                                                                             1          2       1
                                                                                                                1
                                                                                                                       5
                                                                                                                       1
                                                                                                                               3
                                                                                                                               1
                                                                                                                                     2
                                                                                                                                           1
                                                                                                                                                        .55
                                                                                                                                                        .29
                                                                                                                                                              .41
                                                                                                                                                              .35
                                                                                                                                                                    .55
                                                                                                                                                                    .29    •
                                                                                                                                                                                .78
                                                                                                                                                                                -
                                                                                                                                                                                      .78
                                                                                                                                                                                      -
                                                                                                                                                                                            .41
                                                                                                                                                                                            .35
                                                                                                                                                                                                  .41
                                                                                                                                                                                                   •
                                                                                                                                                                                                        .55
                                                                                                                                                                                                         •
                                                                                                                                                                                                               .78
                                                                                                                                                                                                               -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     .67
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     .25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           -•
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .55
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .55
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              .67
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               •
3    3                 3         3         1         2         1         3         3         1          1       1     ' 3      2     1     3      1           .12   .05    •    .55   .55   .52   .12   .35    .55   .61    •     .05   .05   .32
2    2    1     1      2         2         1                           . 1         2                            1      2       1     1     2      1     1           .52   .35   .41   .41   .65   .65   .12    .41   .45   . 35   .52   .52   .10
3    3    1     1      3         2         2                             1         3                    1       1      3       2     1     3      1     1     2           .29   .55   .55   .12   .12   .05    .55   .32   .29    .72   .72   .32
1    1    1     1      1         1         1                                       1                                   1             1     1                  1     1           -      -     •    .35   .29    -     .25   .50    .29   .29   .25
5    5    1     1      5         4         3         2         1         3         5         1          2       1      5       3     2     •5      1    3     2     3     1           .78   .41   .41   .55    .78   .67   -      .55   .55   .67
5    5    1     1      5         4         3         2         1         3         5         1          2       1      5       3     2     5       1    3     2     3     1     5           .41   .41   .55    .78   .67   -      .55   .55   .67
2    2                 2         2                   1                   2         2                            1      2       2           2       1    2     1     1           2      2          .65   .12    .41   .45    •     .12   .12   .10
2    2    1     1      2         2         1         1                   1         2                                   2       1     1     2            1     1     1     1     2      2    1           .52    .41   .45   .35    .12   .12   .45
3    3    1     1      3         3         2         2         1         2         3         1          1              3       1     2     3            2     1     1     1     3      3    1     2            .55   .61   .29    .05   .05   .61
5    5    1     1      5         4         3         2         1         3         5         1          2       1      5       3     2     5      1     3     2     3     1     5      5    2     2      3           .67    -     .55   .55   .67
4    4    1     1      4         4         2         2         1         3         4         1          1       1      4       2     2     4      1     3     2     2     1     4     •4    2     2      3     4           .25    .32   .32   .50
1    1    1     1      1         1         1                                       1                                   1             1     1                  1     1     1     1      1          1      1     1     1            .29   .29   .25
3    3    1     1      3         2         2                             1         3                    1       1      3       2     1     3      1     1     2     3     1     3      3    1     1      1     3     2      1           .72   .32
3    3    1     1      3         2         2                             1         3                    1       1      3       2     1     3      1     1     2     3     1     3      3    1     1      1     3     2      1      3          .32
4    4    1     1      4         3         3         2         1         2         4         1          2              4       2     2     4            2     1     2     1     4      4    1     2      3     4     3      1      2     2

                                                          Joint      Occurrences
                 F/&.8.      GRAIN ANALYSIS


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                                              DISCUSSION

A. Taxonomic S e c t i o n

        During      t h i s study 41 s p e c i e s         (12 o f which c o u l d not be i d e n t i f i e d

and may warrant b e i n g d e s i g n a t e d as new s p e c i e s ) were found                          belonging

to 13 genera.            As t h e r e has been no p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t on t h e sand-

d w e l l i n g d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s o f t h i s a r e a , t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s an e x t e n s i o n

of range f o r t h e 29 s p e c i e s p r e v i o u s l y known.                 The main genera               found

( i n r e l a t i o n t o number o f s p e c i e s ) were Amphidinium                      (19 s p e c i e s ) ,

Thecadinium          (5 s p e c i e s ) , Gymnodinium (4 s p e c i e s ) , and Katodinium                         (3

species).          T h i s agrees      r e l a t i v e l y w e l l w i t h work done by o t h e r i n -

v e s t i g a t o r s such as E.C. Herdman (1920-1924) and Dregesco                                   (1956).

Both l i s t most o f t h e i r s p e c i e s as b e l o n g i n g t o e i t h e r the genus

Amphidinium o r Gymnodinium.                      Hulbert        (1957) found          t h a t Gyrodinium

was    t h e most common genus f o l l o w e d by Amphidinium and Gymnodinium;

but h i s study d i d not d e a l e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h s a n d - d w e l l i n g            forms.

Lackey (1961) , Lackey and Lackey                        (1963) , and Lackey and Clendenning

(1965) l i s t e d      i n t h i s s e r i e s of papers s e v e r a l genera o f d i n o f l a g e l -

l a t e s i n c l u d i n g Amphidinium, Gymnodiriium, Katodinium                           and Thecadinium

as b e i n g p r e s e n t i n sand and mud sediments.                        Bursa      (1968) r e p o r t e d

that h i s records            (as y e t unpublished)              c o n t a i n 96 i n t e r s t i t i a l   species

of which t h e genus Amphidinium i s most commonly r e p r e s e n t e d .                                   He

r e p o r t e d t h a t Gymnodinium and Thecadinium, t o g e t h e r w i t h s e v e r a l

o t h e r genera common t o B r i t i s h Columbia, were a l s o p r e s e n t .                             Since

approximately           t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e s p e c i e s found      i n British           Columbia

have a l r e a d y been r e p o r t e d from o t h e r areas                 (the c o a s t s o f England,

France and t h e U.S.A.) i t suggests                          that the majority of sand-dwelling

d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s may be c o s m o p o l i t a n    i n distribution           (at l e a s t i n the
                                                                                                                              90.




temperate n o r t h e r n        hemisphere).

