Directing: Delegation, Supervision, and Coordination by 0Ot0AvJ


									  Directing: Delegation, Supervision, and Coordination              8.  Know subordinates’ capabilities and match the
      N-181 Nursing Leadership and Management                           task of duty to the employee
                       GROUP D                                      9. Agree on performance standards
                                                                    10. Give appropriate rewards
    OVERVIEW OF THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS                              11. Do not take back delegated tasks

                                                                            PRINCIPLES OF DELEGATION
                      • Planning
                      • Organizing                              Accountability- the act of accepting ownership for the
                      • Staffing                                               results or lack thereof; shared in
                      • Directing                               Responsibility- denotes an obligation to accomplish a
                      • Coordinating                                           task
                                                               Authority- the right to act/empower
                      • Controlling
                                                                In delegation, responsibility and authority is transferred
    Planning → Organizing → Staffing → Directing →                  while accountability is shared
    Controlling                                                 Remember: you can only delegate those tasks fro
                                                                    which you are responsible. If you don’t have direct
                                                                    responsibility for the task, then you can’t delegate
                                                                    that task. You can only suggest or assist in that task
Directing- “is seeing that individual interests do not              for which you have no direct responsibility. To clearly
interfere with the general interest” (Urwick).                      understand who is responsible, it is important to look
          -“is the issuance of assignments, orders, and             at practice acts, standards of care, job descriptions
instructions that permit the worker to understand what it is        and policy statement.
expected of him or her, and the guidance and overseeing
of the worker so that he or she can contribute effectively
and efficiently to the attainment of organizational                       SIGNIFICANCE OF DELEGATION
objectives” (Douglass).
          - is also implementation, which includes             •    Sometimes, managers must delegate routine tasks
supervision, makinga ssignements and giving directions,             so they can be free to handle things that are more
observation, evaluation, and leadership and interpersonal           complex or require a higher level of expertise.
relationship with co-workers, and maintaining morale.          •    Can be used as a tool for problem-solving
                                                               •    Manager may delegate to someone who is
Nurse management in directing – physical act of                     competent, knowledgeable, has greater expertise or
managing                                                            more prepared to solve a problem.
process by which nursing personnel accomplish the              •   Can also be used as a way to provide learning or
objectives of nursing                                              increasing opportunities for subordinates, thus
                                                                   contributing to employee’s personal and professional
Directing > Delegating > > Supervision > Coordination              development

Delegating- getting work done through employees                              BENEFITS OF DELEGATION
           -    Is a part of management requiring
                professional management training and           I. Benefits to the manager/delegator
                development to accept the hierarchical         •   be able to devote more time to those tasks that can
                responsibilities of delegation                     not be delegated

Reasons for Delegating: (Swansburg)                            •   can develop new skills and abilities facilitating the
   1. Assigning routine tasks                                      opportunity for career advancement
   2. Assigning tasks for which the nurse manager              •   offers a ready replacement if the delegator has an
       does not have time                                          opportunity for advancement
   3. Problem solving
   4. Changes in the nurse manager’s own job                   II. Benefits to the delegatee/staff
       emphasis                                                • gain new skills and abilities that can facilitate upward
   5. Capability building                                           mobility
How to delegate successfully                                   • bring trust and support, thereby building self-esteem
   1. Train and develop subordinates                                and confidence
   2. Plan ahead                                               • help individuals feel more appreciated and learn to
   3. Control and coordinate the work of subordinates               appreciate the roles and responsibilities of others,
   4. Visit subordinates periodically                               increasing cooperation and enhancing teamwork
   5. Coordinate to prevent duplication of effort              • Enhances job satisfaction & motivation as they are
   6. Solve problems and think about new ideas.                     stimulated by new challenges
   7. Accept delegation as desirable
III. Benefits to the patient                                       feedback, and intervening when the task is not being
•   can improve the quality of care
                                                                   completed properly
                                                               - monitoring performance provides a mechanism for
•   can increase patient’s satisfaction                        feedback and control
                                                                 - ensures that the delegated tasks are carried out as
                                                                 - remain accessible to the delegate
                                                                            Delegation involves 3 components:
           Assessment of the 5R’s or 5 Rights                  1. communication of the task to be delegated
                                                               2. mutual agreement
1. Right Task                                                  3. transfer of authority

