PROJECT INFORMATION DOCUMENT (PID)
                                 APPRAISAL STAGE
                                                                               Report No.: AB1946

 Project Name                   Balochistan Small Scale Irrigation Project
 Region                         SOUTH ASIA
 Sector                         Irrigation and drainage (100%)
 Project ID                     P089378
 Borrower(s)                    PAKISTAN AND BALOCHISTAN GOV
 Implementing Agency
 Environment Category           [ ] A [X] B [ ] C [ ] FI [ ] TBD (to be determined)
 Safeguard Classification       [ ] S1 [X] S2 [ ] S3 [ ] SF [ ]
 Date PID Prepared              February 28, 2008
 Date of Appraisal              November 22, 2005
 Date of Board Approval         February 26, 2008

1. Country and Sector Background

Balochistan is the largest of Pakistan’s four provinces, covering 44 percent of the country’s area,
but it has the lowest population density in the country with a population of only 7.8 million.
Balochistan is Pakistan’s least developed province; the number of people living below the
poverty line in Balochistan is significantly higher than the national average. As in greater
Pakistan, agriculture is the mainstay of Balochistan’s economy, accounting for some 60 percent
of the province’s GDP and employing around 67 percent of the labor force. Both crops and
livestock are critical to rural livelihoods, and they contribute about 62 percent and 38 percent of
gross farm income, respectively. The most important products are millet, wheat, apples,
vegetables, grapes, milk and meat.

Balochistan is unique in terms of the different types of irrigated agriculture being practiced and
the issues related to sustainable use of scare water resources (annual average rainfall is less than
200 mm). Until 1997, the irrigated area in Balochistan was about 1.7 million ha (about 5 percent
of the total land area of 350,000 square kilometers), of which 0.83 million ha (50 percent) was
irrigated by perennial irrigation, and the balance by either flood diversion or spate irrigation
(sailaba) or by water harvesting (kushkhaba) systems. During the drought period (1998-2004)
the irrigated area shrank by more than 50 percent, which negatively impacted livelihood patterns,
earning activities, and the natural resource base. Thus, better management of these scarce
resources remains a critical issue for rural development and poverty reduction in Balochistan.

The Pishin Lora Basin (PLB) is a major river basin in Balochistan (16,928 sq. km with 10
subbasins) spread over five districts—Pishin, Killa, Abdullah, Quetta, Mastung, and Kalat—with
a total population of about 1.2 million. Like the rest of the province, drought has taken its toll on
the livelihood patterns of the local population due to drying up of the irrigation and potable water
resources – surface and ground – degradation of range lands, reduction in agriculture production,
and devastation of economic activities as a whole.
A number of issues underpinning the present water crisis will be addressed by this project:

       Extended Drought and its Impact on the Natural Resource Base. Balochistan has
        been under severe drought conditions since 1998. The long dry spell has taken its toll on
        the livelihood patterns of local population as irrigation and potable water resources have
        dried up. Water availability in the Bund Khushdil Khan (BKK) reservoir (the major
        reservoir in the region) was drastically reduced during the drought. In 1954-61, the peak
        season, 2000 hectares in the BKK command area were under surface irrigation. That
        amount has dwindled to about 350 hectares now. The surface and groundwater
        availability decreased, rangelands degraded, agricultural activities significantly reduced,
        and economic activities were severely curtailed. The poor and marginalized sections of
        the society were affected the most.

       Poor Watershed Management. Local communities urgently need to change their pattern
        of land and associated resource use to improve the long-term sustainability of the
        environment and their livelihoods. All watersheds are in a very poor state and are mostly
        degraded. The government departments have made some efforts in the basin to improve
        conditions, but due to the isolated nature of the activities, appreciable impact has not been
        observed. These efforts need continuity and a longer-term vision. Intensive activities are
        needed in the area to rehabilitate the watersheds in close collaboration with the
        Agriculture, Irrigation, and Forest departments and local communities. Moreover, some
        of the existing irrigation systems are affected by silting and erosion.

       Inefficient Use of Water by Agriculture. Irrigation practices followed in the province
        are inefficient. Orchards in particular are irrigated by flooding entire fields, which
        reduces water use efficiency to below 30 percent. The water conveyance channels from
        source to the farms are mostly unlined causing seepage losses of up to 45-50 percent.
        Data collected by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) from a
        bubbler irrigation demonstration project installed on two hectares of land near Quetta
        estimated the water use efficiency of farmers’ flood irrigation practices to be below 20
        percent. Bubbler irrigation increased the efficiency to 90 percent.