        An    i n t e r e s t i n g problem a r i s e s wtm         c o n s i d e r i n g the r e c o g n i t i o n

and n u t r i t i o n of c e r t a i n s p e c i e s of these d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s .             Some

(e.g. P o l y k r i k o s l e b o u r a e ) seem to be a b l e to e x i s t as both c h l o r o -

p l a s t - c o n t a i n i n g or c o l o u r l e s s forms, as both s t a t e s have been                      ob-

served.        This feature i s either i n t r i n s i c                   ( d i s t i n c t s t r a i n s or   spe-

c i e s ) or i s perhaps due              to a symbiont, i n g e s t e d food m a t e r i a l or

chlorosis.             I have assumed t h a t such s t a t e s r e p r e s e n t                conditions

w i t h i n the same s p e c i e s .

        Another f e a t u r e of these organisms i s t h a t most can be                                  placed

i n t o one    of two       c a t e g o r i e s of shape m o d i f i c a t i o n :        (1) d o r s o - v e n t r a l l y

f l a t t e n e d or    (2) l a t e r a l l y f l a t t e n e d .   Bursa (1968) has               suggested

t h a t t h i s might be an a d a p t a t i o n mechanism which a l l o w s                        the    cells

to move more e a s i l y through the i n t e r s t i t i a l                    spaces.        T h i s has      been

r e p o r t e d to be      the case w i t h        c i l i a t e s where t h e i r m o r p h o l o g i c a l      size,

shape and p l a s t i c i t y are f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g            their      distribution

throughout the i n t e r t i d a l           zone (Faure"-Fremiet                1951;      Fenchel          1967,

1969).

        A l s o , the m a j o r i t y of the s p e c i e s i n h a b i t i n g the B r i t i s h Colum-

b i a n beaches were u s u a l l y n o n - p h o t o s y n t h e t i c .           However, t h e r e appeared

to be a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n the number of p h o t o s y n t h e t i c                  forms d u r i n g

the summer months as compared w i t h those o f the                                  winter.

B. E c o l o g i c a l S e c t i o n

         (1) Seasonal t r e n d s           i n populations

        S i n c e o n l y one      sample o f sand           (25 cm )  3
                                                                              c o u l d be a n a l y s e d      per

month f o r each beach, the s t a s t i c a l v a l i d i t y of the r e s u l t s i s ques-

tionable.         Nevertheless            perhaps g e n e r a l trends             can s t i l l be drawn
keeping       i n mind t h a t t h e samples taken may n o t be e n t i r e l y                        represen-

t a t i v e o f t h e complete beach.

                   (i)   Species v a r i a t i o n p e r month

        G e n e r a l l y the number o f s p e c i e s p r e s e n t             seemed t o i n c r e a s e

from w i n t e r     t o s p r i n g and summer, w i t h a maximum number o f s p e c i e s

o c c u r r i n g between March and September.                         Three o f t h e beaches            (Vic-

t o r i a , Pachena and Boundary Bay) had a maximum number o f s p e c i e s

between A p r i l and June.                     The maximum number o f s p e c i e s found               i n any

one sample was 18 per cm .                  3




                   (ii) Total cell               v a r i a t i o n p e r month

         Total cell         p o p u l a t i o n s a l s o i n c r e a s e d from w i n t e r    t o summer,

r e a c h i n g t h e i r maximum c o n c e n t r a t i o n s between March and September.

S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have been found w i t h diatom p o p u l a t i o n s                  (Mare 1942,

Aleem 1950a, b ) .             The r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t an i n t e r t i d a l       pop-

u l a t i o n can i n c r e a s e r a p i d l y , forming           a bloom which i s p r e s e n t one

month and absent             t h e next.            These r a p i d changes i n d i n o f l a g e l l a t e

p o p u l a t i o n s were f i r s t       noted      by W.A. Herdman (1911-1913).                    He r e -

p o r t e d t h a t t h e d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s a l t e r n a t e d i n abundance w i t h the

diatom p o p u l a t i o n every            3-4 days f o r s e v e r a l s u c c e s s i v e weeks.

         C e l l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s on B r i t i s h Columbian beaches can r e a c h

35,373 i n d i v i d u a l s / c m     3
                                           (Boundary Bay i n A p r i l , 1970).                 Dragesco

(1965) r e p o r t e d d i n o f l a g e l l a t e p o p u l a t i o n s r e a c h i n g between 1,000

and    2,000 i n d i v i d u a l s / c m .  2
                                                    Fenchel      (1967) a l s o found          that large

d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s may e x i s t in"numbers between 1 0                  5
                                                                                        and 1.5 x 1 0     7
                                                                                                              indi-

viduals/m .    2
                         In V i c t o r i a a bloom o f Amphidinium asymmetricum                          Kofoid

et    Swezy o c c u r r e d d u r i n g e a r l y s p r i n g s u f f i c i e n t       to d i s c o l o u r the

sand a y e l l o w i s h - b r o w n .          The f i r s t   recording of d i s c o l o u r a t i o n o f
beach sand was         by Bergh (1882).               Blooms l i k e        t h i s may,     i n part,        be

due   to the presence o f humic substances                        which are c o n t a i n e d        i n water

seepage from the l a n d .            Prakash and R a s h i d           (1969) found          that      low

concentrations         of these substances               s t i m u l a t e the growth o f         dino-

flagellates.