•   involves careful assessment by the nurse of the
    patient’s needs, contextual setting and thorough                              Steps in Delegation
    knowledge of plan the task entails
•   determine what can and should be delegated                 Planning
                                                               Delegation’s Five ”W”s and an “H” : Who, What, When,
•   delegate only an aspect of your own work for which         Where, Why and How
    you have responsibility and authority
* these include: routine tasks, tasks for which you do not
have time, tasks that have less priority, problem solving,     •   helps the nurse determine that the delegation is going
staff building                                                     as planned
                                                               •   during this phase that nurse identifies problems with
                                                                   the delegation and can institute change
2. Right Circumstances
•   includes an assessment of the patient’s status, the        Evaluation
    routine nature of the task to be delegated and the
    available resources
                                                               •   a continuous process that can be summed up as
•   take into account the staffing initially available to      •   provides vital information about what went wrong with
    render care                                                    the process
•    Before a task is delegated, 2 questions must be           •   nurse provides feedback to the assistant and the
     addressed:                                                    assistant provides feedback to the nurse
i) what areas of authority or what resources must the
      person control to achieve the expected results
ii) what are the limits, boundaries or parameters for each
      area of authority or resource to be used                                  Ineffective Delegation:
3. Right Person
> identify the qualified person best able to complete the      1. Underdelegation
job in terms of capacity/skill/educational level entailed by   Occurs when:
the task and time to do so.                                    •    The delegator fails to transfer full authority to the
> do not ask if they are capable of completing the                  delegatee
delegated task but validate through direct observation
                                                               •    the delegator takes back responsibility for aspects of
                                                                    the task
4. Right Direction/Communication
•   implies that the nurse has conveyed essential details
                                                               •    the delegator fails to equip and direct the delegatee
    of the task to the delegatee that includes what it is to                     Causes of underdelegation
    be done, when it is to be done, how it is to be done,
                                                                      i)      frequently stems from the manager’s false
    guidelines for reporting back, what supervision could
                                                                           assumption that delegation may be interpreted
    be expected, and what resources are available
                                                                           as a lack of ability on his or her part to do the
•    essential that the nurse delegatee verifies that the                  job correctly
    communication was received accurately and solicits                ii)     manager’s desire to complete the whole job
    any questions from the delegatee                                       himslef or herself- lack of trust in the
•   define your expectations for the delegate; convey the
                                                                       “I need the experience.” or “I can do it better/faster
    essential details of the task to the delegate
                                                                           than anyone else.”
                                                                      iii) fear that subordinates will resent having work
5. Right Supervision
                                                                           delegated on them
                                                                      Manager: “They might think I’m a slave driver.” or
- refers to monitoring and evaluating the task through                     “I might be putting too much on their
    nursing rounds, utilizing teaching moments to provide                  shoulders.”
        iv) Manager lacks experience in the job or in           •      Democratic ideal vs. classical hierarchy- which is
          delegation itself.                                           more valued, team work and empowerment, or
        v) Other managers refuse to delegate because                   control and the established hierarchy?
           they have an excessive need to control or to
           be perfect- “obsessive-compulsive”;                  •    Insecurity of the Delegator
           “control freak”
                                                                •    Unwillingness of the Delegatee
                                                                •    Non supportive work environment
2. Overdelegation
                                                                              Common Fears of the Delegator
•    occurs when the delegator loses control over a
     situation by providing the delegatee with too much         •    Fear of Competition or Criticism
     authority or too much responsibility.
                                                                •    Fear of Liability
•    places the delegator in a risky position, increasing the
                                                                •    Fear of Loss of Control
     potential for liability - burdening their subordinates.
                                                                •    Fear of Overburdening Others
                   Causes of Overdelegation
    a) poor time management- spending most of it just               Commonly voiced concerns about delegation:
     trying to get organized                                         - “I can do it better.”
    b) insecurity in their ability to perform a task                 - “I can do it faster.”
                                                                     - “I’d rather do it myself”
                                                                     - “I don’t have time to delegate.”
3. Improper Delegation
Includes:                                                             B.   BARRIERS IN THE DELEGATEE:
     – Delegating at the wrong time                                       Unwillingness
     – delegating at the wrong person                           CAUSES:
     – delegating for the wrong reason                          1) delegatee not equipped to handle the task
                                                                2) lack of confidence
     – delegating tasks and responsibilities that are           3) concern of how mistakes should be handled
       beyond the capability of the person to whom they
                                                                4) avoids responsibility or is overdependent on others-
       are being delegated or that should be done by the
                                                                    feels overburdened
                                                                5) Fear of situation
Example: Delegating decision-making without providing
                                                                6) Lack of positive incentives
    adequate information.

