Celtic Britain

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					                                                                                           Opelika High School
                                         Celtic Britain                                AP & Honors English 12
                                                                                     Anglo-Saxon History Notes

                               8th Century B.C.—1st Century A.D.
                                                                                                   Dr. Hannah

Who were the Celts?                                           o Multiple gods and goddesses
  Nomadic people from European mainland                      o Druids
        o Settled in southern Britain                  Artists
        o Lived in villages, not cities or             Warriors
            towns                                      Athletes
                Clans                                 Lovers of Words & Sounds
                Chiefs                                       o Oral Language
  Religious People                                                 Bards
        o Matriarchal                                                       CuChulain
                                                              o Musicians
                                        Roman Britain
                                  1st Century B.C.—5th Century A.D.
Early Invasions
    55 B.C. ________________________________________________________________________
          o Had never faced Celts using these tactics
          o Claimed Britain for Rome and then left

    43 A.D. ________________________________________________________________________
          o Annexed Britain as part of Rome

             o Permanently assigned troops to ______________________________________________
Celts have three choices.
    Run
             o _________________________________________________________________

             o _________________________________________________________________

             o _________________________________________________________________

             o _________________________________________________________________

             o _________________________________________________________________
    Fight
                Boudicca _______________________________________________________________
                   After death of her husband in 60 A.D., Romans had her publically flogged and her
                    four daughters raped in a show of force.
                   She led the Iceni to destroy the Roman city of Camolodunum and massacre all
                    Roman citizens there.
                   After destroying the 9th Legion, she led the Iceni to _________________________
                           —over 70,000 Roman citizens killed.
                   Two Roman legions, the 14th and the 20th, combined to defeat the Iceni. Boudicca
                    poisoned herself rather than surrender.
                   Nero sent 5,000 reinforcements from Germany. The Roman army massacred all
                    Druids in Britain.
   Stay
           o After a century or so of unrest, the two groups, the Celts and the Romans, begin to work
             together as the Romans begin enforcing the ________________________ across Britain.
Benefits of the Pax Romana
        o Common people could move around without fear of attack from outlaws.
        o The Roman army began enlisting British young men as soldiers, teaching them Latin and
          paying them with Roman coins.
        o A British man who served in the Roman army for 20 years retired with a pension and full
          Roman citizenship.

        o The Roman administrators organized Britain with prefects and governors, allowing Britain
          to function as a united country rather than feuding tribes.
        o Roman government provided a standard currency for Britain.

        o Paved roads across Britain that are still used today.
        o Stone walls around its cities in Britain. The Emperor Hadrian built a wall across northern
          Britain to keep the Scots out— “Hadrian’s Wall” which still exists.
        o Villas and baths as vacation sites which still exist. Many of these structures had running
          water and central heating.
        o Harbors and lighthouses on the coast of the English Channel.

        o Provided Britain with a written language.
        o Formed a “bridge” between Britain and the rest of Roman Europe.
        o Spread by way of the army and the government giving Britain names that we still use. Any
          town or city whose name ends with “chester” was a Roman camp at one time—Colchester,
          Winchester, Dorchester, for example.

        o Given official status by the Emperor Constantine in the year 300 A.D.
        o Provided another “bridge” between Britain and Roman Europe.
        o Reinforced the use of Latin throughout Britain.
        o Reinforced the need for a written language in Britain.
        o Absorbed Celtic feast days and traditions in order to be more accepted by the British.
The Romano-British
   Over 300 years of Roman rule, the British and the Romans intermarried, becoming “Romano-
    British,” Roman citizens by heritage, but British by birth.
   The entire Roman Empire came under heavy pressure from Germanic tribes in the early
    5th Century.
   Rome began to withdraw its military and government from its borders, including Britain.
   While many Roman citizens and members of the military left Britain, many others considered
    themselves “British” first and stayed.
   Military and government functions did not disappear, but they lost central command and fell back to
    regional or local control.

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