Climate Change: 100 solutions
摘取自：100 places to remember before they disappear
• Alternative energy is not just
• Companies cut CO2 (009-024)
• Politics and good intentions
• Do it yourself (031-034)
• Save energy (035-054)
• Save heat (055-064)
• Save water (065-067)
• Cars, trains and planes
(068 -086 )
• Around the Globe (087 -100 )
• 參考 26個網站
摘取自：100 places to remember before they disappear
Website: http://www.100places.com/en/climatesolutions/ 3
Alternative energy is not just
1. The Danish island of Samsø has proven that communities can
cover 100% of their energy consumption from CO2-neutral
sources. Since 2003 the island has received all of its energy from
renewable energy sources such as windmills, solar cells and
district heating from the burning of stubble.
2. Recent research shows that, by 2030, bioethanol obtained from
"green waste" from agriculture, forestry and special energy crops,
such as maize, could become an environmentally sustainable
substitute for a third of the petrol used in America.
3. Coffee grounds contain around 15% oil. The extracted oil can be
used for biodiesel, while the remains are usable as fertilizer or
briquettes. With 400 to 500 billion cups of coffee consumed
annually on a global scale, there is plenty of raw material
4. An electric car running on electricity from a coal-fired generator
produces a third of the emissions of a petrol car and just over half
the emissions of a diesel or hybrid car.
5. Wind power is an alternative to producing electricity from
coal, oil or gas. In 2008, the generation of wind power led
to a reduction of 229 million tons of CO2 emissions.
6. In ten years time, a CO2 -neutral city of 6 square
kilometers housing 50,000 people will have emerged in
Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. Solar panels and
solar collectors will generate most of the electricity, 80%
of the water will be recycled and the city’s narrow streets,
shaded walks and north-eastern orientation will reduce
the need for air conditioning.
7. The world's first CO2-neutral polar research station was
inaugurated in Antarctica in February 2009. Power and
heating are supplied by windmills and solar panels, while
microorganisms and compost processes allow water for
toilets and baths to be reused up to five times.
8. In 2008, 1.3% of the world's energy consumption came
from wind power. This was the fourth consecutive year
that the global windmill industry posted growth of 30%.
Companies cut CO2 (009-024)
9. In February 2008, Hewlett-Packard announced that it would
switch to lighter packaging for its printer cartridges. This will
reduce carbon emissions by an amount equivalent to removing
3,500 cars from the road for a year.
10. The US mega-retailer Wal-Mart has trimmed its packaging for
everything from rotisserie-chicken boxes to water bottles, and
now uses five grams less plastic for every product. The
company plans to cut packaging by 5%, enough to prevent
667,000 tons of CO2 emissions.
11. In 2004, the parcel delivery company UPS announced that its
drivers would avoid making left turns, to minimise the time
spent waiting to turn against oncoming traffic, which burns fuel
and costs millions every year. A software program customises
a route for every driver.
12. The pharmaceutical company Novo Nordisk has made a
commitment to reduce its CO2 emissions to 10% below its
2004 levels by the year 2014. The reductions will be achieved
through a combination of energy efficiency and renewable
energy projects carried out at Novo Nordisk operations globally.6
13. The cement industry today accounts for 5% of global CO2
emissions. A new recipe for cement, which replaces
limestone and clay with magnesium silicate, has the potential
to transform it into an industry that helps to store CO2.
14. Coal plants lose as much as half the heat generated when
they burn coal. "Cogeneration" allows excess heat to be
captured and reused for domestic and industrial heating.
ExxonMobil part-owns 85 cogeneration plants, and estimates
that the technology helps prevent the emission of nine million
tons of CO2 a year.
15. Organic farming consumes 37% less energy than
conventional farming. In one year, 4,000 square metres of
organic crop soil will store more than 3,000 kilos of CO2 from
the atmosphere – more than half the average vehicle's total
emissions for a year.
