Lecture 1 Introduction 48

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Lecture 1 Introduction 48 Powered By Docstoc
					   Introduction

Mohammad Sharifkhani
     The IC Growth Cycle
Technology          Consumption
 advances              grows
Density             Applications

Performance         Devices

Switching energy    Users

Cost per function   Revenue
          Money!




Chen, ISSCC’07
Market share
Logic is there all the time
                      Moore’s Law - 1965
Transistors
  Per Die                                     “Reduced cost is one of the big
 1010                                         attractions of integrated
                                              electronics, and the cost
  109
                                              advantage continues to increase
 108                                          as the technology evolves
                                              toward the production of larger
 107
                                              and larger circuit functions on a
 106                                          single semiconductor substrate.”
 105                                          Electronics, Volume 38,
                                              Number 8, April 19, 1965
 104
  103
                                                                 1965 Data (Moore)
 102
 101
 100
        1960   1965   1970   1975   1980   1985   1990   1995   2000   2005     2010

                                                                          Source: Intel
                            Moore’s Law - 2005
Transistors
  Per Die
  1010                                                                                1G    2G
                                                                               512M
   109                                                                    256M
                                                                      128M              Itanium™ 2 Processor
  108                                                              64M
                                                                16M                  Itanium™ Processor
  107                                                      4M                     Pentium® 4 Processor
                                                     1M                        Pentium® III Processor
  106                                         256K                         Pentium® II Processor
                                                                    Pentium® Processor
  105                                  64K                    486™ Processor
                                   16K
                              4K                       386™ Processor
  104                                            80286
                       1K
                                      8080 8086
   103                           8008
                              4004                                              1965 Data (Moore)
  102
                                                                                Memory
  101                                                                           Microprocessor
   100
         1960   1965        1970   1975     1980     1985     1990    1995    2000     2005      2010

                                                                                           Source: Intel
  Silicon Scaling Still Improves
Density, Performance, Power, Cost



                       130 nm      90 nm
                       Madison   Montecito
  Cores/Threads           1/1        2/4
  Transistors            0.41       1.72 Billion
  L3 Cache                  6         24 MByte
  Frequency               1.5      >1.7 GHz
  Relative Performance      1     >1.5x
  Thermal Design Power   130      ~100 Watt

                                              Source: Intel
Gate Count
Design Cost
New tech. node model
R&D Cost
Facilities development cost
Revenues
Revenue
             Key Points
• Moore’s Law thriving after 40 years
• Convergence drives IC industry growth
• Integrated platforms optimize user
  experience
• Multi-core parallelism going mainstream
Convergence Drives Growth




     Convergence
                Convergence
             Wireless Mobile PC
       % of Notebooks
      that have Wireless
100                        96
                    90

             65

50



       10
 0
      2003   2004   2005   2006



                                  Source: IDC
                                    Convergence
                               Data Phones and Traffic
                        2004: Data Phones                                            Data Traffic: 56% Annual
                         Cross-over Voice                                               Growth thru 2006
                      New Cell Phone Sales by Feature Set
                800
                700
Million units




                                                                       Bits of Traffic
                600
                500
                400                                        Data
                300                                        Voice
                                                                                                                Data
                200
                100
                0
                                                                                                             Voice
                       2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009                           2001                      2006
                                           Source: WebFeet Research   Source: Goldman Sachs and Co., McKinsey & Company; Dec. 2002
         Convergence
Digital Consumer Electronics
           The Great Crossover
   Digital Technologies Surpass Analog


                                                                                       Camera Sales
                                                                                             Millions
                                                                       25
                                                      TVs
                                                Cameras                20
                                             Camcorders
                                                                       15
             DVD Players
                                                                       10


                                                                        5
                Cell Phones
                                                                        0
            Satellites
                                                                            ‘95 ‘96 ‘97 ‘98 ‘99 ‘00 ‘01 ‘02 ‘03 ‘04 ‘05
                                                                             ’95 ’96 ’97 ’98 ’99 ’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05

