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§ 2.2 - 2.3 The Banzhaf Power Index

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§ 2.2 - 2.3 The Banzhaf Power Index Powered By Docstoc
					§ 2.2 - 2.3 The Banzhaf Power
             Index
Example: Now we will continue with our
“Consensus Party” example from last time. We
saw yesterday that this hypothetical situation
could be written as [51 : 49, 45, 6]. We also
noticed that the number of votes each player
controls is not a good measure of the actual
power they possess in the system.
One question we might ask is, which sets of
     • P1 and together to pass a motion?
players can joinP2 (This group controls 94
    votes).
    • P1 and P3 (This group controls 55
    votes).
    • P2 and P3 (This group controls 51
             Terminology
 A set of players that join forces to vote
 together will be referred to as a
 coalition.
 The total number of votes controlled by
 the coalition is the weight of the
 coalition.
 Coalitions that can pass a motion are
 winning coalitions, those that cannot are
 losing coalitions.
            Terminology
 A critical player for a coalition is a
 player whose absence would cause a
 winning coalition to become a losing
 coalition.
 We will use this concept to define the
 Banzhaf Power Index.
Example: Let us return to our [51 : 49, 45,
6] example and examine all of the possible
coalitions that could be formed.
         Coalitio Weight Win/Los Critical Players
         n      There areea total of 6
     1   {P1} Critical Players. N/A
                  49     Lose
     2   {P2}      45    Lose     N/A
              Each Player is a Critical
     3          6       Lose      N/A
         {P3} Player in 2 coalitions.
     4   {P1 ,P2} 94     Win      P1 ,P2
                So we could say that
     5          } 54     Win      P1 ,P3
         {P1 ,P3each Player’s ‘power’ is:
     6   {P2 ,P3} 51     Win
                        2/6 = 1/3 P2 ,P3
     7   {P1 ,P2   100   Win      None
         ,P3}
   The Banzhaf Power Index
 The Idea: A player’s power is
 proportional to the number of coalitions
 for which the player is critical.
       The Banzhaf Power Index
Finding the Banzhaf Power Index of Player P :
  Step 1. Make a list of all possible coalitions.
  Step 2. Determine which coalitions are winning
  coalitions.
  Step 3. Determine which players are critical for
  each winning coalition.
  Step 4. Count the total number of times player P is
  critical--call this number B.
  Step 5. Count the total number of times all players
  are critical--call this number T.
       The Banzhaf Power Index for the player P is the
Example: The countries of Pottsylvania,
Moosylvania and Upper-Lower Watchikowistan
have decided to form an economic union.
Pottsylvania will have 6 votes, Moosylvania will
have 5 and Upper-Lower Watchikowistan will
have 4. For a motion to be accepted by the
union as a whole it must have the support of 10
votes. How is the power divided amongst the
three countries?
Example:
   Step 1. We have the following seven
   coalitions:

                 1   {P1}
                 2   {P2}
                 3   {P3}
                 4   {P1 ,P2}
                 5   {P1 ,P3}
                 6   {P2 ,P3}
                 7   {P1 ,P2
                     ,P3}
Example:
   Step 2. We have the following winning
   coalitions:

                  1   {P1}       6 votes
                  2   {P2}       5
                  3   {P3}       4
                  4   {P1 ,P2}   11
                  5   {P1 ,P3}   10
                  6   {P2 ,P3}   9
                  7   {P1 ,P2    15
                      ,P3}
Example:
   Step 3. We have the following critical
   players:

         Winning           Critical
         Coalitions        Players
         {P1 ,P2}          P1 ,P2
         {P1 ,P3}          P1 ,P3
         {P1 ,P2 ,P3}      P1
Example:
   Step 4.
   P1 is critical three times.
           Winning
   P2 is critical one time.   Critical
           Coalitions         Players
   P3 is critical one time.
           {P1 ,P2}           P1 ,P2
          {P1 ,P3}            P1 ,P3
          {P1 ,P2 ,P3}        P1
Example:
   Step 5.
   There are a total of 3 + 1 + 1 = 5 critical
   players.
          Winning           Critical
          Coalitions        Players
         {P1 ,P Power Index ,P2 each player is
   The Banzhaf2}         P1 for

