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HSBC Rail Business Awards by r2XDMtZ2

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									HSBC Rail Business Awards
                     Submission by: Southern Railway

Categories: Engineering Excellence and Information Technology Excellence
1. Summary
Southern and HSBC Rail had 46 ‘Class 455’ rolling stock units that were experiencing an ongoing series of
engineering faults resulting in about 56 cancellations and 2,300 minutes delays every 4-week period. The trouble
was, there was no discernable pattern to the faults.

Their partnership created TAPAS, an innovation which, for the first time in the UK, downloaded and analysed on-
train data from multiple units and multiple journeys.

TAPAS now identifies intermittent faults and even predicts faults before they happen, delivering a 63% reduction
in delays, a 66% reduction in cancellations and £1.1m per year reduction in franchise fines.


2. Key facts about Southern
Southern is a train operator that:
   Provides services in south London and between central London and the south coast.
   Carried over 140 million passengers last year.
   Employs 4,000 staff.
   Manages 162 stations.
   Operates and maintains a fleet of 300 new and refurbished trains.


3. Southern’s commitment to innovation
Ever since Southern’s franchise began in 2003 Southern has always taken a long-sighted view towards its
performance. This has resulted in a commitment to innovation and sustainable development that we proudly
believe sets us apart from other operators.

Over the past five years we have enjoyed a host of breakthroughs and industry firsts in areas as diverse and
community engagement, waste management, passenger security, energy efficiency, and in particular,
engineering. This submission explores one of the engineering breakthroughs that we are most proud of: TAPAS.


4. Southern’s priorities
Following consultation with our Stakeholder Advisory Board, the following priorities were defined:
   1. Accessibility.
   2. Safety and security (passengers, employees and public).
   3. Reliability, convenience and punctuality of service.
   4. Affordability of rail travel.
   5. Carbon footprint.
   6. Staff welfare and development.
   7. Community involvement (particularly youth).

The initiative outlined was conceived to support priorities 2 and 3, and helped deliver priority 5.


5. The problem
In 2003, when its rail operator franchise began, Southern
and HSBC Rail were faced with the challenge of keeping
their 19-year old fleet of 46 ‘class 455’ rolling stock in service
for another 15 years.

However, these units presented a problem: Every four-week
‘period’ passengers endured:
    About 2,300 minutes delays.
    About 56 cancellations.

As a result Southern in turn endured franchise fines
averaging nearly £200,000 per period.
                                                                             Figure 1: A class 455 train
The problem was that there was no discernable pattern to
the faults, and the standard maintenance regime did not spot
them in time.
6. Eureka!
In 2002 it became a mandatory requirement for all trains to be fitted with black-box-style On-Train Monitoring
Recorders (OTMRs) by the end of 2005, to provide invaluable data in the case of accidents.

This data was meant to be overwritten, but David Pope, former Chief Engineer at Southern, thought that the
OTMRs might just help solve the 455 fleet maintenance challenge, but only if Southern could find a way of
getting this data off the trains and into some, as yet non-existent, fault identification and diagnosis software.


7. The partnership
Southern joined forces with 455 rolling stock owners HSBC Rail, and, following a tendering process, data mining
experts Tessella.

Over a period of three years, the partnership has developed and future-proofed the system and software outlined
below.


8. The innovation
The innovation that the partnership created, and is being submitted for a Rail Business Award, is TAPAS, which:
   Takes data temporarily stored on the OTMRs.
   Adds extra on-train data.
   Downloads the data every couple of hours via wireless broadband.
   Provides the maintenance team with performance information covering all aspects of the fleet at any given
      time, or over time, enabling the early identification of intermittent or developing faults.
                                                  Performance
                                                  data captured
                                                  and stored by
                                                   the OTMR

                                                                                   Data is
                     Corrective
                                                                                automatically
                   action taken as
                                                                                downloaded
                     necessary
                                                                                using WLAN




                               Any emerging                   Data is added
                               or intermittent                  to central
                                 faults are                   database and
                              identified early                  analysed
                                                                  mining
                                           Figure 2: How TAPAS works




            Figure 3: TAPAS software uses a traffic light system to prioritise maintenance time
Just how innovative is TAPAS?
We believe TAPAS is now the most advanced fault diagnosis system in the UK Rail industry, delivering a host of
firsts within the sector:

Innovation in the technology
    The biggest picture ever: The first time that a system allows data captured on one train to be pooled with
     data from other journeys and other trains.
    A first for On-Train Monitoring Recorders (OTMR) data: This project was the first instance where
     OTMR data has been offloaded and made use of, prior to being overwritten.
    The most flexible analysis: unlike onboard fault diagnosis systems, TAPAS allows engineers to improve
     the analysis continuously by altering tolerances and adding new symptoms to look out for.