      Portable CD Players


’95 ’96 ’97 ’98 ’99 ’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ’07 ’08
                 Crossover Year
                        Sources: Consumer Electronics Association, Photo Marketing Association International,
                        Photofinishing News, SBCA/Sky Trends
             Key Points
• Moore’s Law thriving after 40 years
• Convergence drives IC industry growth
• Integrated platforms optimize user
  experience
• Multi-core parallelism going mainstream
Demand Growth Driven by
 Better User Experiences
                                  Security
  User                          Virtualization
Experience                    Multitasking
                            Manageability
                          Ease of Use
                        Battery Life
                     Compactness
                  Wireless Mobility
               Multimedia
            Networking
        Graphics
    Computing
Memory
          Platforms Optimize User
                 Experience      Comms and                                           WiFi
                                                                                                  Software
                         Example: Intel platforms                                   ProSet        Capabilities
     User
   Experience                                                                     Low Power
                                                                         PCI-E                     Chipset
                                                                    Infiniband
                                                                                   Graphics        Capabilities
                                                                Serial ATA        HD Audio
                                                            AGP 8X
                                                          USB 2.0                 Multi Core       Processor
                                                     IAPC                            Hyper-
                                              AGP 4X
                                                                        Low
                                                                      power       Threading        Capabilities
        Math                                                 Itanium             Virtualization
        Coprocessor                     USB                Architecture
                                                 SSE2
                                AGP 2X                                           Itanium™2
Integrated                             Speedstep                                  processor
                                  SSE                 Itanium™
    Cache           PCI MMX Quickstart
                  Multiple               Pentium®III processor Pentium®4           Xeon™          Base
                                           Xeon™                   Processor      processor
               Execution Units
                                          processor                  with HT                      Performance
                                                                                 Pentium®4
           386     Pentium® Pentium®II Pentium®III Pentium®III Pentium®4
                                                       mobile                      mobile
       processor processor     processor processor processor processor            processor



                    Innovate and Integrate
RMS Applications Growing




Emerging workloads increase need for
high performance parallel processing
                  Efficiency
            Increase with Parallel
           100
  Relative       Architecture
 processor
performance*                                          Dual / Multi-Core
(constant power
   envelope)                                                                                        10X
                  10


                              Single-Core

                                                            3X
                   1
                       2000                               2004                                2008+
                                                                 FORECAST
                       *Average of SPECInt2000 and SPECFP2000 rates for Intel desktop processors
                                         vs initial Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor
                                                                                             Source: Intel
Multi-Core Parallelism Going
        Mainstream
  Dual-Core Processor Plans (Intel)
  Servers                       Desktop                                 Mobile



    90nm                            90nm                                    65nm
   Montecito                       Smithfield                               Yonah
    (2005)                          (2005)                                  (2005)




     90nm                         65nm
Server Processor            Desktop Processor
     (2006)                       (2006)
          Note: Die images not to scale and may not depict actual product
                                                                                     Source: Intel
              Key Points
• Moore’s Law thriving after 40 years
• Convergence drives IC industry growth
• Integrated platforms optimize user
  experience
• Multi-core parallelism going mainstream
• Holistic solutions deliver power efficiency
Silicon Technology Changes to
   Increase Power Efficiency
•   1960’s:   Bipolar
•   1970’s:   PMOS, NMOS
•   1980’s:   CMOS
•   1990’s:   Voltage scaling (P = CV2f)
•   2000’s:   Power efficient scaling/design
Power Efficient 90nm Transistors
     with Strained Silicon
                             PMOS      High               NMOS
                                      Stress
                                       Film



     SiGe                      SiGe

      Compressive channel strain         Tensile channel strain
      30% drive current increase       10% drive current increase

does not raise transistor leakage
                     Innovate and integrate
                 for cost effective production
                                                             Source: Intel
         Strained Silicon Improves
      Transistor Performance and/or
       1000
             Reduces Leakage
                                Std     Strain              Std   Strain


Transistor 100
                                           +25% I ON              +10% I ON
 Leakage
 Current
 (nA/um)
                                                             0.20x I OFF
           10
                                      0.04x I OFF

                         PMOS                       NMOS
            1
                 0.2   0.4     0.6         0.8       1.0   1.2    1.4          1.6
                             Transistor Drive Current (mA/um)

