Sculpture and Installation
Three – Dimensional
Louise Bourgeois, Maman, 1999, Bronze and steel
Methods and Materials
• Four Basic Methods for making a
– Modeling – additive process
– Carving- subtractive process
– Casting- molds
– Assembling- additive process
• In sculpture, manipulating a plastic
material such as clay or wax to create a
form. Your animation characters were
made from modeling.
• This is an additive process. Taking clay or
other pliable materials and adding them
together to create a shape or form.
Ceramic (modeled clay)
In contrast to the reductive process of carving, modeling
is essentially a building-up process in which the
sculpture grows organically from the inside. Numerous
plastic materials are used for modeling. The main ones
are clay, plaster, and wax; but concrete, synthetic resins,
plastic, wood, stucco, and even molten metal can also
be modeled. A design modeled in plastic materials may
be intended for reproduction by casting in more
permanent and rigid materials, such as metal, plaster,
concrete, and fiberglass, or it may itself be made rigid
and more permanent through the self-setting properties
of its materials (for example, plaster).
Ceramic pieces, glazed to look like leather, modeled clay
• The process of making a sculpture or
other object by pouring a liquid into a
mold, letting the liquid harden and
removing the hardened form from the
• Materials such as bronze, plaster, clay and
synthetic resins are poured into molds.
Holocaust Monument a.k.a. Nameless Library (2000), Rachael Whiteread
Holocaust Monument (2000) Judenplatz, Vienna
Whiteread's casts often seem to emphasise the fact that the objects they represent are
not themselves there, and critics have often regarded her work to be redolent of death
and absence. Given this, it is perhaps not surprising that she was asked by Austrian
authorities to create a work in remembrance of Austrian Jews killed during the Holocaust.
Due to political sensitivities and bureaucracy the process, from commission to unveiling,
took five years.
The work turned out to be Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial (2000; also known as
Nameless Library) and is located in the centre of the Judenplatz in Vienna. It is a work in
cast concrete, with the walls made up of rows of books, with the pages, rather than the
spines, turned outward; this can be regarded as a comment on Jews as a "people of the
book" and the Nazi book burnings. On one of the walls is the negative cast of double-
Mold making Process
“Development of a Bottle in Space,” bronze sculpture by Umberto Boccioni,
1912; in the Mattioli Collection, Milan, Italy
Pala Dynasty, 12th
Century, gilt bronze,
The Burghers of Calais, Auguste Rodin, 1884-85, bronze, 6’ 10” x 7’11” x 6’6”
• A sculpture is carved, chipped, sanded,
cut or gouged out of a solid material.
• Wood and stone are the principle
materials for carving.
• This is a more aggressive approach to art
making. Both wood and stone tend to
resist the artists’ tools.
Kuya Preaching, Kosho,
before 1207, Wood with paint,
And inlaid eyes, 46” height
Torso of a Young Girl, onyx on a stone base by Constantin Brancusi, 1922;
in the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Associate Professor Thomas Sakoulas
State University of New York at Oneonta Student examples of carving
• The technique of
piece may be
Untitled #1111 (Little Ed’s Daughter Margaret), Petah
called an Coyne 2003-2004, Wax, fiberglass cast statuary, velvet,
assemblage. satin, ribbon, thread, PVC pipe and fittings, steel
understructure, branches, fabricated branches, silk flowe
wire, hat pins, tassels, feathers, pumps, irrigation tubing,
water, hair, black paint 11’ tall
When assembling, an artist combines a collection of materials
to create a sculpture. An assemblage could be made of found
objects or construction materials such as wood and screws.
Assembled sculptures can differ greatly and can be
constructed in a variety of ways, such as gluing, tying, nailing
Rain Garden II
by Louise Nevelson
painted wood, 1977
Louise Nevelson, Case with Five Balusters, from Dawn's Wedding Feast, 1959,
wood, paint, 27 5/8 x 63 5/8 x 9 _ inches
Louise Nevelson, Case with Five Balusters,
from Dawn's Wedding Feast, 1959, wood, paint, 27 5/8 x 63 5/8 x 9 _ inches
Fear, Karen Whimsey
This piece of assemblage art was created using a book, found items, vintage images
and text, wire, thread, optical lens, copper nails, matches, charm, and a holy medal.
Doll House Assemblage, Suzanne Scott
Anthony Pack, assemblage found object
Linear Construction #1, Variation, Perspex plastic and nylon thread sculpture by
Naum Gabo, 1942–43; in the Miriam Gabo Collection, Middlebury, Connecticut, U.S.
Leopard Society Emblem, Ejagham culture,
Late 19th c. Animal bones, cane, raffia,
vegetable fibers, 47 x 41”
Reconstructed Icicles, Dumfriesshire,
1995, Icicles reconstructed and refrozen
• Relief-Sculpture meant to be viewed from
only one side. Usually part of a wall or
other architectural feature.
• Low Relief (Bas relief)- coins
• High Relief -when a sculpture projects
boldly from the background. (They project
out at least half of their depth.
from the Temple of Inscriptions,
Palenque Chiapas, mexico,
Maya, limestone, 684 CE