UNIT 2 TEST REVIEW / TASK – READ THIS CAREFULLY
AP WORLD HISTORY --- 2011 / 2012 First Semester (You will be allowed 1 note card that I will provide)
Chapter 6 Summary: In the 7th century C.E., the Arab followers of Muhammad surged from the Arabian Peninsula to
create the first global civilization. They quickly conquered an empire incorporating elements of the classical civilizations of Greece,
Egypt, and Persia. Islamic merchants, mystics, and warriors continued its expansion in Europe, Asia, and Africa. The process provided
links for exchange among civilized centers and forged a truly global civilization. Although united in belief of Muhammad’s message,
the Islamic world was divided by cultural and political rivalries. The disputes did not undermine the strength of Muslim civilization
until the 14th century.
1. Describe the nature of Bedouin society before Muhammad received his revelations.
2. What were some of the “universal elements” of Islam which added to its attraction?
3. Trace the succession dispute over the office of caliph. (Be sure to discuss Ali, Husayn and Karbala)
4. Describe the physical extent of the Umayyad Empire.
5. Trace the events that led to the fall of the Umayyads.
6. Compare the Abbasid Empire with the Umayyad Empire. (How did they differ politically? In how they accepted converts?
7. Identify the achievements of the Arab phase of Islamic development ending in the ninth century.
8. Compare women in the Islamic world with women in other contemporary societies.
9. Terms: Bedouin, Mecca, Ka’ba, Medina, Qur’an, umma, Five Pillars, caliph, jihad, Copts, Sunni, Shi’a, mawali, dhimmi,
hadiths, Baghdad, wazir, dhow, ayan
Chapter 7 Summary: By the mid-9th century, the Abbasids were losing control over their vast Muslim Empire.
Distance hampered efforts to move armies and control local administrators. Most subjects retained local loyalties. Shi’a dissenters
were particularly troublesome, while slave and peasant uprisings sapped empire strength. Mongol invasions in the 13th century ended
the very weakened state. Despite the political decline, Islamic civilization reached new cultural heights, and Islam expanded widely in
the Afro-Asian world through conquest and peaceful conversion.
1. Compare the initial spread of Islam throughout the Mediterranean and the Middle East with the Islamic incursions into India
and southeast Asia. (Who led the incursions? What role did Sufis play? Etc.)
2. Describe the political, cultural, and economic characteristics of the Abbasid Empire.
3. Evaluate the weaknesses of the later Abbasid Empire.
4. Describe the position of women in the Abbasid Empire.
5. Describe the economy of the later Abbasid Empire. (What was happening to its resources and tax base?)
6. Trace theological developments within Islam during the Abbasid Empire. (How did Sufis make Islam more acceptable to
people like Hindus and Buddhists?)
7. Trace the stages of Islamic incursion into India. (A centuries-long process)
8. To what extent were Muslims successful in converting Indians to Islam?
9. Terms: Seljuk Turks, Crusades, Saladin, ulama, al-Ghazali, Mongols, Chinggis Khan, Mamluks, bhaktic cults, Shrivijaya,
Chapter 8 Summary: Africa below the Sahara for long periods had only limited contact with the civilizations of the Mediterranean
and Asia. Between 800 and 1500 C.E., the frequency and intensity of contacts increased. Social, religious, and technological changes
influenced African life. The spread of Islam in Africa linked its regions to the outside world through trade, religion, and politics. State
building in Africa was influenced both by indigenous and Islamic inspiration. States like Mali and Songhay built on military power
and dynastic alliances. City-states in western and eastern Africa were tied to larger trading networks. African civilizations built less
clearly on prior precedent than did other postclassical societies. Older themes, such as Bantu migration, persisted. Parts of Africa
south of the Sahara entered into the expanding world network; many others remained in isolation.
1. Compare the Islamic effect on India and southeast Asia with that on sub-Saharan Africa
2. Describe the “common elements” in African societies.
3. Trace how Islam entered Africa.
4. Describe the Sudanic states and how were they organized.
5. How did Islam and the beliefs of indigenous societies fuse among African peoples?
6. Describe the connection between east Africa and Islam.
7. Where did cultures in Africa develop that were NOT affected by Islam? Describe the nature of their organization.
8. Terms: Stateless societies, Almohadis, juula, Sundiata, griots, Timbuktu, Ghana, Mali, Songhay, Hausa, Sharia, Zenj, Great