obg metrorrhagia by 9kv3Z4MN

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									METRORRHAGIA

                   PRESENTED BY,
                          RINA.C.P




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                  METRORRHAGIA

 Uterine bleeding at irregular intervals,
 particularly between the expected menstrual
 periods.

 Metrorrhagia may be a sign of an underlying
 disorder, such as hormone imbalance,
 endometriosis, uterine fibroids or, rarely, cancer
 of the uterus.



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                   CAUSES

 Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
 Uterine Fibroid
 Endometriosis
 Hormone Imbalance
 Cervical Cancer
 PID
 Endometrial Hyperplasia
 Ectopic Pregnancy
 Endometrial polyps
 Bleeding Disorders


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   Signs & symptoms of Metrorrhagia

 Bleeding between periods

 Irregular menstrual cycles


 Cramping abdominal pain with bleeding.




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             Risk factors for Metrorrhagia

 Hormones : Low Progesterone or Estrogen Dominance
               Low Adrenal Function

 Infections : Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
               Lyme Disease

 Medications : Birth Control Pill / Contraceptive Issues

 Tumors Benign : Ovarian Cysts
                      Fibroids

 Tumors, Malignant : Endometrial Cancer

 Uro-Genital : Endometrial Hyperplasia
                Endometriosis



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                      DIAGNOSIS


 Based on a complete medical history, particularly the
  frequency and length of menstrual periods.

 Physical Examination.

 Blood Tests.

 Radiological Findings depending upon the suspected
  cause of metrorrhagia.


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                  PHYSICAL EXAMINATION


 Examine for signs of bleeding disorder - e.g. widespread
  bruising, swollen joints, bleeding gums.

 Speculum examination looking for cervicitis, cervical "erosion",
  cervical cancer, cervical polyps

 Bimanual pelvic examination to feel for signs of fibroids,
  pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy



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                           BLOOD TESTS

 Full blood count (looking for anemia due to blood loss and
    reduced platelets indicating a bleeding disorder)
   Iron studies
   Electrolytes and renal function tests
   Thyroid Function Tests
   Pregnancy test (to exclude ectopic pregnancy or
    miscarriage)
   Coagulation profile to help rule out acquired or hereditary
    bleeding disorders

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            Radiological investigations

 Trans vaginal pelvic ultrasound scan can detect fibroids
  and thickened endometrial lining (lining of the uterus)

 CT Scan of abdomen and pelvis may be indicated




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            HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINES
Kent ( 3mark )
 Bell., Calc., Cham., Erig., Ip., Kreos., Lach., Phos.,
 Sabin., Sep., Sulph.,

 Boericke ( 2 mark )
   Ambra, Arn., Ars., Bell., Bov., Cact., Calc. c., Caul.,
  Cham., Cinch., Cinnam., Croc., Erig., Ferr. ac., Ferr. p.,
  Ham., Ipec., Kali n. Lach., Nit. ac., Phos., Pyr., Rhus ar.
  Sab., Sec., Sep., Stram., Thlaspi, Trill., Vinca .

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