Chapter 6: Personality and Values by 9kv3Z4MN



  Chapter 6
Personality and
Personality                                               6-2

• Personality refers to a person’s unique
  psychological makeup and how it consistently
  influences the way a person responds to his or
  her environment.
• Most now agree that both personality and
  situational factors play a role in determining
  people’s behavior.
• Personality is usually involved, along with:
  – A person’s choices of leisure activities, political
    outlook, aesthetic tastes, and
  – Other individual factors to segment customers in
    terms of Lifestyles.
Consumer Behavior on the                                6-3

Couch: Freudian Theory
                  Oriented Towards

   Referee in the Fight Between Temptation and Virtue

Motivational Research                                     6-4

 • Applying Freudian ideas led to a perspective
   known as Motivational Research, which has a
   heavy emphasis on unconscious motives.
   –   A basic assumption is that socially unacceptable
       needs are channeled into acceptable outlets.
 • This form of research relies on Depth
   Interviews, which uses relatively few
   consumers but probes deeply into each
   person’s purchase motivations.
 • Motivational Research has been attacked for
   two reasons:
   – Some feel it does not work,
   – Some feel that it works too well.
Neo-Freudian Theories                                    6-5

                         Described People as: Moving
      Karen Horney       Toward Others (Compliant), Away
                         From Others (Detached), or
                         Against Others (Aggressive).

                          Proposed That Many Actions Are
       Alfred Adler       Motivated by People’s Desire to
                          Overcome Feelings of Inferiority
                          Relative to Others.

                          Focused on How Personality
  Harry Stack Sullivan    Evolves to Reduce Anxiety in
                          Social Relationships.

                         Analytical Psychology - Believed
                         That People are Shaped by the
       Carl Jung         Cumulative Experiences of Past
                         Generations which create
Trait Theory                                           6-6

  One Approach to Personality is to Focus on the
 Quantitative Measurement of Traits, or Identifiable
   Characteristics that Define a Person Such As:




                Need for Cognition
Problems With Trait Theory in                          6-7

Consumer Research

 • Many of the scales are     • Researchers make
   not sufficiently valid.      changes in the research

 • Personality tests are      • Many trait scales are
   often developed only for     intended to only measure
   specific populations.        gross tendencies.

 • Tests may not be           • Many of the scales are not
   administered under the       well planned or thought
   best conditions.             out.
Brand Personality                                          6-8

                        Brand Equity
      Extent That a Consumer Holds Strong, Favorable,
      and Unique Associations about a Brand in Memory.

                     Brand Personality
   Assigning Personality Qualities to Inanimate Products
  That Makes the Product Stand Out From the Competition.

             Inanimate Objects are Given Qualities
               That Make Them Somehow Alive.

                                       Level 2: Objects are
   Level 1: Object is Believed to
                                    Anthropormphized - Given
Possessed by the Soul of a Being.
                                     Human Characteristics.
 i.e. Spokesperson in Advertising
                                       i.e. Charlie the Tuna
Lifestyle: Who We Are, What We Do
 • Lifestyle refers to a pattern of consumption
   reflecting a person’s choices of how he or she
   spends time and money.
 • It represents how a person allocates income:
   – To different products and services, and
   – To specific alternatives within these categories.
 • A Lifestyle Marketing Perspective recognizes
   that people sort themselves into groups on the
   basis of:
   – Things they like to do,
   – How they like to spend their leisure time, and
   – How they choose to spend their disposable income.
Lifestyles                                               6-10

• Lifestyles as Group Identities
  – Lifestyles are statements about who one is in society
    and who one is not.
  – Each person adds their own individuality to a chosen

• Products Are the Building Blocks of Lifestyles
  – Consumers often choose products, services, and
    activities over others because they are associated
    with a certain lifestyle.
  – Lifestyle Marketing Strategies focus on product
    usage in desirable social settings.
Linking Products to Lifestyles                     6-11

  People, Products, and Settings are Combined to
      Express a Certain Consumption Style.

        Person                   Product

Linking Products to Lifestyles                         6-12

• Lifestyle Marketing Perspective
  – Marketers must look at Patterns of Behavior to
    understand consumers.
  – Marketers must identify the set of products and
    services that seems to be linked in consumers’
    minds to a specific lifestyle.
• Product Complementarity occurs when the
  symbolic meanings of different products are
  related to each other.
  – These sets of products, called Consumption
    Constellations, are used by consumers to define,
    communicate, and perform social roles. i.e. The
    “Yuppie” was defined by a Rolex watch, BMW cars
    and Gucci briefcases.
Conducting A Psychographic                              6-13

      Forms of a                     Definition of
 Psychographic Study:              Psychographics:
      Lifestyle Profile       Involves the “.. use of
                              psychological, sociological,
  Product-Specific Profile    and anthropological
                              factors... to determine how
Study That Uses Personality   the market is segmented by
   Traits as Descriptors
                              the propensity of groups
     General Lifestyle        within the market - and their
                              reasons - to make a
                              particular decision about a
                              product, person, ideology,
                              or otherwise hold an
                              attitude or use a medium.
AIOs and Psychographics                             6-14

   Activities         Interests        Opinions

         Demographics - Describes Who Buys

 Psychographic Profiles - Tells Why Consumers Buy

                     20/80 Rule
Uses of Psychographic                             6-15

      Market Social and      Define the
       Political Issues    Target Market

Develop Overall                      Create a New
   Strategy                       View of the Market

        Communicate         Position the
      Product Attributes      Product
VALS 2                                                        6-16

                                         Abundant Resources


  Principle Oriented   Status Oriented     Action Oriented

      Fulfilleds         Achievers          Experiencers

      Believers           Strivers             Makers

   Minimal Resources
Global Marketing and Culture                  6-17

                   Taste and

    Cultural      Affected by   Advertising

Major Consumer Trends                                      6-18

   Environmentalism and
      Green Marketing

           A Return to Value

                     Time Poverty

                          Disillusionment of
                           Working Women

                                 Decreased Emphasis
                               on Nutrition and Exercise
Major Consumer Trends                              6-19



               Individualism and
              Mass Customization

                    A Laid-Back Lifestyle

                           Life in the Fast Lane

To top