       Another t r e n d observed            was    t h a t d u r i n g the months w i t h           increased

i n s o l a t i o n t h e r e seemed to be a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n the number of

p h o t o s y n t h e t i c forms, as compared to t h a t of the w i n t e r months,

                ( i i i ) A s s o c i a t i o n s between s p e c i e s

       Because of the s m a l l sample s i z e the s t a t i s t i c a l v a l i d i t y                  of

the a s s o c i a t i o n a n a l y s i s (Table 9) i s a l s o q u e s t i o n a b l e .       Neverthe-

l e s s the r e s u l t s seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t q u i t e a h i g h percentage of                        the

species present          a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one    another.          T h i s i s not      surpris-

i n g i f one    c o n s i d e r s the c o n d i t i o n s under which these organisms                        exist.

The   environment of the i n t e r t i d a l zone i s h a r s h                 and    undergoes such               ex-

tremes t h a t o n l y those s p e c i e s which can adapt to i t are a b l e to s u r -

vive i n i t .      Therefore        these i n t e r t i d a l , s a n d - d w e l l i n g   dinoflagellates

tend to have s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and because of t h i s , one would

expect      to f i n d a h i g h degree of a s s o c i a t i o n between them.                    Great

d i v e r s i t y cannot occur as i t does i n the ocean where a more s t a b l e ,

u n i f o r m environment       exists.

       As    taxonomy      (not s t a t i s t i c s ) was      the major o b j e c t i v e o f          this

t h e s i s , the s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s are meant to i n d i c a t e o n l y major

trends.       However, i n o r d e r to decrease                 e r r o r as much as p o s s i b l e o n l y

those s p e c i e s w i t h an a s s o c i a t i o n index of 0.70               ( i n s t e a d of 0.50       as

used by Fager 1963)             or g r e a t e r w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a s s o c i a t e d .      The

following species f a l l            i n t o t h i s category         and    from these two             groups
can be r e c o g n i z e d .        Group (1) c o n s i s t s o f :     A. b i p e s , A.     klebsii,

A. latum, A. m a s s a r t i i , A. semilunatum,                 A. sp. 4, E x u v i e l l a       marina,

Gymnodinium sp. 1, Katodinium asymmetricum, K. g l a n d u l a , S i n o p h y s i s

ebrolum.         Group (2) c o n s i s t s o f :        Hemidinium ochraceum,                Thecadinium

petasatum,        T_. swedmarki.

        These a s s o c i a t i o n s suggest        that d i f f e r e n t    types o f communities

may   e x i s t f o r v a r i o u s types o f beaches or f o r d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s           on

the same beach.              From the d a t a i n t h i s t h e s i s i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o

conclude t h a t the two groups a r e d e f i n i t e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f             differ-

ent beach h a b i t a t s .          However, through f u t u r e more d e t a i l e d           studies

i t may    be p o s s i b l e to c h a r a c t e r i z e beaches by t h e i r community               fea-

tures     (e.g. an Amphidinium b i p e s , Katodinium asymmetricum b e a c h ) .

        (2) P o p u l a t i o n s u r v i v a l

        The q u e s t i o n a r o s e as to how         the beaches became r e p o p u l a t e d

a f t e r the w i n t e r months i f s p e c i e s are absent.                  Two   c o l l e c t i o n s were

made d u r i n g the w i n t e r , on the same day and a t the same l o c a l i t y i n

an attempt         t o c l a r i f y t h i s problem.        One was      a standard i n t e r t i d a l

c o l l e c t i o n made w h i l e the i n t e r t i d a l zone was           completely f r o z e n      and

covered i n i c e .          The second was          a s u b t i d a l c o l l e c t i o n t o a depth of

17 meters u s i n g S.C.U.B.A. gear.                    A n a l y s i s showed t h a t the        intertidal

c o l l e c t i o n was   c o m p l e t e l y b a r r e n o f d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s whereas the   sub-

t i d a l c o l l e c t i o n was    r e l a t i v e l y d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d i n both number and

species.         T h i s suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y       t h a t r e p o p u l a t i o n o f the i n -

tertidal       zone may        occur from s u b t i d a l p o p u l a t i o n s which are p r o t e c t e d

from extreme e n v i r o n m e n t a l        conditions.

        Even i n the peak season i n t e r t i d a l d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s          survive

extreme and abrupt e n v i r o n m e n t a l changes.                 They must be a b l e to t o l e r a t e
wide ranges i n l i g h t , temperature, s a l i n i t y and d e s s i c a t i o n .                 Also

the    a b r a s i v e a c t i o n o f the sand g r a i n s and t h e p u l l o f t i d a l       currents

i s a c o n s t a n t t h r e a t to t h e i r s u r v i v a l .    Thus, i n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e ,

t h e s e organisms have e v o l v e d means by which they can a v o i d t h e ex-

tremes t h a t t h e i r environment p r e s e n t s .              One method by which some

s p e c i e s may a v o i d extremes i s by undergoing v e r t i c a l m i g r a t i o n (E.C.