4. Reverse Delegation                                                 C. BARRIERS IN THE SITUATION
•    common form of ineffective delegation that occurs
     when someone with a lower rank delegates to                1. Organizational culture
     someone with more authority.                                  Hierarchies, management styles and norms all
                                                                    preclude delegation.
•    Example: Julius , a staff nurse who says to his                Rigid chains of command and autocratic leadership
     nurse manager, “I’m really swamped today, can                  styles do not facilitate delegation and rarely provide
     you hang Mr. Morales’s chemo so I can go to                    good role models.
     lunch?” Although the nurse manager could assist               * The norm is to do the work oneself because others
     Julius, this is not an efficient use of his/her time.          are incapable or unskilled. This breeds an atmosphere
     Instead the manager could help Julius organize                 of distrust and poor tolerance of mistakes.
     her own time and efficiently delegate some                 - Norm of crisis management
     responsibilities.                                                -   Poorly defined job descriptions or chains of

                                                                 2. Personal qualities
    BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE DELEGATION                            -   poor communication and interpersonal skills
                                                                -   Thomas & Hume (1998)- In addition to good
                                                                   communication skills and respecting and treating the
                                                                   staff fairly, a willingness to work with the other,
           INSECURITY                                             to be open to suggestions, to provide feedback and
•     Trust vs. control- trust is paramount to delegation.         acknowledgement for work well done is essential.
      Trusting others means giving up some control.             - Delegates must be reliable and willing to follow
•     Approval vs. affiliation- which is more important,           instructions.
      the need to be liked or the need to belong and be
      accepted?                                                 3. Resources- lack of:
                                                                -    people to delegate to
                                                                -    finances
      educational resources
                                                              •       -scheduling
                                                              •       supervisor as an organizer and delegator
                                                              •       -sets up the group, allocates resources and assigns
                                                                      work to achieve goals
                                                              •       -gives another person authority and responsibilities
                    SUPERVISION                                       to carry out tasks

•   is guiding and directing the work to be done for the
                                                              •       Supervisor as a leader
    achievement of a purpose                                  •        Supervisor as a controller
                                                                      -makes sure that work goes according to plan
•   the process by which employees are given the
    needed resources to accomplish their jobs
                                                              THE NURSE SUPERVISOR vs SENIOR NURSE/ HEAD
                 GOAL OF SUPERVISION                                            NURSE
•   “To attain quality of care for each patient and to
    develop potentials for effective and efficient                1. CONTROLLING
    performance of workers”                                   •    evaluates personnel performance utilizing the
                                                                  established appraisal system established by the
                                                                  Nursing service
             ESSENTIALS IN SUPERVISION                        •    facilitate the gathering of information pertinent

        Good understanding of administration
                                                                  to progress of nursing care programs/plans of care,
                                                                  status of staff, unit equipment, facilities supplies and
        Clinical competence

        Democratic management
                                                                  2.     UNIT MANAGEMENT
                                                                          Attends /coordinates /participates in staff
                                                                         development activities
                                                                         Evolve staff development activity based on:
    It is focused on improvement of the work rather than               results of personnel performance appraisal
     on upgrading the worker.                                           manifested or expressed personnel needs
    It is based on the needs of individuals which have
     been cooperatively determined.                                                 NURSE SUPERVISOR
    It is cooperatively planned.                                 •       takes the necessary steps to ensure the
    It stimulates the staff to continuous self-
                                                                         maintenance of quality nursing care service
                                                                  •       placement of quality nursing personnel
    It helps create a social psychological and physical
                                                                  •       equitable staffing patterns
     atmosphere in which the individual is free to function
     on her own top level.                                        •       utilization of commendations
                                                                  •       assesses the extent of personnel compliance
                                                                         with established cost effectiveness measures
                                                                  •       measures of effectiveness and efficiency of
    GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF THE SUPERVISOR                                  coordinative activities pertinent to:
    CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD SUPERVISOR                          •      analyzes and utilizes resources
    Has positive attitude                                                              HEAD NURSE
    Loyal                                                        •      ensures adequacy of
    Fair
                                                                         facilities/equipment/supplies/materials pertinent to
                                                                         meeting the needs of clients and personnel
    Good communicator                                                   through sufficiently justified budget proposals
    Has the ability to delegate                                  •       devises control mechanisms to maximize the
                                                                         effectiveness/efficiency of facilities material
                                                                         resources through:

               ROLES OF A SUPERVISOR
                                                                  •       preventive maintenance systems/programs in
                                                                         coordinating with the engineering/plan
    supervisor as a planner                                             maintenace personnel
•    -providing information and estimates                         •      adequate personnel orientation
•    -allocating resources                                        •      Evaluates the performance of personnel based
                                                                         on the evaluation parameters established by the
•    -developing a budget                                                nursing service
   •    assures strict implementation of hospital                      programs, administrative issuances and changes
        policies/rules/regulations through adequate                    in the plans and policy directions problem
        interpretation/orientation of personnel other           h. Problem Solving and Decision Making : When faced
        members of the health team/clientele/public                    with a problem, a nurse with competent problem-
                                                                       solving skills will be able to analyze and prioritize
   •    makes periodic reports relevant to the status of
                                                                       the problem, identify causes and make a sound
        material resources/facilities
   •    assists the nurse supervisor in the
        formulation/consolidation of budget estimates and           2. Commitment
        annual reports                                            The nurse’s commitment to the mission, vision,
                                                                philosophy goals and objectives of the Department of
                                                                Health is a facilitating factor in the performance of her job
                                                                as a supervisor
Community Setting
                                                                    3. Interpersonal Qualities of the Supervisor
     1. Analysis or records and reports
                                                                     a. willingness to supervise and take responsibility
     2. Actual observation of the RHM performance in
                                                                     b. Ability to explain thoroughly and listen actively
          the various situations as in: Clinic work, Home
                                                                     c. Open-mindedness--ability to accept and
          Visit, Conduct of Individual or group classes,
                                                                          withstand criticism
          Organization/implementation of community
                                                                     d. Well-organized
          projects and activities
                                                                     e. Calmness during emergency
     3. Individual/group conferences and meetings
                                                                     f. Persuasiveness
Clinical Setting
                                                                     g. Warmness and optimism
     1. Personnel Policies
                                                                     h. Fairness
     2. Communication Devices
                                                                     i. Patience
     3. Problem-Solving Techniques
                                                                     j. Tact and Discretion
     4. Rounds
                                                                     k. Awareness of limitations and willingness to
     5. Facilities for Operation and Cooperation
                                                                          spend time and effort to improve
     6. Staff, In-Service, and Orientation Program
                                                                     l. Sincerity
                                                                     m. Integrity and Honesty
Factors affecting Supervision
                                                                Problems in Supervision
Factors related to the Supervisor:
                                                                  1. Work problems occurring in the clinical setting:
1. Supervisory Skills
                                                                a. Mistakes in the nature of the forgetting or the omitting
a. Managerial skills: With honed skills, the nurse will be
                                                                of things to be done that should be done
        able to forecast, plan, organize, lead, coordinate
                                                                b. Failure to produce work according to job specifications
        and control her work as well as her supervisee’s
                                                                c. Carelessness in workmanship; poor work
                                                                d. The jeopardizing of safety or being accident-prone;
b. Technical Competence: The nurse’s technical
                                                                wastefulness in terms of time, effort, material
        knowledge is one of her bases of authority.
                                                                e. Beginners given to the taking of unsafe shortcuts,
c. Coaching and Training: If the nurse is able to train her
                                                                using equipment for purposes other than those fir
        supervisees by using coaching as a method of
                                                                which they are intended, and being time- rather than
        teaching, among others, then the assets of the
                                                                service minded in caring for patients.
        Health Unit will be enhanced
d. Guidance and Counseling : The competent and
                                                                  2. Problems involved in the observance of policies,
        respected supervisor will be able to help the
                                                                procedures, and other guides
        midwives become mature, well-adjusted, and
                                                                a. Conscious and deliberate deviation from guides
        emotionally stable.
                                                                b. The issuing of inadequate records and reports
e. Interpersonal Relations : The ability of the nurse to
                                                                c. The assuming of privileges not provided in policies and
        maintain good interpersonal relations will enable
                                                                the abusing of such as are provided
        her to get along with other people and win the
                                                                d. Carelessness in the care and maintenance of
        cooperation of her supervisees, superiors,
                                                                institutional and patient’s property
        colleagues, and the public.
                                                                e. Over-use of “time-out” when on duty, for smoking,
f. Leadership: The nurse’s leadership ability will facilitate
                                                                gossiping, and loafing
        the completion of the HM’s work targets,
        achievement of the individual worker’s needs, and
                                                                3. Problems that involve attitudes and appreciations
        the maintenance of the team’s morale and
                                                                a. Procrastination or utter insubordination
                                                                b. The assuming of responsibility beyond the level of
g. Communication: Effective communication is an
        important ingredient of leadership. The effective
                                                                c. The use of unprofessional language or conduct
        supervisor keeps the HMs informed and updated
                                                                d. Speaking disparagingly of supervisors, doctors and the
        of the Department’s policies, objectives, and
                                                                hospital, with resultant confusion to the patients and to
                                                                the public
