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Transport Environment freight transport by alicejenny

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 38

									Transport & Environment
       freight transport

         Magnus Blinge
           VINNOVA
    NUAS seminar 25 aug 2008
•   10 billion people with the
    same living standards as
    in the industrial countries
    would demand resources
    corresponding to 10
    globes!

•   …or 10 times more
    efficient systems
Chalmers University of Technology
Chalmers University of Technology
Some reasons for the increased demand
for transport services

•   Capital rationalization
•   Globalisation
•   Customer service as a marketing incentive
•   Misunderstanding of the concept
    ”just-in-time”
•   Transportation is too cheap!
    It is not primarily due to increased consumption!
The solutions that are being
discussed…


•   Intermodality
•   Alternative fuels
•   Fuel cells and Hydrogen
•   Technical development
•   More roads

      ….will not be enough!
Chalmers University of Technology
   ”The seaway is the
 environmental way” (?)

Shipping is rapidly growing to become
  Europe's dominating source of SO2 and
  NOx emissions ~ 2020 more than all other
  sources in all.                    (IVL, 2006)




This can be solved with low sulphur bunker oil and catalytic
          converters, if we are prepared to pay for it!
    What about the greenhouse gases?


•   Road transport is responsible for three quarters of the CO2 emissions
    from the transport sector, but shipping's relative share is growing
•   Speed and load rate are important. A large containership is 5-10 times
    more energy efficient compared to road transport
             Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for different modes of passenger transport




                                                                  Energy use
                                                                  Climate change
               Scenarios
•   It is clear that a biomass based
    F-T production scenario will
    heavily affect the transport and
    logistic systems.

•   To exchange 19% of the fuel
    consumption in Poland must
    3 large plants with the size of
    1,6 GW be build. Each plant
    must be served by 450 trucks
    per day or one truck every
    3 minutes, 24 hours/day,
    365 days/year.

•   This means five times as many
    trucks as serving the largest
    paper mills in the Nordic
    countries today.
               Scenarios

•   To substitute 15 % of the EU 15
    countries fuel consumption
    would an area of 310 000 km²
    be cultivated with Salix.
    This corresponds to an area of
    the size of Poland.

•   It would require 122 FT-plants
    of 1,6 GW. We can only
    imagine the problems of finding
    enough space at the coastline
    to support 100 % of the
    European fuel consumption.
               Results for a transported trailer


                                                    kg CO2
                kg NOx

                                  28 000
160                        NOx    26 000      CO2
140                               24 000
                                  22 000
120                               20 000
100                               18 000
                                  16 000
80                                14 000
                                  12 000
60                                10 000
                                   8 000
40                                 6 000
20                                 4 000
                                   2 000
 0                                     0
      Fartyg     Lastbil   Flyg            Fartyg    Lastbil   Flyg
         Example on how a strategic logistic decision
                  affects the environment

                       Service level on deliveries
Customer demands on:         Affects:                Which affects:


Del. precision
                        Transport flexibility        Choice of transport
                                                     mode
Del. time               Transport speed
                                                     Load rate, possibility to
                        Number of warehouses         consolidate
Del. security
                        Localisation of warehouses   Distance, possibility
                                                     to route planning
Del. flexibility        Choice of supplier
Technological improvements and intermodal transport
solutions are important parts, but….



The key to a transportation system
that is environmentally sustainable
lies within the process of strategic
logistic planning
        The total efficiency needs to be
        improved!
                      Volkswagen Lupo 3L TDI 33 km/liter!


•   Fuel efficiency
•   Load rate
Technical improvement
possibilities

•   Fuel cells
•   Electric hybrid vehicles
•   Alternative fuels
•   Aerodynamics
•   Increased loading capacity
•   Etc.,,,
  Volvo Hybrid truck




35 % less fuel consumption and less maintenance costs (brakes)
25,25 m truck
    Environmental logistics
•   CONSOLIDATION
    - Consolidated activities (forwarders) in Sweden ~ 70 % load rate
    - Consolidated activities (forwarders) in Europe ~ 55 % load rate
    - Totally for the hauler industry ~ 30 – 40 %

•   RETURN LOAD
    ~ 25 % of lorry vehicle km (vkm) are empty

•   ROUT PLANNING / FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
    5 – 15 % lowered vkm