Herdman 1922, 1923).                M u c i l a g e p r o d u c t i o n i s another mechanism by

which some d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s p r o t e c t themselves (Dragesco 1965).                    The

mucliage serves as a p r o t e c t i v e envelope a g a i n s t d e s s i c a t i o n             (Hop-

k i n s 1964) and a l s o s t a b i l i z e s t h e sand by cementing t h e g r a i n s t o -

gether        (Bursa 1968; F a u r e - F r e m i e t 1951).          Lebour     (1925) s t a t e d    that

s p e c i e s w i t h l a r g e s u l c a l f l a p s use them i n o r d e r t o s t i c k themselves

to    sand g r a i n s .    T h i s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a method by which t h e s e c e l l s

resist        t i d a l currents.      Bursa (1968) p o i n t e d out t h a t the f l a t t e n i n g

of    the c e l l s p r o b a b l y a l l o w s t h e organisms to move more f r e e l y through

the    interstitial         spaces.        This could a i d i n the c e l l s ' v e r t i c a l mi-

g r a t i o n when t r y i n g to a v o i d the t i d e .

         (3) E n v i r o n m e n t a l parameters

                   (i)     Exposure

         In    terms of exposure t o wave a c t i o n t h e beaches c o u l d be c l a s s -

ified     ( i n r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r ) as f o l l o w s :      Pachena Beach extremely

exposed, Brady's Beach moderately exposed, Willows Beach                                    (Victoria)

moderately s h e l t e r e d , W i l s o n Creek ( S e c h e l t ) moderately s h e l t e r e d ,

and Boundary Bay, extremely s h e l t e r e d .                    The beaches were s e l e c t e d

p a r t l y on t h e b a s i s of exposure w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f making               compar-

i s o n s between them.           Wave a c t i o n i s important i n c o n t r o l l i n g p o p u l a -

t i o n d e n s i t i e s on a beach.         S t e e l e and B a i r d   (1968) found t h a t on
exposed beaches, wave a c t i o n i s so l i m i t i n g i n t h e l i t t o r a l                 zone,

t h a t s e a s o n a l changes i n i n c i d e n t r a d i a t i o n had c o m p a r a t i v e l y     little

e f f e c t on the diatom p o p u l a t i o n s .           Under extreme c o n d i t i o n s wave a c -

t i o n has been r e p o r t e d to a l t e r the d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s of the

fauna by washing many out t o sea and t h e r e b y d e c r e a s i n g t h e i r num-

bers     (Ganapati and Rao             1962).        T h i s s i t u a t i o n may have o c c u r r e d i n

J u l y , 1970     on Pachena Beach when, a f t e r s e v e r a l days o f severe storms,

the    p o p u l a t i o n o f d i n o f l a g e l l a t e c e l l s was   o n l y 16   individuals/cm     3




whereas the p r e v i o u s month i t was                  9,820     individuals/cm .      3
                                                                                                The popu-

l a t i o n of Brady's Beach which i s w i t h i n a few m i l e s o f the Pachena

s i t e , but not as exposed, appeared t o be u n a f f e c t e d .                       The c e l l   pop-

u l a t i o n d a t a a l s o shows t h a t the Pachena Beach s i t e l o s e s i t s pop-

u l a t i o n s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r i n the F a l l than does Brady's Beach.                    This

c o u l d p o s s i b l y be due t o w i n t e r storms, which would a f f e c t t h e more

exposed s i t e e a r l i e r .         I f c o r r e c t , however, one would expect t h e

i n c r e a s e i n s p r i n g p o p u l a t i o n s to be s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r on the more

p r o t e c t e d beach (Brady's) than a t Pachena Bay.                           However, comparison

between t a b l e s 5 and 6 and f i g s .                29 and 30 i n d i c a t e s the o p p o s i t e .

But,    i f t h i s d a t a i s compared w i t h t h a t c o l l e c t e d f o r Boundary Bay

(Table 4, f i g .         28), which i s e x t r e m e l y s h e l t e r e d , then i t can be seen

t h a t the r i s e i n number o f c e l l s / c m           3
                                                                 does occur much e a r l i e r than

t h a t on e i t h e r Brady's Beach or Pachena Beach.                            Wave a c t i o n i s a l s o

most important i n d e t e r m i n i n g the p a r t i c l e s i z e on a beach                    (Steele,

Munro and G i e s e         1970).

                   ( i i ) Grain      size

        The 5 beaches have been d i v i d e d i n t o 3 c a t e g o r i e s based on g r a i n

s i z e d u r i n g the summer months.                 These a r e :         (1) Coarse beaches -
Only Sechelt corresponds                     to t h i s    category          s i n c e i t has      the     highest

p e r c e n t a g e of the 250u-sized p a r t i c l e s ;              (2)      F i n e beaches -           Only

B o u n d a r y Bay   fits      this      category        s i n c e the m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c l e s            fall

into    t h e 125y       s i z e but      i t also contains quite a large percentage                                       of

fine    s a n d and      silt      (63y    s i z e and     below);       (3)        Medium b e a c h e s -         The

remaining         t h r e e beaches        (Brady's,         P a c h e n a and       Victoria)        f i there            as

all    seem t o h a v e a n a v e r a g e g r a i n s i z e o f 125y                  with a smaller               per-

centage of f i n e sand than                  t h a t at Boundary.                  Strong     currents           and

tidal     f l o w may     be    important         i n determining              grain size.            I f so,         this

m i g h t e x p l a i n why     the moderately s h e l t e r e d beaches                      (Victoria           and

S e c h e l t ) have g r a i n s i z e s      which are equal                to or g r e a t e r than            that

o f t h e more e x p o s e d b e a c h e s .          However i n t e r m s o f p o p u l a t i o n              of

cells/cm      3
                  t h e r e seems t o be no             correlation            b e t w e e n i t and       the     grain

s i z e on    the beach s i t e s          a t S e c h e l t , V i c t o r i a , P a c h e n a and          Brady's.

