"Overview of Software Engineering Principles"
Overview of Software Engineering Principles CSCI 599: Software Engineering for Embedded Systems August 28, 2001 Engineering Engineering is … the application of scientific principles and methods To the construction of useful structures & machines Examples Mechanical engineering Civil engineering Chemical engineering Electrical engineering Nuclear engineering Aeronautical engineering Software Engineering The term is 30+ years old: NATO Conferences Garmisch, Germany, October 7-11, 1968 Rome, Italy, October 27-31, 1969 The reality is finally beginning to arrive Computer science as the scientific basis Other scientific bases? Many aspects have been made systematic Methods/methodologies/techniques Languages Tools Processes Software Engineering in a Nutshell Development of software systems whose size/complexity warrants team(s) of engineers multi-person construction of multi-version software [Parnas 1987] Scope study of software process, development principles, techniques, and notations Goal production of quality software, delivered on time, within budget, satisfying customers’ requirements and users’ needs Ever-Present Difficulties Few guiding scientific principles Few universally applicable methods As much managerial / psychological / sociological as technological Why These Difficulties? SE is a unique brand of engineering Software is malleable Software construction is human-intensive Software is intangible Software problems are unprecedentedly complex Software directly depends upon the hardware It is at the top of the system engineering “food chain” Software solutions require unusual rigor Software has discontinuous operational nature Software Engineering ≠ Software Programming Software programming Single developer “Toy” applications Short lifespan Single or few stakeholders Architect = Developer = Manager = Tester = Customer = User One-of-a-kind systems Built from scratch Minimal maintenance Software Engineering ≠ Software Programming Software engineering Teams of developers with multiple roles Complex systems Indefinite lifespan Numerous stakeholders Architect ≠ Developer ≠ Manager ≠ Tester ≠ Customer ≠ User System families Reuse to amortize costs Maintenance accounts for over 60% of overall development costs Economic and Management Aspects of SE Software production = development + maintenance (evolution) Maintenance costs > 60% of all development costs 20% corrective 30% adaptive 50% perfective Quicker development is not always preferable higher up-front costs may defray downstream costs poorly designed/implemented software is a critical cost factor Relative Costs of Fixing Software Faults 200 30 10 3 4 1 2 Requirements Specification Planning Design Implementation Integration Maintenance Mythical Man-Month by Fred Brooks Published in 1975, republished in 1995 Experience managing development of OS/360 in 1964-65 Central argument Large projects suffer management problems different in kind than small ones, due to division in labor Critical need is the preservation of the conceptual integrity of the product itself Central conclusions Conceptual integrity achieved through chief architect Implementation achieved through well-managed effort Brooks’s Law Adding personnel to a late project makes it later Software Development Lifecycle Waterfall Model Requirements Design Implementation Integration Validation Deployment Software Development Lifecycle Spiral Model Determine objectives Evaluate alternatives, alternatives, constraints identify, resolve risks, develop prototypes Develop, verify Plan next phases next-level product Requirements Problem Definition → Requirements Specification determine exactly what the customer and user want develop a contract with the customer specifies what the software product is to do Difficulties client asks for wrong product client is computer/software illiterate specifications are ambiguous, inconsistent, incomplete Verification extensive specification reviews with the customer identify ambiguity, inconsistency, incompleteness ascertain feasibility, testability develop system/acceptance test plan Architecture/Design Requirements Specification → Architecture/Design architecture: decompose software into modules with interfaces design: develop module specifications (algorithms, data types) maintain a record of design decisions and traceability specifies how the software product is to do its tasks Difficulties miscommunication between module designers design may be inconsistent, incomplete, ambiguous Verification design inspections to establish conformance to requirements check module interactions develop integration test plan Architecture vs. Design [Perry & Wolf 1992] Architecture is concerned with the selection of architectural elements, their interactions, and the constraints on those elements and their interactions necessary to provide a framework in which to satisfy the requirements and serve as a basis for the design. Design is concerned with the modularization and detailed interfaces of the design elements, their algorithms and procedures, and the data types needed to support the architecture and to satisfy the requirements. Implementation & Integration Design → Implementation implement modules; verify that they meet their specifications combine modules according to the design specifies how the software product does its tasks Difficulties module interaction errors order of integration may influence quality and productivity Verification code reviews to establish conformance to requirements & design check module interactions develop unit test plan: focus on individual modules test on unit, integration and acceptance test plans Component-Based Development Develop generally applicable components of