e. The inability or unwillingness to work together with                                 contribution, and a realization of joy of
others                                                                                  work and security
f. Carrying an air of condescension toward students,                     4.   To utilize every opportunity possible for the
practical nurses, and aides; unwillingness to guide or                        development of good public relations:
 assist them.                                                                     a. By setting an example of good
4. Nursing Service vs. Nursing Education Problems                                 b. By teaching and meeting the needs of
a. Lack of knowledge or unwillingness to make                                           people.
assignments so as to provide the maximum of values
from the available teaching opportunities                         Supervisory Plans
b. Failure on the part of staff nurses and head nurses to              These are derived from the plans of higher levels of
realize their responsibility for the supervision and              management. Usually, the planning information that
follow up of student nurses and aides                             comes from upper management is general in nature.
c. Inadequate orientation programs with subsequent                     Developing a detailed plan involves answering the
dissatisfactions with rotations, promotions, and salary           following questions:
arrangements                                                           “What must be done?”
d. Failure to provide opportunity for personnel to attend              “Why must it be done?”
and to participate in meetings and in-service programs                 “Where should it be done?”
                                                                       “Who should do it?”
5. Intangible and unpredictable problems of                            “How should it be done?”
a. Illness, death, or accidents to members in the family,
causing emotional, social, and economic pressures apart
from work
b. Unforeseen personal health problems of personnel                                     COORDINATION
with possible changes in capacity for work.
                                                                  •     The act of assembling and synchronizing people and
                                                                        activities so that they function harmoniously in the
SUPERVISORY VISITS                                                      attainment of organizational activities (Haimann,
     -tours or excursions into areas where patients are
cared for, where personnel operate, where intra- and              •     Preventive managerial function concerned with
interdepartmental communications take place, where                      heading off conflict and misunderstanding.
facilities for operation in terms of equipment and supplies
are discernible, for the purpose of ensuring adequate
nursing care through the stimulation, promotion, and                          COORDINATION vs COOPERATION
development of personnel on the job.
                                                                  •     Cooperation merely indicates the willingness of
                                                                        individuals to help each other; it is the result of a
                                                                        voluntary attitude of a group of people.
Purpose of Supervisory Visits
    1. To ensure adequate nursing care and patient                •     Coordination is much more inclusive, requiring more
        satisfaction:                                                   than the mere desire and willingness of the
             a. By obtaining an _expression of the                      participants.
                  desires, likes, and dislikes of a patient       •     Coordination is more important than cooperation.
             b. By observing his mental and physical                    Coordination is a conscious effort to tie the activities
                  reactions to nursing care and treatment               together.
             c. By ensuring “tender loving care” to
                  patients, particularly the critically ill and
                  dying.                                                        THE NEED FOR COORDINATION
    2. To provide administrative satisfaction to the
                                                                  •     A high degree of coordination is likely to be beneficial
                                                                        for work that is non routine and unpredictable, for
             a. By provision and maintenance of
                                                                        work in which factors in environment are changing,
                  adequate equipment and supplies.
                                                                        and for work in which task interdependence is high.
             b. By ensuring proper care, use, and
                  preservation of equipment.
             c. By eliciting ideas and suggestions for
                                                                                  ROLE OF A COORDINATOR
                  improved working facilities
                                                                      A coordinator should be aware of who is doing what and
    3. To stimulate, promote, and develop personnel
                                                                        what the outcome should be and has the responsibility
        on the job:
                                                                        to make sure the specific and interrelated tasks are
             a. By establishing rapport, good will, and
                  personal interest in growth and
                  development, and the desire to do well.
                                                                              THREE APPROACHES TO EFFECTIVE
             b. By detecting potentialities for growth
                                                                               COORDINATION IN MANAGEMENT
                  and encouraging their development
             c. By creating a sense of need and
                  belongingness, opportunity for                  •       Basic Management Techniques
•    Increasing Coordination Potential
                                                            Coordination is interwoven with other elements of
•    Reducing the Need for Coordination
                                                            •   Planning
                                                              Nurses should be involved in planning or hospital
                                                                layouts. Includes a plan for necessary budget of
    APPROACHES TO EFFECTIVE COORDINATION:                       the units, including supplies and equipment.
                                                            •   Organizing
1. BASIC MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES                                 Delegating, accountability and evaluation are
                 Managerial Hierarchy                         necessary in the synchronization of nursing
                                                               personnel’s work in the different units so that
                 Rules and Procedures                         each one becomes part of a whole.
                  Plans and Goals
2. INCREASING COORDINATION POTENTIAL                        B. Coordination with other Institutions
 Vertical Information System                                   Comprehensive care to patients oftentimes
    - the means by which data are transmitted up and            necessitates coordination with civic groups or
    down the levels of the organization                         institutions outside the hospital. This includes
                                                                community agencies that relate to the total care of
 Lateral Relationships                                         the patient.
    - permit the information to be exchanged and
    decisions to be made at the level where the needed           BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COORDINATION
    information actually exists.                                1. Growth of an organization
                                                                2. Specialization
3. REDUCING THE NEED FOR COORDINATION                           1. Human nature
 Creating Slack Resources
    Providing slack (additional) resources gives units
    leeway in meeting each other’s requirements.
 Creating Independent Units
    Units that can perform all the necessary aspects of a
    task internally.                                                      CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