This    seems t o i n d i c a t e         that the d i n o f l a g e l l a t e         p o p u l a t i o n can     easily

survive i n areas              i f the average p a r t i c l e s i z e               falls     b e t w e e n 125        and

250y.        However t h e s i t u a t i o n         a t B o u n d a r y Bay        a p p e a r s t o be    different.

G e n e r a l l y the percentage of f i n e p a r t i c l e s                  on    t h e b e a c h e s becomes

larger       d u r i n g t h e summer.          T h i s seems t o h a v e no              effect      on    the       popu-

lations       except       a t B o u n d a r y Bay      w h e r e an   e x c e s s i v e amount o f              fine

particles         b u i l d s up    t h r o u g h o u t t h e summer, a s s o c i a t e d , p r e s u m a b l y ,

w i t h the i n c r e a s e d outflow of the nearby Fraser R i v e r .                                The    clogging

of the i n t e r s t i t i a l      s p a c e s by    this     i n c r e a s e could p o s s i b l y account

for    the f a c t      that the d i n o f l a g e l l a t e      p o p u l a t i o n on      t h i s beach i s

r a t h e r low    t h r o u g h o u t t h e summer.          When w i n t e r         arrives      most o f          these

" f i n e s " a r e l o s t and       s p r i n g blooms occur b e f o r e              they     are b u i l t        up

again.
                                                                                                                             97.




        T h i s i s not the f i r s t          time t h a t i n t e r s t i t i a l p o p u l a t i o n s    have

been r e p o r t e d    to be r e s t r i c t e d by p a r t i c l e s i z e .          Fenchel        (1967,

1969)     found t h i s to be           true f o r c i l i a t e populations               and      stated that

i n c l a y e y bottoms the i n t e r s t i t i a are so clogged                       t h a t no    inter-

s t i t i a l fauna o c c u r .       Wieser       (1952), Jansson              (1967a, b) and            Ganapati

and Rao       (1962) have o b t a i n e d          similar       results.

        G r a i n s i z e a l s o becomes important                  i n determining           other        proper-

t i e s of the beach which d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t                  the     population.

Bruce (1928) found t h a t the grade of sand on a beach determines                                               the

water r e t e n t i v e and        a b s o r p t i v e c a p a c i t i e s of a sand as w e l l as i t s

c a p i l l a r y l i f t i n g power and        i t s p o r o s i t y to gases.           Gomoiu (1967)

found t h a t w i t h d e c r e a s i n g      grain s i z e , l i g h t penetration                 decreases

and   at 6 mm        o n l y 3% o f the s u r f a c e l i g h t remains.                  T a y l o r and    Palmer

(1963) found t h a t l i g h t was               even more r e s t r i c t e d and           that only          1%

of the s u r f a c e l i g h t reaches a depth of 3 mm.                            Fenchel       (1969) and Webb

(1969) have d i s c u s s e d t h i s s u b j e c t i n g r e a t d e t a i l commenting on                          total

s u r f a c e a r e a , p o r o s i t y , p e r m e a b i l i t y , c a p i l l a r i t y , d i f f u s i o n r a t e s of

d i s s o l v e d compounds and           the s i z e of the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r s t i t i a .             The

reader      i s r e f e r r e d to these f o r a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n ,

                   (iii)      Temperature

        In s e l e c t i n g the beaches i t was                 hoped t h a t some g e n e r a l           tempera-

t u r e d i f f e r e n c e between them might be                  found.        The    temperature graphs

seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s true.              Both Pachena and              Brady's Beaches

are s u b j e c t t o open ocean water and                     t h e r e f o r e remain at a more               constant,

lower temperature than the o t h e r s .                       Boundary Bay,, b e i n g both extremely

shallow       and p r o t e c t e d , undergoes the g r e a t e s t f l u c t u a t i o n s i n tempera-

ture.       S e c h e l t and V i c t o r i a have more moderate f l u c t u a t i o n s .                    Tempera-
ture (along with light) i s probably important to some degree i n con-

t r o l l i n g the number of individual cells/cm    3
                                                         (but not the number of

species/cm as most species are common to a l l beaches) i n a seasonal
             3




sense.    For example, a greater increase i n the number of cells/cm               3




occurs earlier at Boundary Bay than the other beaches and i s probably

due i n part to the earlier rise i n temperature at this s i t e . How-

ever, to correlate the high temperatures during the summer months

with the low population/cm on this beach would probably be invalid
                                 3




as these organisms can cope with extreme temperature by v e r t i c a l mi-

gration or mucilage production as already mentioned.                Fenchel (1969)

also finds that temperature alone could not explain the general dis-

tribution of c i l i a t e s . Similar results have been found i n relation

to diatom population (Aleem 1950).

                 (iv) Salinity

      It i s d i f f i c u l t to correlate any of the s a l i n i t y data with popu-

lation trends on or between any of the beaches studied.                 From this and

other studies i t appears that s a l i n i t y i s probably not of great impor-

tance i n l i m i t i n g sand-dwelling dinoflagellates except i n the extreme.

Only when the s a l i n i t y i s drastically decreased due to excessive rain-
f a l l or land drainage i s the population perhaps s l i g h t l y affected.          Even

then, Ganapati and Rao (1962) found that heavy r a i n f a l l only varies

the i n t e r s t i t i a l sea water s a l i n i t y 2-3% from that of the adjacent

sea water.