16. It takes 60% less energy to produce recycled paper than it
does to produce virgin paper. Each ton of purchased
recycled paper saves 4,000 kW-h of energy, 26,500 litres of
water and 17 trees. 7
17.Since 2002, Tetra Pak has reduced the amount of
energy needed per package by 15%. As it continues to
grow, Tetra Pak will reduce its CO2 emissions by 10%
over the next five years, through improved energy
efficiency and increased use of renewable energy.
18.Nokia is initiating a new series of energy savings,
including halving the stand-by energy used by its mobile
phone chargers, using green electricity to power 50% of
its facilities by 2010 and reducing the overall energy
needs of its sites by 6% by 2012.
19.General Motors, one of the world's largest car
manufacturer, plans to cut its CO2 emissions by 40% by
2010, based on 2000 levels, by methods including
increasing energy efficiency and using renewable
resources. The reduction of 4.5 million tons of CO2 is
equal to the annual emissions from the power used by
432,692 US households.
20.The world's largest confectionery company, Cadbury,
plans to cut 50% of CO2 emissions from its
manufacturing sites by 2020, by using CO2 offsetting,
cutting down on its use of energy, packaging and water,
and switching to alternative sources. 8
21.In an eco-friendly move, the Coca-Cola Company has reduced
the weight of its "contour" bottles by 20% on selected drinks.
The change will reduce the weight of the glass bottles from
263g to 210g, cut raw glass usage by 3,500 tonnes and bring
down CO2 emissions by 2,200 tonnes annually.
22.The Volvo Europa Truck assembly plant in Ghent, Belgium
plans to reduce CO2 emissions to zero. Three wind turbines will
provide 50% of the factory's electricity, the remainder coming
from green energy sources and a CO2-neutral heating system
that operates on granules.
23.The Danish hotel group, Brochner Hotels, has set itself the
goal of becoming the world's first CO2 -neutral hotel chain, and
has invited other hotels to join it in the fight against global
warming. To be fully CO2-neutral, hotels are obliged to
purchase CO2 credits for all CO2 emissions.
24.By 2020, the Vodafone Group will reduce its CO2 emissions by
50% by improving energy efficiency in its networks and using
renewable energy wherever possible. Vodafone will also
develop products and services that will help customers limit
their own emissions.
Politics and good intentions (025-030)
25.The mayors of 350 cities, including 12 EU capitals, signed
an agreement in early 2009 that commits to improving
energy efficiency by 20% by 2020, and specifies that 20%
of the energy will come from renewable energy sources.
26.The UK National Health Service is reducing its sizeable
emissions of CO2 by offering patients and staff vegetarian
menus, meat being costlier in terms of CO2. It has also
made surgical treatments available in local practices,
which will reduce the number of longer journeys made to
27.Australia and New Zealand are phasing out traditional
incandescent light bulbs, and by 2012 only energy
efficient CFL bulbs will be legal. In Europe, the ban
against incandescent light bulbs comes into force from
28.British Prime Minister Gordon Brown has committed the
UK to reducing CO2 emissions by 60% before 2050 to
help tackle global warming. The Climate Change Bill
makes the UK the first country to put CO2 emissions
reduction targets into law.
29.In Brazil, deforestation and fires account for 75% of
greenhouse gas emissions. An average of 19,000 m2 is
deforested every year in the Brazilian Amazon. The
Brazilian government wants to reduce this by 72% by
2017. This will amount to the amount of CO2 in the
atmosphere being reduced by 4.8 billion tons.
30.Carbon credits provide a way to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions on an industrial scale by capping total annual
emissions. The tradeable carbon credits are given a
monetary value, set by the market, and can be bought
and sold between groups in state, national and
international markets. 11
Do it yourself (031-034)
31. Drink tap water - a litre of bottled water puts several
hundred times more stress on the climate than a litre of
tap water. The Danes consumption of bottled water
results in annual CO2 emissions of 12,000 tonnes.
32. Individuals or businesses can purchase carbon credits to
offset their unavoidable carbon emissions, for example
from driving or air travel, under a voluntary or mandatory
33. Vegetarian food requires much less energy to produce
than meat. If you switch to vegetarianism, you can shrink
your CO2 footprint by up to 1.5 tons a year. Trading a
standard car for a hybrid car cuts only about one ton of
CO2 a year.