       Depleting Groundwater Tables. In the absence of assured surface water supplies,
        people depend heavily on the groundwater to meet their requirements. According to
        recent studies (2006) under the Balochistan Resource Management Program (BRMP),1
        the number of tubewells swelled from 8,063 in 1985 to 31,770 in 2002-03. The continued
        over-pumping of groundwater has depleted freshwater resources in many areas. This
        problem has become more acute in the recent years due to the extended drought. The
        most affected areas lie in the upland Balochistan and are particularly concentrated in the
        Pishin Lora Basin (PLB). It is estimated that the depletion of groundwater is taking place
        at rates exceeding three meters per year in many places. Nevertheless, the winter rains of
        2004-05 and recently 2006-07 have led to considerably rapid localized recovery of some
        of these systems that depend on shallow alluvial aquifers.

 The Technical Assistance Project entitled, “Supporting Public Resource Management in Balochistan”, is being
implemented by the ADB with the support of the Government of Balochistan under the ADB funded, Balochistan
Resource Management Programme. The TA is financed by the Royal Government of the Netherlands.
      Institutional Weakness and Lack of Community Involvement. Poor governance, low
       institutional capacity, and lack of political will and commitment by the public sector to
       address the water crisis in a planned and systematic way are common water issues in
       Balochistan. GoB departments lack well-qualified, trained, and experienced personnel,
       and existing staff are occupied with the operation and maintenance of current schemes.
       Thus, little capacity exists to conduct technical surveys and holistically plan and design
       new projects. Moreover, irrigation service delivery is handled in isolation between the
       agriculture and irrigation sectors At the community level, there is little interaction or
       information exchange among communities and the government on the options available
       to them to increase water productivity in a long term basis.

2. Objectives

The Balochistan Small-scale Irrigation Project (BSSIP) will support efforts by the Government
of Balochistan (GOB) to improve the management of scarce water resources in the Pishin Lora
Basin (PLB) by reducing the overall impact of the present water crisis. Project activities are
designed to recognize the importance of direct participation of water users and other
stakeholders. Key indicators include (i) increased surface water availability and reduced
groundwater depletion; (ii) increased water productivity through a combination of engineering,
management, and agricultural measures; and (iii) expanded local capacity and participation of
farmers to implement similar schemes and formulate plans for sustainable water resources
development and watershed management.

3. Rationale for Bank Involvement

The Bank can use its global knowledge and experience in the water resources sector to assist
GoB in its efforts to properly manage its water and land resources and build capacity among its
farmers and water professionals. The technical assistance support is particularly important for
watershed restoration and on farm development. To manage the scarce water resources a
conjunctive use of surface and groundwater is needed. The Bank’s experience implementing
similar projects in Balochistan—such as the Balochistan Community Irrigation and Agriculture
Project (BCIAP)—provided valuable experiences and it was satisfactory at its completion.. This
places the Bank in a prime position to help GoB achieve its objectives.

4. Project Description

The Balochistan Small-scale Irrigation Project (BSSIP) will support efforts by the GoB to
improve the management of scarce water resources in the Pishin Lora Basin (PLB). Project
activities are designed to recognize the importance of direct participation of water users and
other stakeholders. Key indicators include: (i) increased surface water availability and reduced
groundwater depletion; (ii) increased water productivity through a combination of engineering,
management, and agricultural measures; and (iii) expanded local capacity and participation of
farmers to implement similar schemes and formulate plans for sustainable water resources
development and watershed management.
The project will initially focus in the PLB in the northern part of Balochistan, and it will have
three components: (a) partial restoration of water storage capacity in the Bund Khushdil Khan
(BKK); (b) development of small-scale irrigation schemes in the PLB; and (c) institutional
strengthening and capacity building of the Irrigation and Power Department (IPD), water
management institutions, and farmer and community organizations and further studies and
preparation activities for the next phase. Improved watershed and rangeland management and
on-farm water management, including introduction of high efficiency irrigation systems, will be
integral components.

Component A: Partial Restoration of Water Storage Capacity of the Bund Khushdil Khan
Reservoir – US$ 10.80 million

This component aims to help in restoring the hydrological balance in the basin by partially
restoring the storage capacity of the BKK reservoir, facilitating the recharge of the aquifer, and
improving conveyance efficiency and water management efficiency at the farm level. It will raise
the BKK level, construct a protective “encroacher’s bund”, remodel the feeder canals, repair the
headworks, repair the outlet channel, and initiate on-farm water management (OFWM) activities
in the BKK command area. Alternatives to improving conveyance and on-farm introduction of
new technologies will be offered to farmers (estimated 400 ha of high efficiency irrigation
systems). The BKK watershed will also be the pilot watershed basin for planning, implementing,
and monitoring the different structural and non-structural measures to help rehabilitate the
watershed and rangelands. A total of 8,165 ha are to be treated. This component will generate
on-farm and off-farm employment opportunities in the command areas of the BKK.