      Herdman (1924a) has shown that several species of dinoflagellates

(Amphidinium eludens, Gymnodinium placidum and Glenodinium monense)

appear to survive fresh water for periods up to 24 hours i f transferred

gradually.       Other species were affected to a greater extent yet some
individuals s t i l l         survived.         However Bruce (1925) c o n c l u d e d t h a t

salinity       i s a major f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f A.

hermani.        Braarud (1951) found t h a t s a l i n i t y does a f f e c t the r e p r o -

d u c t i v e r a t e of v a r i o u s p l a n k t o n i c marine d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s .    This

c o u l d a l s o apply t o s a n d - d w e l l i n g forms thus making s a l i n i t y               an im-

p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n c o n t r o l l i n g the abundance o f a s p e c i e s on a beach

r a t h e r than a c t u a l l y l i m i t i n g i t from the beach h a b i t a t .

        With r e g a r d to c i l i a t e s , F e n c h e l (1969) found t h a t              salinity

g e n e r a l l y c o u l d not e x p l a i n t h e i r f i e l d d i s t r i b u t i o n as d i l u t e , b r a c k -

i s h 'water c o n t a i n s many marine forms.

                   (v) Comparison o f beach                communities

        Sand-dwelling d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s are not the s o l e m i c r o - o r g a n i s m a l

i n h a b i t a n t s of the i n t e r t i d a l zone.        Numerous papers have been pub-

l i s h e d d e a l i n g w i t h the diatom communities                 (Aleem 1950a, b; C a s t e n -

h o l z 1963; Hopkins 1963, 1964, 1966; Leach 1970; Moul and Mason 1957;

Palmer 1960; Palmer and Round 1965, 1967; Round and Palmer                                          1966;

S t e e l e and B a i r d 1968;        S t e e l e , Munro and G i e s e 1970; T a y l o r and Palmer

1963) and c i l i a t e       communities          (Borrow 1963; G a n a p a t i and Rao               1962;

F e n c h e l 1967, 1968, 1969) which a l s o e x i s t i n t h i s                   habitat.

        Because these organisms a r e l i v i n g under the same s e v e r e s t r e s s e s

of a h i g h l y changeable environment i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d                          that

they share c e r t a i n g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .      For example, b o t h photo-

s y n t h e t i c sand d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and diatoms have been shown to undergo

v e r t i c a l m i g r a t i o n and to produce m u c i l a g e .          They b o t h have the a b i -

lity    to e n c y s t , and t o e x i s t t e m p o r a r i l y below the e u p h o t i c zone.

A limited heterotrophic a b i l i t y                 i s probable.          Their distribution i s

governed t o some extent by g r a i n s i z e and t h e i r l o w e s t p o p u l a t i o n s
are u s u a l l y found         i n winter.

         S i m i l a r l y , comparisons can be drawn between both the non-photo-

s y n t h e t i c s a n d - d w e l l i n g d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s and   ciliates.     For   example,

c i l i a t e s are known t o be p h a g o t r o p h i c            feeders with herbivorous, car-

n i v o r o u s and b a c t e r i a - e a t i n g forms.          Herbivorous        dinoflagellates

exist      (Tab. 7, f i g . 6a shows an i n g e s t e d diatom) and                         i t i s possible

t h a t c a r n i v o r o u s and b a c t e r i a e a t i n g types e x i s t a l s o .        Both have

d i s t r i b u t i o n s governed t o some e x t e n t by g r a i n s i z e w i t h 2 to 4%                   clay

content e x c l u d i n g a l l c i l i a t e s and p r o b a b l y d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s      also.

Temperature and              s a l i n i t y do not seem t o be too important                   i n deter-

mining      the d i s t r i b u t i o n of e i t h e r group.               Ciliates   can e x i s t   above,

a t , o r below the redox d i s c o n t i n u i t y l a y e r ; however, t o date                       the

m a j o r i t y of dinos have been r e p o r t e d t o be a e r o b i c and l i v i n g                  above

the redox zone ( F e n c h e l 1969                 lists      some d i n o s as b e i n g p r e s e n t below

the redox d i s c o n t i n u i t y         layer).

         F u t u r e s t u d i e s may     show t h a t f a r more common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

e x i s t between these organisms.                       T h i s type of i n f o r m a t i o n would      be

u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g to form a more cmplete                      p i c t u r e of the complex

e c o l o g y of the i n t e r t i d a l       zone.
                                   SUMMARY AND          CONCLUSIONS

1)    Forty-one         s p e c i e s of s a n d - d w e l l i n g   d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s were   recorded

from the beaches of South West B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the one                                      year

p e r i o d of t h i s study.           Twelve of these s p e c i e s c o u l d not be                    identified

and may      warrant b e i n g d e s i g n a t e d        as new      species.         They study i n d i c a t e s

t h a t major changes i n the taxonomy of some of the s p e c i e s found                                          may

have to be made.

2)    These s a n d - d w e l l i n g     d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s are most abundant d u r i n g               the

l a t e s p r i n g and    summer seasons.                Some s p e c i e s seem to be permanent

r e s i d e n t s and   are found         d u r i n g a l l seasons of the y e a r .               Others are

found o n l y d u r i n g the warmer months.

3)    I f the i n t e r t i d a l d i n o f l a g e l l a t e p o p u l a t i o n i s d r a s t i c a l l y    re-

duced by f r e e z i n g d u r i n g the w i n t e r months, r e p o p u l a t i o n may                   origin-

a t e from s u b t i d a l p o p u l a t i o n s which a r e p r o t e c t e d from these e n v i r -

onmental extremes.