Innovation in application
    A first for retro-fitting: The first instance where an old fleet has been retro-fitted with fault diagnosis
     technology.
    The most advanced driver behaviour analysis system ever.
    A first for energy management: TAPAS has identified variations in energy usage of over 20% between
     nominally identical journeys, providing Southern with a unique opportunity to train drivers in behaviours
     that will maximise energy efficiency (see section 10).
    The first to look outside the train: A new use for the data (not live yet) will involve analysing important
     factors outside the train itself such as dwell times at stations, in order to analyse sources of station-related
     delays.



9. The secrets of our success
The key factors in the success of the programme include:

Design and development factors
    Careful partner selection: Careful selection of a suitable partner from outside the industry with
     experience of successes in data mining from other sectors.
    Careful planning: Dividing the contract into two parts with the first part being a thorough specification
     writing phase that nailed the exact requirements for the system before any design or development took
     place. Time well spent.
    Future-proofing: This implementation needed to support hardware changes between now and 2018, so
     was future-proofed by focusing on hardware-independent web technology.

Deployment and communications factors
    Ensuring a great first impression: Resisting the tremendous pressure from engineers to let them loose
     on the technology before it was fully tested.
    Personal coaching: Simon Green gave all the system users 1:1 coaching until they were all successfully
     brought up to speed.
    Acting on feedback: User feedback was sought after implementation and translated into further system
     improvements.
    Reporting: The progress and achievements of TAPAS are reported to the Engineering Director, Gerry
     McFadden, who, when appropriate, has included it in his report to the managing director and the Board.

Continuous innovation and improvement factors
    Taking the benefits to the next level: Putting together a working group to explore making further use of
     the data and technology.
    Keeping the system adaptable: The unpredictable and numerous faults within the 455 fleet meant the
     system had to be adaptable as new faults and symptoms were identified. The software therefore gives
     engineers the ability to write new analysis ‘tools’.
    Overcoming the data volume challenge: The sheer volume of data (108 million OTMR records each
     week) proved a major challenge, overcome by employing the services of an Oracle database expert.
10. The benefits to railway performance
Faults are now identified and resolved before they cause delays
With TAPAS the traditional approach to train maintenance involving the repetitive and time-consuming routine
inspections can be consigned to the past. The innovation means:
    Earlier identification of faults by downloading/analysing journey data every 1-2 hours (typically).
    Better diagnosis when faults are identified by providing the context surrounding failures, and allowing
      comparison with previous journeys or other units.
    Reducing routine maintenance by focusing time on fixing issues rather than testing perfectly good
      rolling stock.
    Diagnosing intermittent faults by showing how faults have evolved and how/when they occur. See
      example below:




              Figure 4: TAPAS identifies an intermittent fault in a Motor Coach Door Actuator



…which means improved reliability
The objective was to improve reliability. As the operational measure here is ‘Miles per Casualty’ (MPC) Figure 5
shows that TAPAS had a considerable and immediate impact on the MPC reliability figure for the 46 units in the
455 fleet (the red line) when compared to other fleets (dashed lines). From running at around 6,000 MPC the
fleet now runs an average of 16-17,000 MPC.
          Reliability (Miles Per
               Casualty)
            25.0
                          455/8 - 4 Car
                          319 Southern fleet MPC (000's)
                          456/0 - 2 Car
            20.0



            15.0



            10.0



             5.0



             0.0
                   08/06 09/06 10/06 11/06 12/06 13/06 01/07 02/07 03/07 04/07 05/07 06/07 07/07
                                                                                           Period
   Figure 5: Reliability improves: As the red line shows, the 455 fleet is now enjoying significantly improved
                                        reliability as a result of TAPAS
TAPAS has contributed to a significant milestone which was reached this July, with all of Southern’s three key
performance measures (average Sussex Coast and Metro charter punctuality and average all-day PPM)
                                                          MAA SLM Eng Cancellations
reaching over 90% at the same time for the first time. Figure 6 shows the cancellations measurement within this
PPM achievement.
                   200
                                                     TAPAS INTRODUCED
                   180
                                                                                          MAA SLM Eng
                                                                                          Cancellations
                   160


                   140


                   120


                   100


                    80
                         0601


                                0605


                                       0609


                                              0613


                                                      0704


                                                             0708


                                                                    0712


                                                                           0803


                                                                                  0807


                                                                                         0811


                                                                                                0902


                                                                                                       0906


                                                                                                              0910
Figure 6: Cancellations decrease: Fleet-caused cancellations (MAA) for the region in which 455 fleet operates on
                                  have fallen sharply as a result of TAPAS



Helping reduce our carbon footprint
As mentioned before, a working party was created to identify how TAPAS could further assist improving
Southern's other strategic priorities outlined in section 3, in particular reducing our carbon footprint.