Component B: Small-scale Irrigation Schemes –US$ 9.66 million

This component will improve the present operation of approximately 15 small-scale irrigation
schemes (SSIS) in the Pishin Lora Basin. Activities will include improving existing karezes,
providing flood protection, lining irrigation channels, and providing associated structures such as
flow division and small storage tanks. These schemes are similar to those undertaken in previous
Bank projects, where farmers have demonstrated that they can take full control and maintain
these systems. This component will also provide greater focus on farmer participation through
on-the-job training to develop skills for SSIS operation and maintenance. Finally, this component
will include watershed and rangeland activities and introduce on-farm water management
(OFWM) in the project areas and beyond. OFWM practices will focus on introducing and
propagating high efficiency irrigation systems and helping farmers conserve precious
groundwater through proper conveyance systems and efficient use. The project will require that
beneficiaries contribute 10 percent to the capital costs2 of the identified SSIS and 100 percent to
the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of all development works.

 Cash contributions will be equal to 2 percent of the capital cost of scheme and labour contributions will be 8
percent of the capital cost of scheme.
Component C: Institutional Capacity Building, Further Studies and Preparation of the Next Phase
– US$ 4.54 million

This component will enhance the technical, administrative, and managerial capacity of the
Irrigation and Power Department (IPD) and other water management affiliated departments
through training, technical advisory services, and appropriate study tours on water management.
The project will also support formation and capacity building of Farmers Organizations (FO) and
Community Organizations (CO) to ensure they are participatory, inclusive, and well-governed,
and that they are trained in activities such as restoration and management of watersheds and
rangelands and in the implementation and operation and maintenance of irrigation schemes.
Finally, this component will examine the potential for similar activities to be undertaken in other
basins—such as, the Nara, Porali and Rakshan river basins—and prepare a feasibility report
documenting key findings and costs. Lessons learned during implementation of the project will
be reflected in the studies of future interventions in other basins in Balochistan.

5. Financing

Source:                                                                           ($m.)
INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION                                               25

6. Implementation

Partnership arrangements

The Asian Development Bank, with funding from the Royal Government of the Netherlands, is
implementing a project called “Supporting Public Resource Management” (SPRM) in
Balochistan with the IPD under the Balochistan Resource Management Programme. SPRM will
support the implementation of the Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) Policy
recently prepared by GoB. In particular, the SPRM will support further research and data
analysis in key areas such as preparing management plans, cropping patterns in irrigated and
non-irrigated areas, the potential for recharging the groundwater aquifers using techniques—such
as delayed action dams, etc. The project will work in conjunction with these initiatives and
maintain close coordination.

Institution and implementation arrangements

The Balochistan Irrigation and Power Department (IPD) will implement the BSSIP with one
project implementation unit (PIU) for the Pishin Lora Basin, which will be located within the
IPD. The PIU is responsible for promoting (a) strong community participation in planning,
implementation and operation of all project activities and (b) efficient project implementation
and sustainability after project completion.

Provincial level. An inter-departmental Project Steering Committee (PSC) for the Pishin Lora
Basin has been established and will provide policy guidance and inter-agency coordination at
the highest level. The Secretaries of IPD, Agriculture, Forest and Wildlife, Planning and
Development, and Finance, representation from IUCN, and the Project Director (PD) will be
invited to participate. The PD will be responsible for convening PSC meetings with the
Additional Chief Secretary (Development) serving as Chairperson. The PSC will, inter alia, (i)
approve policies aimed at realizing full project benefits; (ii) coordinate inputs from other
government departments; (iii) approve annual work plans; (iv) approve key project outputs
including all screening reports; and (v) monitor the project implementation progress. The PSC
will meet at least once every three months

Project Implementation Unit. The Project PC-1, including staff and operating cost of a fully
established PIU, was approved by the National Committee of the Working Party in January
2007. A full-time Project Director (PD) of the PIU, also the Secretary of the PSC, is a technical
person from the IPD,3 who is responsible for overall coordination, monitoring, and management
of the project. The PD will perform the functions of Secretary of the Steering Committee of the

The PD will be assisted by design and supervision consultants (DSC) who will have expertise
and operational staff with skills in irrigation systems design and construction supervision,
reservoir management, social mobilization, watershed and rangeland management, community
development, groundwater management, irrigation and agronomy, cash crop agronomy (apples
or grapes), environmental expertise, agricultural economics (monitoring and evaluation) and
gender development.