                                                            Conflict is generally defined as the internal or external
                                                            discord that results from difference in ideas, values, or
                                                            feelings between two or more people.
                                                                I.          History of Conflict Management
1. VERTICAL COORDINATION                                        A.     Early 20 Century Views
                                                                B.     Mid-20 Century Views
•   Between the different levels of an organization             C.     Interactionist theories of the 1970’s
•   Achieved by delegating authority, assigning duties,
    and supervising and controlling                             II.          Categories of Conflict
                                                                A.     Intrapersonal Conflict – the internal struggle to
Effective vertical coordination is better achieved by                  clarify contradictory values or wants
    performing the managerial functions wisely instead of       B.     Interpersonal Conflict – happens between two or
    relying on the weight of formal authority.                         more people with differing values, goals, and
2. HORIZONTAL COORDINATION                                      C.     Intergroup Conflict – occurs between two or
                                                                       more groups of people, departments, or
•   Exists between persons and departments on the                      organizations
    same organizational levels
•   Achieved by a policy and procedure stating that when        III.       Conflict Process
    necessary, departments must interact, cooperate and         A.     Stage 1 – Latent Conflict
    adjust their activities to achieve coordination.            B.     Stage 2 - Perceived Conflict
                                                                C.     Stage 3 – Felt Conflict
3. DIAGONAL COORDINATION                                        D.     Stage 4 – Manifest Conflict
                                                                       Stage 5 – Conflict Aftermath
•   Cuts across the organizational arrangements, ignoring
    positions and levels.                                       IV.      Conflict Management Strategies
•   Easier to achieve in smaller organizations                  A. Compromising – each party gives up something
                                                                    it wants
                                                                B. Competing approach – one party pursues what it
TYPES OF COORDINATION:                                              wants at the expense of the others
                                                                C. Cooperating approach – one party sacrifices and
A. Intraorganizational Coordination
                                                                    allows the other party to win
D. Accommodating approach – collecting I-owe-
E. Smoothing – used to get someone to cooperate
   with another party, focus on agreements rather
   than differences
F. Avoiding – parties aware of conflict and choose
   not to acknowledge or attempt to solve it
G. Collaborating – assertive means that result to
   win-win situation

V.         Strategies on Managing Unit Conflict
A.    Urging Confrontation
B.    Third-party Consultation
C.    Behavior change
D.    Responsibility Charting
E.    Structure Change
F.    Soothing One Party

VI.       Negotiation

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