           P1 ,P3}
          {P1 : 3/5         P1 ,P3 : 1/5
                                P2
           P ,P ,P
          {P3 : 1/5 3}
            1    2          P1
   The Banzhaf Power Index
 The complete list of every player’s
 power indices is called the Banzhaf
 power distribution.
 Generally these distributions are given
 in percentage form.
       The Banzhaf Power Index
Set     {P1 ,P2}   {P1 ,P2 ,P3}          {P1 ,P2 ,P3,. .
                                  {P1 ,P2 ,P3,P4}
      One question we might care about.,PN }
                                           is,
# of   “How many coalitions are there given a
         4        8            16        2N
subsetscertain number of players?”
Subsets { }       { }          ...        ...
         {P1}     {P3}
         {P2}     {P1}
         {P1 ,P2} {P1 ,P3}
                  {P2}
                  {P2 ,P3}
                  {P1 ,P2} {P1
                  ,P2,P3}
# of     3        7            15        2N - 1
Notation: If we look at the previous
example one more time, there is another way
that critical players can be denoted. Here we
have listed the winning coalitions--critical
players are underlined.
                  Winning
               Coalitions
               {P1 ,P2}
               {P1 ,P3}
               {P1 ,P2 ,P3}
Example: The European Union, prior to its
recent expansion, was an economic and
political confederation consisting of 15
countries. The nations at the time were France,
Germany, Italy and the UK (10 votes each);
Spain (8 votes); Belgium, Greece, Netherlands
and Portugal (5 votes each); Austria and
Sweden (4 votes each); Denmark, Finland and
Ireland (3 votes each); Luxembourg (2 votes).
In this system there are a total of 87 votes and
a quota of 62.
This means the system can be fully described
as
       [62: 10, 10, 10, 10, 8, 5, 5, 5, 5, 4, 4, 3, 3,
3, 2].
Example: The European Union, prior to its
recent expansion, was an economic and
political confederation consisting of 15
countries. The nations at the time were France,
Germany, Italy and the UK (10 votes each);
Spain (8 votes); Belgium, Greece, Netherlands
and Portugal (5 votes each); Austria and
Sweden (4 votes each); Denmark, Finland and
Ireland (3 votes each); Luxembourg (2 votes).
In this system there are a total of 87 votes and
a quota of 62.
This means the system can be fully described
as
       [62: 10, 10, 10, 10, 8, 5, 5, 5, 5, 4, 4, 3, 3,
3, 2].
Example:       Consider the weighted voting
system described by [9 : 6, 4, 2, 1].
      If we were to check the winning coalitions in
      this example we would find the following:
     Winning
     Coalitions
     {P1 ,P2}
     {P1 ,P2,P3}
     {P1 ,P2,P4}
     {P1 ,P3 ,P4}
     {P1 ,P2,P3 ,P4}
Example:       Consider the weighted voting
system described by [9 : 6, 4, 2, 1].
      Here our Banzhaf power distribution looks like:

     Winning
     Coalitions
      P : 5/9                   P2 : 4/9       P3 :
       1
     {P1 ,P2}
      1/9              P4 : 0
     {P1 ,P2,P3}
      (Notice that
     {P1 ,P2,P4} P4 has no power--this means that
      P4 is a dummy.)
     {P1 ,P3 ,P4}
     {P1 ,P2,P3 ,P4}
Example: The system over P ’s level ofas [9
Now suppose that P --indignant is now written power
                       3             1
  5, 5, 2, that P1 our winning coalitions are:
:demands 1] and give a vote up to P2.

     Winning
     Coalitions
     {P1 ,P2}
     {P1 ,P2,P3}
     {P1 ,P2,P4}
     {P1 ,P2,P3 ,P4}
Example:          The system is now written as [9
  5, 5, 2, 1] and P4 winning over P1 ’s level of
:Now suppose thatour--indignant coalitions are: power
demands that P1 give a vote up to P3. In this case, our
distribution becomes:
       Winning
       Coalitions
         {P1 ,P2}
          P1 : 1/2
         {P1 ,P2,P3}        P2 : 1/2            P3 : 0
P4 : 0
         {P1 ,P2,P4}
     {P1 ,P2,P3 ,P4}
While P1 ‘s power has decreased so has P3 ‘s!

				
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posted:10/1/2012
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