In this respect, TAPAS is being used to analyse a 20% variation in energy consumption on identical journeys
(example below):




      Figure 7: TAPAS has shown that energy consumption varies tremendously between journeys
TAPAS data showed driver behaviour was the main factor in the above energy consumption variations. This is
being addressed with a training programme, which is being developed to improve environmental performance, in
partnership with Network Rail.
11. The financial benefits
The investment
The incremental investment in TAPAS (over and above the regulatory requirement of fitting OTMRs to trains)
was £3m. This was funded by Southern, and within the agreed budget.

The return
Although the project was driven by a desire to improve performance, the most direct payback is in terms of
reduced fines: Each time a train is delayed by 5 minutes or more, the ‘impact minutes’ experienced by all trains
affected is added up and translated into a fine.

By reducing delays and cancellations, TAPAS has delivered a substantial reduction in fines incurred by the class
455 units, as illustrated below.

A best estimate from the engineering team is that 70% of the £117, 291 saving per period can be attributed to
TAPAS. This translates into a saving of £82,104 per period, or approximately £1.1m per year.

                              £250,000



                              £200,000



                              £150,000
                                                             £117,291 difference in
                                                             average fines per
                                                             4-week period
                              £100,000



                               £50,000



                                      £0
                                             Before TAPAS         After TAPAS
             Figure 8: Fines from delays and cancellations of class 455 units fell dramatically

Payback
The £1.1m/year in direct returns means that the technology will pay the initial investment back in less than three
years.

The total return over the remaining lifetime of the fleet
The fleet needs to be in service until 2018, and TAPAS came on line in 2007, so the savings over the lifetime of
the implementation will be 11years x £1.1m = £12.1m (nearer £10m when ‘net present value’ applied).

The long term return on investment is therefore over 3:1.

This does not include other ways in which TAPAS indirectly impacts on the financial performance of Southern:
    The savings in terms of refunded tickets resulting from delays and cancellations.
    Reduced energy consumption by helping understand the driver behaviours associated with energy
      efficiency and train drivers accordingly.
    Increased ticket sales through the link between increased reliability of trains and increased propensity to
      travel. Hard to quantify as too many other factors involved.
12. The benefits to customers
Fewer delays, fewer cancellations
The impact of this innovation on customers is in terms of one thing: reliability. In other words, reducing the time
passengers spend waiting at stations as a result of delays or cancellations.
   2500                                                       60


                                                               50
    2000

                                                               40
                                                                                        Cancellations decreased
    1500                                                                                by about 38 per 4-week
                              Delays reduced by an
                                                                                        period
                              average of 1,474                 30
                              minutes per period.
    1000
                                                               20

     500
                                                               10


       0                                                        0
              Before TAPAS          After TAPAS                        Before TAPAS            After TAPAS

    Figure 9: Passengers benefited from a 63%               Figure 10: Similarly there was a 66% reduction in
                reduction in delays                                           cancellations

Almost every day a cancellation is averted as a result of TAPAS.

The importance of reliability
Coincidentally, at the same time as TAPAS went live, a Rail Passenger’s Priorities report (by Passenger Focus)
asked passengers to rate the relative importance of more than 30 different service attributes. Reliability came
third out of thirty after price and frequency. So, from our passengers’ perspective, TAPAS achieved an
objective close to their hearts.

Passenger Health & Safety
TAPAS helps identify safety threats ranging from potential fire risks from overheated components, to doors
closing aggressively. On average TAPAS has identified 10 fault issues on each of the 46 units, many related to
passenger or crew safety.



13. Sharing benefits with other operators
The intellectual property rights (IPR) for TAPAS are held jointly by Go-Ahead Group (owners of Southern) and
HSBC Rail. This is now being offered to other train operators.

First ScotRail is currently testing TAPAS and First Great Western, Northern and Southeastern are investigating
the system. Additional interest has been shown from Nedtrain in the Netherlands.

								
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