Institutional Arrangements for Community Participation Early social mobilization and
strengthening of appropriate institutions will be critical in ensuring success. The basic building
block is the Community Organization (CO). The development of small-scale irrigation schemes
will be a central theme for the CO, which will represent all the scheme beneficiaries who have
agreed to participate in the development process. This will be referred to as the Farmer
Organization (FO). For watershed and range management interventions, communities will form
Village Watershed Management Committees (VWMC) for effective community participation.
The project will build capacity at the local level to ensure that CO/FO/VWMCs are participatory,
inclusive, equitable and well governed, and that they will promote social cohesion and collective
action. It is expected that they will carry out planning according to local needs; better share
resources, especially water; reduce delivery costs, and ensure sustainable operations and
maintenance with technical backstopping where required.

Community Support Groups (CSG), part of the design and supervision consultants, will reach
out to communities to help them mobilize themselves and build social capital. Staffing would
primarily comprise male and female social mobilizers with limited assistance from social
development staff in the Community Irrigation Services Unit (CISU). 4 CISU has been
strengthened during the preparation phase of BSSIP, and it has been actively engaged in

  The Project Director was approved by the Chief Minister (Balochistan) in March 2007 and is of Basic Pay Scale
(BPS) Grade 19.
  This unit was established in 1999 as the social mobilization arm of the IPD. Its tasks include registering Farmer
Organizations under the Balochistan Community Irrigation Farmer Organization (CIFO) Regulations (under the
BIDA Act of April 2000). The Unit has regulated and monitored FO performance under the BCIAP; however, since
the closure of the project in 2002 and due to shortage of funds, the Unit lost some of its capacity with eight
professional and seven support staff, but little else in terms of logistical support.
preparation of the Resetlement Action Plan, community awareness-raising, signing of
Memoranda of Understanding with beneficiaries, and monitoring, FOs on SSIS.

The DSC will continue to work closely with CISU to facilitate and coordinate FO strengthening
activities including information dissemination on better water management and agricultural
practices to the community. The DSC will also be responsible for ongoing internal monitoring
and evaluation of the social mobilization and participation component of the project.

Monitoring and evaluation of outcomes/results

The project will create an effective external monitoring and evaluation system to monitor project
operational efficiency and effectiveness and to indicate when design adjustments or policy
refinements are needed. The proposed monitoring and evaluation system will involve not only
monitoring physical implementation, environmental, and other parameters as part of baseline and
regular monitoring studies, but it will also develop a system of benchmarking from a
performance viewpoint. The focus will be on qualitative social outcomes of participation in
decision-making, equity, and improved livelihoods. These parameters would be monitored
closely and reported in a usable and transparent manner.

A comprehensive socio-economic baseline was established during project preparation based on
reconnaissance within the BKK command area and SSIS. Random sampling was undertaken of
approximately 10 percent of resident households in the BKK command.5 The total number of
households sampled was 279. For SSIS, which have a smaller population, every resident
household was included in the survey. Subsequent project impacts will be monitored against this
socio-economic baseline.

A project report will be prepared every six months and a copy submitted to the Bank. The report
will present the status and results of program implementation, achievements and constraints. The
main result indicators for this project will be:

            Crop areas and yields;
            Water productivity statistics (e.g. water losses);
            Improved irrigation efficiency;
            Groundwater table levels;
            Income and employment;
            FO/CO participation and inclusion;
            Reduced soil erosion and runoff from watershed;
            Improved ecological conditions of rangelands;

    The technique allows selection of a sample from population with equal interval. It was decided to consider every
     house as a sampling unit. The 10 percent sample size means selection of one house in a sample after regular
     interval of 10 houses. In all villages a substantial number of households are temporary settlers mainly tenant
     farmers or laborers. They are not permanent settlers of villages and are not landowners. They usually live for
     shorter periods and work as tenants at will and were excluded from the baseline as non representative of the entire
The PIU, with assistance from CISU social development staff, will monitor and evaluate
safeguard policies, particularly resettlement compensation to determine if the prescribed
procedures have been followed and whether the affected persons are at least no worse off than
before the project.

Communities will actively participate in monitoring project activities, and a benchmarking
system for FOs will be started. This will compare the basic indicators from the Benchmarking of
Irrigation Systems developed by the International Program for Technology and Research in
Irrigation and Drainage (IPTRID) and the WB. A consulting firm will carry out an independent
third party impact evaluation prior to project closure. This will analyze the impact of project
implementation and assess the adequacy of design and implementation methodologies.