34. The average home receives 224 items of junk mail a year,
most of which end up in landfill. Stopping this trend would
save around 4 kg of CO2 per household per year.
Save energy (035-054)
35.An energy-efficient CFL light bulb uses 75% less energy
than a traditional incandescent light bulb and lasts up to
15 times longer. For every bulb you replace in your home,
you cut your electricity bill and your CO2 emissions.
36.Only 5% of the energy used by a traditional incandescent
light bulb is transformed into light. The rest vanishes into
the atmosphere as heat.
37.Any light bulb dimmed by 25% will use roughly 20% less
energy. Dimming one 75 watt incandescent bulb by 25%
for only four hours a day will save you 13.6 kilos of CO2
over the course of a year.
38.Turn off the lights when you leave a room and turn off
electrical appliances at the mains. Standby can use
between 30% and 70% of the energy the appliance uses
when it is on.
39. If every household in the USA replaced a burned-out
light bulb with an energy-efficient bulb, it would prevent
greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to that from
nearly 800,000 cars. It would also save enough energy
to light 2.5 million homes for a year.
40. A computer that is used for four hours a day and turned
off the rest of the time costs about $70 less a year than
one that is left on all day and all night. It also reduces
the machine's CO2 emissions by 83%.
41. A standard kitchen accounts for 35% of your total
energy use. You need only make small changes to save
on your energy bill and reduce your CO2 emissions.
42. Boiling water in an electric kettle rather than a pot on
the stove saves up to 50% of the electricity.
43.Only boil the water you need for your cup of tea. If
everyone in the UK only boiled the water they needed,
the energy saved could power more than 75% of the UK's
44.It is much cheaper to roast in a pot than to roast in the
oven. By using a pot, you consume up to 70% less
45.Frozen food needs to be cooked much longer than
thawed food. When you roast a frozen joint in the oven,
you use up to 30% more electricity than when it is thawed.
46.If your pots and pans are not flat-bottomed, you use up to
50% more electricity to cook with them.
47.Use your oven's preheat and afterheat functions if you
are preparing food in it for more than 30 minutes. Put the
food in the oven as it is heating up and turn the oven off
5-10 minutes earlier than usual. This will save up to 25%
of the energy.
48. Keep the temperature of your refrigerator at 5°C. Your food
does not need a lower temperature and for every degree
the temperature is lowered the energy consumption
increases by 5%.
49. By thawing food in the refrigerator, it will keep the rest of
the produce cold. The cold from a kilo of frozen meat is
equal to the energy that your refrigerator uses in one hour.
50. The coils at the back of your fridge-freezer work better if
they are kept at least 10cm from the wall and dust-free.
Dust and grime clog them up and increase their energy use
by up to 30%, so vacuum them about every three months.
51. Of household appliances, the refrigerator is the biggest
consumer of electricity. Older refrigerators are typically
40% less efficient than new, energy efficient models.
52. Ceiling fans use 80% less energy than central
air conditioners. By only using ceiling fans you
can reduce your annual cooling costs by 10-
53. In warm weather, run the ceiling fan blades
counter-clockwise to feel 5°C cooler. In winter,
set them to rotate clockwise at a low speed to
force warm air from the ceiling down into the
54. By using cold-water washing powder and
washing your clothes at 20 or 30°C instead of
40 or 60°C, you save up to 60% of the power
Save heat (055-064)
55. By replacing oil heating with natural gas, you can cut 35% of
your CO2 emissions; by switching from electric to natural gas
heating, you can cut them by 60%.
56. Turning down the heat by 2-3°C at night while you are
sleeping saves you up to 10% of your heat consumption.
57. Fine-tune your heating system. By keeping your furnace
clean, lubricated and properly adjusted, you can save up to
5% in heating costs.
58. Buy a programmable thermostat, which can regulate different
temperatures at different times of day –and if you already
have one, use it. These thermostats reduce energy use by 5-
59. Every time you lower the temperature in your home by 1°C,
your energy consumption drops by 5%.
