MODERN PROJECT MANAGEMENT - HISTORY

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					PROJECT MANAGEMENT 641


          PAPER 4



 MODERN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

       A BRIEF HISTORY
   MODERN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
            The 1940s



 The Manhattan Project - first evidence of modern PM.
  MODERN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
           The 1950s

 2 major developments:
   Network planning/control techniques -
     PERT/CPM/PDM
   Systems engineering and management.
 Modern PM in early 1950s by US Air Force & Navy.
   Large number of planes & rockets
     projects.
   Engineering & Production offices
     combined
   Atlas ICBMs used systems approach -
     managed as 1 entity.
     MODERN PROJECT MANAGEMENT -
           The 1950s [cont’d]



 1956 USAF report:
   Projects organised on product not functional basis
   General elevation of the project management function

 Polaris :
     Elevated authority of 'Project' within organisation
     Led to development of PERT

 Gaddis - Article broaden the focus of PM
     MODERN PROJECT MANAGEMENT -
              The 1960s



 Growth in systems integration, & plan/control tools.
 Major theme - theoretical organisational basis for PM
 US Defence introduced core PM tools (esp. Apollo). eg: life-cycle
  costing, C/SCSC, work breakdown structure.
 Construction industry began to use modern PM tools
 Emergence of an intellectual interest in PM
 Growing use of matrix in many organisations
 PM tools overemphasied, integration overlooked
     MODERN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
              The 1970s



 Project-based firms use PM as permanent function.
 Growing influence of external factors upon projects.
 Growth of matrix as PM tools used for special tasks
 Perceptions of PM: middle-management, intra-
  organisational skill. But real projects indicate a fuller view -
  ie impact of external factors
 PMI & Internet established - focus on techniques used by
  intra-project middle management.
     MODERN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
              The 1980s



 PM a mature management discipline.
 creation of PM degree courses
 proliferation of publications on PM
 increasing use of PM PC-based tools.
 focus on top-down strategic management of projects:
   attention to defining project success criteria
   importance of effects of external factors
   importance of managing project as soon as an idea
   involvement of client & end users of project's product
      MODERN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
           The 1980s [cont’d]

 application of quality assurance to project activities

 sophisticated procurement & financing

 IT - faciliated PM, & created a class of projects

 Writings on PM : risk management; expert systems; project
  success; strategic project management.

 Gareis (1989) - "Management by Projects"
 MODERN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
          SUMMARY

50S
   - MPM by USAF
    Organisational integration
    Systems management
    CPM/PERT
60s
  Matrix
  WBS,, earned value, PDM
 MODERN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
          SUMMARY

70s
  heavy focus on TCQ
  Growing importance of external factors
  Focus on middle-PM
80s
  becomes mature & broadens
  eg risk, TQM, partnering, project success
  PC-based “PM” software
  Pmbok published
  “Management by Projects”
 Why did modern PM emerged ?

                        COMPLEXITY

Growing complexity of tasks performed by organisations.

This required specialisation - multi-disciplinary inputs

This required a high level of coordination

Project management provided this INTEGRATION.
Why did modern PM emerged ?

                          CHANGE

Organisations work in increasingly dynamic world
Constantly under pressure to implement change
And changes occurring at an accelerating pace.
Changes implemented by projects and PM

                            TIME

Intense competition -products made asap
Tight time and cost constraints - well suited for PM
            1990s and the future

PM to be recognised as an individual discipline
   “PM will become an expected professional skill”
Corporate Strategies
   Organisations respond to rapid change by right CS.
   PM seen as appropriate for implementing CS
PM as Mainstream
   “change from perceiving PM unique towards seeing
   PM methods as elements in management in general”
Broader Management Input
   PM not mainly task of PMs, but all management
   needed, top managers & project participants
           1990s and the future

Concurrent Engineering
   CE aims for shorter product life cycles.
   CE = requires multi-disciplinary teams.
   This process lends itself to the application of PM
 Stakeholder Management
   More projects dealing with many influential SHs.
   Interface management will be significant focus for
   PM.
Quality
   TQM in projects will grow - ISO/CD 10006
Collaborative Arrangements
   Strategic alliances & partnering to grow in
   popularity
            1990s and the future
Information Technology
   Computer-based developments in projects to grow
   - better PM software; expert systems, risk analysis, EDI
Multi-project Management
   Manage network of projects. Integration needed
Certification
   Process to verify PM’s competencies to others
   PMI - PMP          APM UK   AIPM - RegPM
                1990s and the future



Front-End Management
   Greater emphasis in starting up projects- Verification of
   objectives, value management, risk management;
Team Building
   Team processes will grow, eg - team empowerment,
   consensus decision-making
Beyond Technical Expertise
   Require PMs whose competency is PM - not technical
   Skills in business, risk, integration - not technical
Virtual teams
   Project teams to be geographically dispersed
     The Professionalism of PM
Project Management Institute
  1969. 44,000. 1998 budget -$12m
  Developed PmBok. Annual Conference
  PM Journal (4) & PM Network (12)
International Project Management Association
  1985. 22 European bodies. 10,000. UK -
   4,000
  International Journal of PM (6)
Australian Institute of Project Management
  1976.2000.Australian Project Manager (12)

				
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