                                                                           Source: Intel
  Advances in Power Efficient
           Design         350

                                                                  Cache Switch
                          300                                     Cache Igate
                                                                  Cache Ioff
                   Power
                         250                                      Core Switch
                    (W)
                                                                  Core Igate
                          200
                                                                  Core Ioff
                                                                  IO bias
                          150
                                                                  DCAP lkg
   ISSCC 2005 P10.1
“The Implementation of    100

a 2-core Multi-Threaded
    ItaniumTM Family       50

       Processor”
                            0
                                  Using
                                Simple Port of Madison
                                                          With new
                                                           Montecito Final

                                   prior                    power
                                  design                  reduction
                                techniques               techniques
        Circuit Techniques Reduce
          Source Drain Leakage
        Body Bias          Stack Effect    Sleep Transistor
                     Vbp
            Vdd

                  + Ve

                           Equal Loading
                                                Logic
                                                Block

                  - Ve

                     Vbn

Leakage      2 - 10X          2 - 10X          2 - 1000X
Reduction
Sleep Transistor Reduces SRAM
        Leakage Power
                VDD        70 Mbit SRAM leakage current map


             SRAM
             Cache
             Block

  NMOS
  Sleep
Transistor
                                       Accessed block
                VSS   Without sleep transistor   With sleep transistor


  >3x SRAM leakage reduction on inactive blocks

                                                            Source: Intel
Sleep Transistors Reduce ALU Leakage
                                      Vcc
                                   external          Sleep transistors
            PMOS underdrive Vcc



               PMOS overdrive Vss                                                               Scan
       PMOS
       Sleep
                                       Virtual Vcc                                               out
       Body
        Bias
                                                                                     Scan                 Control
                                                                                     FIFO Sleep
       ALU                                                                                ALU
       Body
       Bias                   Dynamic
                                                                          Scan
                                ALU           32




Sleep transistor                                                 Scan                            Body bias
 and body bias                                                  capture
                                                                control
    control        ALU core
              NMOS overdrive Vcc
                                      Virtual Vss                                  37X leakage reduction
                                                                                 demonstrated on test chip
                                                    3-bit A/D
              NMOS underdrive Vss

                              Vssexternal


                                                                                         Source: ISSCC 2003, Paper 6.1
What happens to Analog guys?




In the nanoelectronics era CMOS
performance will exceed that of the SiGe
HBT
                                           Holistic Approach to System Power
                                                Projected Change in Peak Power Consumption
Power Consumption Relative to a 2002 PC

                                                     of High-End Desktop Computers
                                           3
                                                   Power Supply
                                          2.5      Other                                  20%
                                                   VRMs
                                           2       Graphics Card
                                                   Processor
                                          1.5
                                                                       30%
                                                                                          41%
                                           1
                                                  43%
                                          0.5                          23%

                                                  10%
                                           0
                                                  2002                 2004               2005 (est.)
                                                  57%                  70%                 80%
                                                         Projected power supply efficiency        Source: Intel
              Key Points
• Moore’s Law thriving after 40 years
• Convergence drives IC industry growth
• Integrated platforms optimize user
  experience
• Multi-core parallelism going mainstream
• Holistic solutions deliver power efficiency
• Nanotechnology will extend IC advances
• Lithography innovations remain vital
  Silicon Technology Reaches
     10
           Nanoscale                                                        10000
                   Nominal feature size



         1                                                                  1000
                                                          0.7X every
                                                          2 years
                                          130nm                             Nano-
Micron                                          90nm                        meter
                     Gate Length                  65nm
                                                     45nm
    0.1                                                                     100
                                                        32nm
                                 70nm                     22nm
                Nanotechnology      50nm
                (< 100nm)             35nm
                                         25nm
                                            18nm
   0.01                                       12nm                           10
         1970
         1970      1980
                   1980     1990
                            1990         2000
                                         2000          2010
                                                       2010       2020
                                                                   2020


                                                                       Source: Intel
    Nanotechnology Hallmarks
      (For Nanoelectronics)
• Structures measured in nanometers
   – Less than 0.1-micron (100nm)
• New processes, materials, device structures
   – Incrementally changing silicon technology base
• Materials manipulated on atomic scale
   – In one or more dimensions
• Increasing use of self-assembly
   – Using chemical properties to form structures