60. Sealing your windows and doors properly will drastically
improve your household fuel efficiency. Sealing air leaks and
adding insulation can reduce your annual energy bill by 10%.
61.Double-glazed windows lose only half the heat of single-
glazed windows. If everyone in the UK fitted double-
glazing, nearly five million tonnes of CO2 would be saved –
the equivalent of 800,000 households' total emissions.
62.Radiators fitted to exterior walls can lose up to 70% of
their heat to your bricks and mortar. Insulating panels
reflect heat away from the wall and into your home where
it belongs. Fitting radiator panels will save around 80kg of
CO2 a year and cut heating costs.
63.If everyone in the UK put an insulation jacket on their hot
water tank, CO2 emissions would be cut by 740,000
tonnes. This would shave £89 million off their combined
annual energy bill.
64.About 42% of your household energy costs go towards
just two things: heating and cooling. By replacing old
heating and cooling systems with newer, efficient models,
you can cut your annual energy costs by 20%. 19
Save water (065-067)
65. A water-saving shower head uses 5-7 litres of
water per minute, half of the 10-18 litres
delivered by standard showers.
66. By cutting a minute off your shower time, you
could save about 3,300 litres of water and
200kWh of energy a year – enough energy to
heat the water for 6,000 cups of coffee.
67. If you forego the luxury of a bath in favour of a
shower just once a week, you can save about
30kg of CO2 emissions. This is about nine
times more CO2 than you would save by
reducing the volume of cold water in your toilet
Cars, trains and planes (068 -086 )
68. In 2007, the International Air Transport Association
negotiated a more direct route from China to Europe that
shaved an average of 30 minutes off flight times,
eliminating 84,800 metric tons of CO2 annually.
69. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has introduced
regenerative brakes on its trains. As they brake, they
generate power, which is then used by other accelerating
trains on the same track. This saves 30% on energy, or
39,000 tons of CO2 p.a..
70. Long-distance domestic travellers in Spain are changing
their mode of transport from plane to train. A high-speed
train passenger generates a sixth of the CO2 of that of a
plane passenger travelling the same distance. By 2011,
domestic trains and planes are expected to serve equal
numbers of passengers.
71.The global transportation of food is one of the fastest
growing sources of greenhouse gas emissions. In North
America, fruit and vegetables travel an average of 2,400 km
before reaching the dinner table. Buying locally not only
saves the energy used to ship produce, but also preserves
flavour and nutrients.
72.The average electric car travels around 95 km on a single
charge with a top speed of 65 km/h. There are currently
almost 200 electricity pumps in the UK, and more will be
added in the next couple of years.
73.Driving less, using fuel-efficient cars and carpooling will
have a major impact on our levels of greenhouse gas
emissions. In the USA and Canada, motor vehicles are
responsible for about a third of all CO2 emissions.
74.Replace clogged air filters in your car. A clogged air filter
can cut a vehicle's fuel efficiency by 10%. 22
75. Check the air pressure in your car’s tyres and pump up
any that are lower than the recommended pressure in
the owner's manual. Properly inflated tires can increase
fuel efficiency by 3.3%.
76. Drive slower. For most vehicles, fuel efficiency begins to
drop rapidly at 95 km/h. Driving within the speed limit
can improve fuel efficiency by up to 23%.
77. Take it easy in your car. Slamming on the brakes and
accelerating too quickly can reduce fuel efficiency by up
78. Get your car tuned up. Routine maintenance can
increase fuel efficiency by 4%, while fixing more serious
problems can improve efficiency by up to 40%.
79. Idling in your car for just 30 seconds burns more fuel
than turning off the engine and restarting it. Turn the
ignition off at long stop lights and during other lengthy
hold-ups. Instead of using drive-throughs, park and go
80. Taking off your roof-rack when you are not using it can
reduce fuel use by up to 10%.
81. Travelling by train instead of an average car commute
of 30 kilometres saves about a tonne of CO2 a year.
That is almost as much as commuting by electric car
instead of a petrol one.
82. Passengers on a full coach from London to Birmingham
are responsible for only 10% of the emissions produced
by a solo drive.