a reasonable size and reuse them across systems Make sure they are adaptable to varying contexts Extend the idea beyond code to other development artifacts Question: what comes first? Integration, then deployment Deployment, then integration Different Flavors of Components Third-party software “pieces” Plug-ins / add-ins Applets Frameworks Open Systems Distributed object infrastructures Compound documents Legacy systems Verification and Validation Analysis Static “Science” Formal verification Informal reviews and walkthroughs Testing Dynamic “Engineering” White box vs. black box Structural vs. behavioral Issues of test adequacy Deployment & Evolution Operation → Change maintain software during/after user operation determine whether the product still functions correctly Difficulties rigid design lack of documentation personnel turnover Verification extensive reviews to ensure correct changes and updates to documentation test to determine that change is correctly implemented regression testing: ensure that no inadvertent changes are made to compromise system functionality Configuration Management (CM) [Tichy 1988] CM is a discipline whose goal is to control changes to large software through the functions of Component identification Change tracking Version selection and baselining Software manufacture Managing simultaneous updates (team work) CM in Action 1.0 1.1 1.2 2.0 4.0 1.3 2.1 1.4 2.2 3.0 1.5 3.1 Software Engineering Principles Rigor and formality Separation of concerns Modularity and decomposition Abstraction Anticipation of change Generality Incrementality Scalability Compositionality Heterogeneity From Principles to Tools TOOLS METHODOLOGIES METHODS AND TECHNIQUES PRINCIPLES Software Qualities Qualities (a.k.a. “ilities”) are goals in the practice of software engineering External vs. Internal qualities Product vs. Process qualities External vs. Internal Qualities External qualities are visible to the user reliability, efficiency, usability Internal qualities are the concern of developers they help developers achieve external qualities verifiability, maintainability, extensibility, evolvability, adaptability Product vs. Process Qualities Product qualities concern the developed artifacts maintainability, understandability, performance Process qualities deal with the development activity products are developed through process maintainability, productivity, timeliness Some Software Qualities Correctness ideal quality established w.r.t. the requirements specification absolute Reliability statistical property probability that software will operate as expected over a given period of time relative Some Software Qualities (cont.) Robustness “reasonable” behavior in unforeseen circumstances subjective a specified requirement is an issue of correctness; an unspecified requirement is an issue of robustness Usability ability of end-users to easily use software extremely subjective Some Software Qualities (cont.) Understandability ability of developers to easily understand produced artifacts internal product quality subjective Verifiability ease of establishing desired properties performed by formal analysis or testing internal quality Some Software Qualities (cont.) Performance equated with efficiency assessable by measurement, analysis, and simulation Evolvability ability to add or modify functionality addresses adaptive and perfective maintenance problem: evolution of implementation is too easy evolution should start at requirements or design Some Software Qualities (cont.) Reusability ability to construct new software from existing pieces must be planned for occurs at all levels: from people to process, from requirements to code Interoperability ability of software (sub)systems to cooperate with others easily integratable into larger systems common techniques include APIs, plug-in protocols, etc. Some Software Qualities (cont.) Scalability ability of a software system to grow in size while maintaining its properties and qualities assumes maintainability and evolvability goal of component-based development Some Software Qualities (cont.) Heterogeneity ability to compose a system from pieces developed in multiple programming languages, on multiple platforms, by multiple developers, etc. necessitated by reuse goal of component-based development Portability ability to execute in new environments with minimal effort may be planned for by isolating environment-dependent components necessitated by the emergence of highly-distributed systems (e.g., the Internet) an aspect of heterogeneity Software Process Qualities Process is reliable if it consistently leads to high- quality products Process is robust if it can accommodate unanticipated changes in tools and environments Process performance is productivity Process is evolvable if it can accommodate new management and organizational techniques Process is reusable if it can be applied across projects and organizations Assessing Software Qualities Qualities must be measurable Measurement requires that qualities be precisely defined Improvement requires accurate measurement Currently most qualities are informally defined and are difficult to assess Software Engineering “Axioms” Adding developers to a project will likely result in further delays and accumulated costs Basic tension of software engineering better, cheaper, faster — pick any two! functionality, scalability, performance — pick any two! The longer a fault exists in software the more costly it is to detect and correct the less likely it is to be properly corrected Up to 70% of all faults detected in large-scale software projects are introduced in requirements and design detecting the causes of those faults early may reduce their resulting costs by a factor of 100 or more