4)    Temperature i s an important                      f a c t o r i n determining           major       seasonal

trends of a beach p o p u l a t i o n              (e.g. summers v e r s u s w i n t e r s ) .            But i t

does not seem to be                too important            i n determining           the s p e c i e s compo-

s i t i o n between beaches l o c a t e d i n the same g e n e r a l a r e a                      (e.g. South

West B r i t i s h      Columbia).

5)     S a l i n i t y appears to be r e l a t i v e l y unimportant i n r e l a t i o n                      to

determining          what s p e c i e s w i l l be found             on a beach.           Only i n v e r y

extreme cases            ( i . e . f r e s h water) does i t p r o b a b l y            affect      the    distri-

b u t i o n of a s p e c i e s .      I t i s p r o b a b l y more important               in    determining

the number o f c e l l s           ( r e p r o d u c t i v e r a t e ) o f a s p e c i e s on a beach

r a t h e r than a s p e c i e s        distribution.

6)    There i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t c e r t a i n s p e c i e s tend to be a s s o c i a t e d
with each other and may form distinct communities.
7)   Sand-dwelling dinoflagellate populations seem to be able to l i v e

on most beaches as long as there i s not much s i l t (less than 63y size)

particles present.     As soon as the s i l t fraction builds up i t clogs

the i n t e r s t i t i a l spaces and the population decreases drastically.

8)   Heavy wave action i s important i n determining particle size on

a beach and decreases the sand-dwelling dinoflagellate population

by sweeping them out to sea.       The surface layer of the sand i s mixed
and redistributed during storms and heavy waves and therefore these

organisms cannot escape from being swept away by v e r t i c a l migration.

9)   Strong currents and tides may also be important i n determining

particle size on a beach. However, i n this case the dinoflagellates

can cope with the situation (by v e r t i c a l migration or cementing them-

selves down) as the surface layer of the sand i s not mixed.
                                REFERENCES

Aleem, A.A. 1950. Distribution and ecology of B r i t i s h marine l i t -
      toral diatoms. J . Ecol. 38: 75-106.

Aleem, A.A. 1950.      The diatoms communitiy inhabiting the mud-flat at
      Whitstable.      New Phytol. 49: 174-188.
Balech, E. 1956. IStude des dinoflagelles du sable de Roscoff.
      Rev. Algolog. N.S. 2(1-2): 29-52.

Bergh, R.S. 1882. Uber die systematische Stellung der Gattung Amphi-
      dinium Clap, et Lachm. Zoologische Anzeiger

Biecheler, B. 1952. Recherches sur les Peridiniens. B u l l . B i o l ,
      de France et de Belgique. Supplement 36: 1-149.

Borror, A.C. 1963. Morphology and ecology of the benthic c i l i a t e d
      Protozoa of Alligator Harbor, Florida. Arch. Protistenk. 106:
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      marine sands.       P r o c . Roy. Soc. Lond. B. 174: 355-402.
Whitehead,      1914. Notes.          Rep. Dove Marine L a b o r a t o r y f o r 1913.

Wieser, W. 1952. The e f f e c t o f g r a i n s i z e on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
      s m a l l i n v e r t e b r a t e s i n h a b i t i n g the beaches o f Puget Sound.
      Limnology and Oceanography 4: 181-194.

W i s l o u c h , S. 1924. B e i t r H g e z u r B i o l o g i e und Entstehung von H e i l -
            schlamm der Salinem der Krim. A c t . Soc. B o t . P o l o n . 2 ( 2 ) :
            99-129.

Woloszynska, J . 1929. D i n o f l a g e l l a t a P o l s k i e g o Ba^tyku 1 B#ot Nad
      Piasnica.   A r c h . H y d r o b i o l . i Ryb.: 153-278, p i . II-XV.

Wood, E . J . F . 1963. D i n o f l a g e l l a t e s i n the A u s t r a l i a n Region. I I .
      Recent C o l l e c t i o n s . D i v i s i o n o f F i s h e r i e s and Oceanography,
      T e c h n i c a l Paper No. 14: 55 pp.

Wood, E.J.F. 1963. D i n o f l a g e l l a t e s i n the A u s t r a l i a n Region. I I I .
      F u r t h e r C o l l e c t i o n s . D i v i s i o n o f F i s h e r i e s and Oceanography,
      T e c h n i c a l Paper No. 17, 20 pp.
                                               PLATE 1

F i g u r e 1.    Katodinium glandula
                  a) V e n t r a l view
                  b) V e n t r a l view

F i g u r e 2.    K a t o d i n i u m sp. 1
                  a) V e n t r a l view
                  b) P l a t e p a t t e r n
                  c) P l a t e p a t t e r n

F i g u r e 3.    Amphidinium b i p e s
                  a) L a t e r a l view

                  b) V e n t r a l view

F i g u r e 4.    K a t o d i n i u m asymmetricum       ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 5.    Gymnodinium          sp. 3 ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 6.    Amphidnium          compressum

F i g u r e 7.    Amphidinium t e s t u d o

F i g u r e 8.    Amphidinium semilunatum
                  a) V e n t r a l view

                  b) L a t e r a l view

F i g u r e 9.    Adenoides eludens             ( l a t e r a l view)

F i g u r e 10. Amphidinium            asymmetricum

F i g u r e 11. P o l y k r i k o s   lebourae

F i g u r e 12. Amphidnium            nanammini     (sp.) v e n t r a l view
                                             PLATE 2



F i g u r e 1.   C h i l o d i n i u m c r u c i a t u m ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 2.   Amphidinium s c i s s u m ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 3.   Amphidinium sp. 3 ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 4.   Amphidinium sp. 5