83.If the four million Brits who drive 6.5 km to work
every day cycled instead, they would save a
million tonnes of CO2 a year between them.
84.If all commuters left their car at home one day a
week for the next year, we would save enough
kilometres to travel to the moon and back
85.Getting rid of your car altogether can wipe three
tonnes off your emissions. Three tonnes is
more than three times the annual emission of
the average citizen of Swaziland.
86.Manufacturing a car emits five tonnes of CO2.
That is more than the average Brit's direct
annual emissions of CO2.
Around the Globe (087 -100 )
87.Environmentally friendly products ranging from solar panels
to rainwater tanks have become popular birthday and
wedding presents in the UK.
88.A project underway in Paris aims to heat around 12,000
apartments in a new residential area. Naturally warm water
from a depth of two kilometres will be drawn to the surface
to provide the area with environmentally friendly heating.
89.In Mexico, a large windmill park is under construction and is
expected to be fully operational by late 2009. It will produce
enough energy to supply half a million people and reduce
annual CO2 emissions by 600,000 tons.
90.An ancient method of fertilizing soil is as relevant today as
ever. Indians along the Amazon River create large areas of
fertile land by mixing coal and other organic materials into
the soil. Researchers believe this method can store CO2 in
the soil and help in the fight against global warming.
91.Africa is home to some of the world’s most impoverished
soils. To help tackle future climate change, a new project
is providing a detailed digital map of African soils. By
knowing the local soil type and the appropriate crop for it,
farmers will be better able to adapt to changing climates.
92.To help the people of south-western Bangladesh cope
with the effects of climate change – water shortages,
cyclones and floods – international non-governmental
organization CARE has re-excavated river beds, restoring
the flow of fresh water to 19 villages. It has also planted
trees to reduce the impact of cyclones.
93.In China, cogeneration – where excess heat is captured
and re-used – seen as cutting-edge technology and
enables the country to prevent emissions of nearly 100
million tons of CO2 annually.
94.To cope with rising sea levels, 37 buoyant houses have
been designed along the Maas River in Holland. Two
steel poles driven deep into solid ground steady the
houses, while flexible pipes and electrical and sewer lines
allow them to rise with the river.
95.A total of 20% of all human-made greenhouse gas
emissions derives from timber harvesting in the tropics.
Improved agricultural practices, along with paper
recycling and forest management, could quickly eliminate
this significant percentage of emissions.
96.In large parts of the poorly developed world, climate
change will lead to more devastating floods. In these
areas, CARE is supporting the construction of flood-proof
buildings, with foundations raised above the ground. It is
also providing boats for evacuation and training
communities in evacuation and swimming skills, all of
which could save lives.
97.Thanks to their shiny, wax-coated leaves, crops like
maize and barley reflect sunlight back into space in the
same way as the Arctic sea ice cover. Increased
cultivation of these crops could help reduce the rising
temperatures on Earth.
98.A couple with two children instead of three could cut
their family's climate impact by the equivalent of 620
return flights a year between London and New York.
99.The disposable nappies used for a baby's first two-and-
half years are responsible for 630kg of greenhouse gas.
In the UK, almost six million nappies a day end up in
landfills, where they emit the greenhouse gas methane.
100.If every US home received and paid bills online, it
would cut solid waste by 1.6 billion tons a year and curb
greenhouse gas emissions by 2.1 million tons a year.
1. www.thegreenguide.com 14.www.dongenergy.dk
2. www.dr.dk 15.www.ettonmindre.dk
3. www.care.dk 16.www.unesco-asp.dk
4. www.en.cop15.dk 17.www.worldwildlife.org
5. www.bbc.co.uk 18.www.portofentry.com
6. www.metoffice.gov.uk 19.www.vodafone.com
7. www.time.com 20.www.co2neutral-hotels.com
8. www.eartheasy.com 21.www.investinflanders.com
9. www.greenpeace.org 22.www.greenbang.com
10. www.berlingske.dk 23.www.confectionarynews.com
11. www.sciam.com 24.www.autobloggreen.com
12. www.naviair.dk 25.www.business.dk
13. www.earthday.net 26.www.npr.org
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