 Nanotechnology innovations will extend
 silicon technology and Moore’s Law
      Design Your Own Film with
    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)

                        B

A
                        A
         Step 1                  Step 3

                          B
A                        A
          Step 2                 Step 4

    Atomic level manipulation + Self-assembly
ALD Enables High-k Dielectric
  to Reduce Gate Leakage
             Gate                           Gate


         1.2nm SiO2                      3.0nm High-k


       Silicon substrate           Silicon substrate


                      High-k vs. SiO2              Benefit

 Gate capacitance       60% greater         Faster transistors

 Gate dielectric
                      > 100x reduction        Lower power
 leakage

  Process integration is the key challenge
                                                             Source: Intel
Nanostructures for the Next Decade
  (Transistor Research at Intel)
                  (a)                         (b)                         Non-planar
                                                                          Tri-Gate
                                              Source             Drain    Architecture
     Si Device
Miniaturization                                                                 Drain

                                                                                             Gate
                                                                   Si      Source
                           Lg =   10 nm                 Gate      body

                  (c)
                   (c)                        (d) Drain                   Carbon
                                                  (Pd)                    Nanotube
                  Source                                         CNT
   III-V Device
                                                           Single-wall    Transistor
                           Drain                           D = 1.4 nm
      Research                  Source
                                    Multi                         Gate
                                                    Lg = 75 nm
                                  epitaxial                        (Pt)
                                   layers
                  Gate                        Source
                                                                             Source: Intel
Benchmarking Nanotransistor
        Progress
                        100
                                  NMOS
 GATE DELAY CV/I [ps]




                        10




                         1
                                                        Si MOSFETs
                                                        CNT FETs
                                                        III-V FETs
                        0.1
                              1           10     100    1000         10000
                                         GATE LENGTH LG [nm]

                                                               Source: Intel compilation of published data
                 Lithography Must Break Through
             to Shorter Wavelength (EUV* @ 13.5nm)

                                       * Extreme Ultraviolet
1000               Feature size
 nm

                          248nm
                                    193nm & extensions

            Lithography                Gap
100
            Wavelength




                                         EUV
 10
      ’ 89 ’91 ’93 ’95 ’97 ’99 ’01 ’03 ’05 ’07 ’09 ’11

                                                         Source: Intel
                      EUV Lithography in
                    Commercial Development




                                             EUV MET Image (8/04)
EUV Micro exposure tool (MET)

         •   Integrated development in progress
         •   Source power and lifetime
         •   Defect free mask fabrication and handling
         •   Optics lifetime
         •   Resist performance

                                                               Source: Intel
                        Key Points

•   Moore’s Law thriving after 40 years
•   Convergence drives IC industry growth
•   Integrated platforms optimize user experience
•   Multi-core parallelism going mainstream
•   Holistic solutions deliver power efficiency
•   Nanotechnology will extend IC advances
•   Lithography innovations remain vital
•   Moore’s Law will outlive CMOS
•   Future rides on innovation and integration
              Moore’s Law Will Outlive CMOS
                                 10µm              1µm             100nm           10nm
                  1013 Bipolar PMOS NMOS           CMOS Voltage      Pwr Eff   New Nano-
                                                        Scaling      Scaling   structures
                  1012
                  1011                                                                    Beyond CMOS?
                  1010         1965 Data (Moore)                                          Spin based?
                                Memory                                                    Molecular?
                  109           Microprocessor                                            Other?
Transistors/Die




                  108
                  107
                  106
                  105
                  104
                  103
                  102
                                Kilo               Mega              Giga                 Tera
                  101           Xtor               Xtor              Xtor                 Xtor
                  100
                        1960    1970       1980       1990        2000      2010      2020       2030
  Innovation and Integration
   Will Sustain Moore’s Law
   Innovation           Integration
Identify needs and    Deliver platforms
create capabilities   to optimize user
that drive growth     experience

Anticipate barriers   Integrate new
and seek timely       materials, devices,
breakthroughs         processes

Make strategic        Coordinate
technology            strategic shifts
transitions           across industry

				
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