F i g u r e 5.   Amphidinium sp. 1
                 a) V e n t r a l view
                 b) L a t e r a l view

                 c) V e n t r a l view

F i g u r e 6.   Amphidinium sp. 2

F i g u r e 7.   Gyrodinium l e b o u r a e        ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 8.   Amphidinium sp. 6 ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 9.   Amphidinium latum ( V e n t r a l view)
                                          PLATE 3



F i g u r e 1.   Amphidinium k l e b s i i
                 a) V e n t r a l view
                 b) V e n t r a l view

F i g u r e 2.   E x u v i e l l a marina ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 3.   Gymnodinium sp. 2

F i g u r e 4.   Amphidinium m a s s a r t i a    ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 5.   Gymnodinium sp. 1
                 a) V e n t r a l view
                 b) V e n t r a l view

F i g u r e 6.   Hemidinium sp. 1
                 a) Filamentous stage
                 b) E n c y s t e d s t a g e

F i g u r e 7.   Amphidinium sp. 4
                 a) L a t e r a l view
                 b) V e n t r a l view

F i g u r e 8.   Thecadinium i n c l i n a t u m ( v e n t r a l view)
                                         PLATE 4



F i g u r e 1.   Thecadinium sp. 1
                 a) V e n t r a l view
                 b) V e n t r a l view
                 c) V e n t r a l view

F i g u r e 2.   Thecadinium h i r s u t u m       ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 3.   Thecadinium petasatum?
                 a) L a t e r a l view
                 b) V e n t r a l view

F i g u r e 4.   Thecadinium swedmarki
                 a) R i g h t l a t e r a l view
                 b) V e n t r a l view
                 c) L e f t l a t e r a l view
                 d) D o r s a l view
                 e) P o s t e r i o r view
                 f ) A p i c a l view
                                              PLATE 5


F i g u r e 1.   Thecadinium i n c l i n a t u m
                 a) R i g h t l a t e r a l view
                 b) V e n t r a l view

                 c) L e f t l a t e r a l     view

F i g u r e 2.   Gymnodinium a g i l e          ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 3.   O x y r r h i s marina ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 4.   Glenodinium marinum ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 5.   Amphidinium corpulentum

F i g u r e 6.   Hemidinium ochraceum                 ( v e n t r a l view)

F i g u r e 7.   Thecadinium petasatum
                 a) R i g h t l a t e r a l    side
                 b) V e n t r a l view
                 c) R i g h t l a t e r a l    side
                                PLATE 6



Figure 1.   Amphidinium testudo
            a) Ventral view
            b) Ventral view

Figure 2.   Sinophysis ebrolum (right l a t e r a l view)

Figure 3. Amphidinium b e s s l i t z i (ventral view)

Figure 4.   Amphidinium latum (ventral view)

Figure 5.   Amphidinium hirsutum (ventral view)

Figure 6.   Amphidinium pellucidum (ventral view)
                              PLATE 7


Figure 1. Amphidinium massartia
          a) Ventral view
          b) Ventral view
Figure 2. Thecadinium inclinatum
          a) Ventral view
            b) Lateral view

Figure 3. Amphidinium k l e b s i i (lateral view)

Figure 4. Amphidinium scissum (ventral view)

Figure 5. Gymnodinium agile (ventral view)

Figure 6.   Amphidinium sp. 1
            a) Ventral view
            b) Ventral view
                                          PLATE 8



F i g u r e 1.   P o l y k r i k o s lebourae
                 a) L a t e r a l view
                 b) L a t e r a l view

F i g u r e 2.   Amphidinium b i p e s
                 a) L a t e r a l view
                 b) L a t e r a l view

F i g u r e 3.   Amphidinium compressum ( l a t e r a l view)

F i g u r e 4.   Amphidinium s c i s s u m
                 a) V e n t r a l view
                 b) L a t e r a l view

F i g u r e 5.   Amphidinium sp. 3 ( v e n t r a l view)
                               PLATE 9



Figure 1. Katodinium sp. 1 ( l a t e r a l view)
          a) Cell contents
          b) and c) P a r t i a l plate pattern

Figure 2. Katodinium glandula

Figure 3.   Katodinium asymmetricum (ventral view)

Figure 4.   Sinophysis ebrolum (lateral view)

Figure 5.   Thecadinium hirsutum (ventral view)

Figure 6.   Amphidinium sp. 6 (ventral view)
                                            PLATE 9


F i g u r e 1.   Katodinium sp. 1 ( l a t e r a l view)
                 a) C e l l c o n t e n t s

                 b) and c) P a r t i a l p l a t e p a t t e r n

F i g u r e 2.   Katodinium glandula

F i g u r e 3.   K a t o d i n i u m asymmetricum ( v e n t r a l v i e w )

F i g u r e 4.   S i n o p h y s i s ebrolum ( l a t e r a l v i e w )

F i g u r e 5.   Thecadinium h i r s u t u m ( v e n t r a l v i e w )

F i g u r e 6.   Amphidinium sp. 6 ( v e n t r a l v i e w )
                            PLATE 10

Figure 1.   Thecadinium swedmarkii (ventro-lateral view)
Figure 2.   Gymnodinium sp. 1 (ventral view)

Figure 3.   Exuviella marina (ventral view)

Figure 4.   Amphidinium latum (ventral view)
Figure 5.   Amphidinium sp. 5 (ventral view)
Figure 6.   Amphidinium testudo (ventral view)

Figure 7. Amphidinium semilunatum (lateral view)
Figure 8.   Katodinium asymmetricum (ventral view)
Figure 9.   Amphidinium sp. 4 (lateral view)

				
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