7. Sustainability

Borrower commitment is evident from their willingness to: (a) finance feasibility studies of the
BKK and SSIS; (b) initiate desilting works around the outlet structure with an initial investment
of Rs. 4.0 million; (c) auhorize a project preparation facility in January 2006 to carry out the
necessary design of the BKK and related works on other subprojects; (d) sign a Memorandum of
Understanding with BKK beneficiaries and prepare a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP); and (e)
start the bidding process for civil works of BKK and consulting services for project
implementation (both ICB).

The project will support the creation and strengthening of institutions necessary for supporting
comprehensive water management and continued adoption of improved management practices.
Improving farmer managed water distribution networks and introducing timely and reliable
water supplies for ensuring long-term improvements in water productivity.

The project will pilot modern technical and management approaches (e.g., intensification and
diversification) which should yield benefits in terms of replicable expansion of these efforts in a
learning framework. Continued extension services coupled with appropriate agriculture
development policies will be critical to sustaining the benefits of agricultural intensification and

The development of rangelands as community resources will help improve, in a sustainable
manner, the living standards of the poorer sections. The environmental and social benefits from
adopting water saving management and improved cropping practices are expected to be
significant and sustainable.

Community mobilization, training, and capacity building should yield direct and indirect long-
term benefits to the communities. Developing linkages with local institutions capable of
providing technical backstopping will assist communities as they evolve and strengthen.

The knowledge-base created should improve awareness, mainstream environmental and social
development objectives, and create an enabling environment for sustained development.
8. Lessons Learned from Past Operations in the Country/Sector

The Bank’s main lessons learned in irrigation development from previous experiences are that:
(a) sustainability of interventions in the irrigation and drainage sector warrants intensive
participation of farmers and development of partnerships with irrigation service providers 6 for
technical backstopping; (b) a phased and progressive approach to policy reforms is more likely to
build ownership and ensure sustainability; and (c) a clear incentive structure should be
established for farmer participation to reward commitment and prevent potential moral hazard.

The proposed project has incorporated these lessons in designing the overall project content.
First, the project strongly supports the participation of farmers in the construction, operation and
maintenance of the irrigation schemes supported by the project. Second, the strategy envisaged
under the project is not conceived as a pilot, as it will initially cover a significant basin in
Balochistan and move gradually to other basins. Thirdly, the farmers will actively participate in
the watershed management activities and on-farm development to guarantee ownership. Strong
technical support component will assist the introduction of modern agriculture technology and

The lessons learned from the implementation of the BCIAP have also been reflected in the
project design. The proposed project emphasizes community mobilization early in the project
implementation so that the communities become more confident and are able to continue the
envisaged activities beyond the project period. Moreover, cost-sharing arrangements like the
ones used in BCIAP have also been made to ensure ownership. Selection of the schemes and the
detailed studies required for implementation have been carried out for the first project year.

The Bank’s main lessons learned in effective management of groundwater resources are that: (a)
economic incentives and energy pricing are fundamental; (b) sustainability is dependent on
strong stakeholder participation; (c) the introduction of support programs and modern irrigation
methods are necessary to support farm incomes and employment to reduce reliance on
groundwater aquifers; (d) good governance through legal and regulatory institutions and
enforcement of legislation are needed; and e) approaching groundwater management in a phased
approach after experimenting and replicating what works. The proposed project will incorporate
these lessons through the implementation of a groundwater management action plan with the
close involvement of FO/COs and the IPD.

9. Safeguard Policies (including public consultation)

                              Policies                                             Applicability
      Environmental Assessment (OP 4.01, BP 4.01, GP 4.01                    Yes
      Natural Habitat (OP 4.04, BP 4.04, GP 4.04)                            No
      Forestry (OP 4.36, GP 4.36)                                            No
      Pest Management (OP 4.09)                                              No
      Cultural Property (OPN 11.03)                                          No
      Indigenous People (OD 4.20)                                            No

    These include the public sector and private sector NGOs and private limited companies.
                            Policies                            Applicability
  Involuntary Resettlement (OP 4.12, BP 4.12) (OD 4.30)   Yes
  Safety of Dams (OP 4.37, BP 4.37)                       No
  Projects in International Waters (OP 7.50, BP 7.50)     Yes
  Projects in Disputed Areas (OP 7.60, BP 7.60)           No

10. List of Factual Technical Documents

11. Contact point
Contact: Manuel Contijoch Escontria
Title: Sr Water Resources Spec.
Tel: (202) 473-3919
Fax: (202) 522-2420

12. For more information contact:
      The InfoShop
      The World Bank
      1818 H Street, NW
      Washington, D.C. 20433
      Telephone: (202) 458-5454
      Fax: (202) 522-1500

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