•   PACKING
    - Recycling / Reuse
    - Design
    Environmental logistics
•   ORDERING SYSTEM
    - Logistic strategy
    - Service level

•   LOCALIZING
    - Suppliers
    - warehouses

•   DRIVING BEHAVOUR
    - 20 – 30 % reduction of fuel consumption

•   CHOICE OF DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS

•   REVERSE LOGISTICS
    Potential for fuel savings
•   Driving behaviour ~ 10-20 %
•   Smaller engines ~ 30-50 % ??
•   Consolidation ~ 25 - 50 %
•   Technology (Aerodynamics/Hybrid vehicles) ~ 30 %
•   Packaging ~ 30 %
•   Route planning/ Fleet management systems/GPS ~ 5-15 %
•   Alternative fuels ~ 10-20 %

    Activities in all areas are necessary!

    Fuel consumption for diesel powered engines for heavy vehicles has
    decreased by approximately 0,5 % per year
         For logisticians
     •   The logistic strategy defines the boundaries for the
         possibilities for reducing the environmental impact
     •   Cooperation is necessary
     •   Open the discussion for increased lead time through
         better planning, and not necessarily by higher stock
         levels.
     •   Transport speed is a rough but rather accurate measure
         of the environmental impact.



Magnus Blinge
          Environmental activities
          today
                     Transport purchasers


                                Environmenta Management
                                 systems/ISO 14 000
                                Demands on vehicles (Euro class)
                                Intermodality
           Environmental        Tyres
               dept.            Lubricants
                                Heavy Ecodriving
                                …
Magnus Blinge
                Sustainable Transport

                          Consolidation
                          Service levels
                          Packaging
                          Localisation
                          Stock level
                          Ordering system
                          …



           Environmental                     Logistics dept.
               dept.


Magnus Blinge
                Sustainable Transport


                         Management




         Environmental                Logistics dept.
             dept.        Common
                          strategy

Magnus Blinge
                       If you buy transport services…


    Slower transport, without longer lead times and maintained (or improved) punctuality!




             With better planning, transport speeds can be reduced, thereby
                lowering emissions and increasing the options:

             •   Increasing transport times increases the choice of methods of
                 transport

             •   With vehicles driving more slowly, emissions can be reduced

             •   Driving at lower speeds reduces effects of any disturbances and
                 the goods are therefore more likely to arrive punctually




2
                   If you buy transport services…


                Delivery frequency, order quantity and stockholding




    Larger and less frequent deliveries mean less vehicles, each carrying greater
    loads, which result in less emissions per unit of goods:


    •   With forward planning, the delivery volume per shipment can be
        increased

    •   With less shipments the sensitivity to disturbance is decreased

    •   In every vehicle, there are more goods that need transporting between
        the same locations, which increases the capacity and reduces the
        haulage distance




2
                   If you buy transport services…


                            Transport-friendly packaging




    Sensibly packed products take up less space and are easy to handle:



    •   Vehicles are filled with packaging that contains plenty of air and not
        enough goods

    •   Packaging should be designed to withstand knocks and bumps and be
        easily stackable to reduce damage en route

    •   Less packaging material means less waste disposal trips for the
        consignee




2
                    If you buy transport services…


                     Logistics-friendly goods delivery locations




    Proximity to sea and rail transport facilitates intermodality:

    •   Strategically located warehouses and production facilities increase
        transport options

    •   A wider choice of transport options lowers the sensitivity to disturbance

    •   More options increase the competition




2
                   If you buy transport services…


          Demands on shipping companies' environmental protection work




    Developments are justified by customers' demands:

    •   Environmental management systems indicate that environmental
        protection work is being systematically conducted

    •   Sound environmental choices when it comes to fuel, tyres and other
        resources mitigate the impact on the environment

    •   Heavy EcoDriving training for drivers reduces fuel consumption and
        emissions

    •   Many more demands can be made…                   Today, the Network for
                                                         Transport and Environment
                                                         (NTM) has tools to support        !
                                                         buyers of transport services in
                                                         their demands.




2
            Almost everyone can do their bit…

                              Product developers create
    Purchasers
                              durable, smart-packaging
    make
                              products for shipping
    demands
                              purposes


          The sales person                    The business
          persuades the                       manager sets
          customer/consigne                   time frames
          e


      The IT developer             The business
      extends the range of         developer guides the
      communication                long-term strategies
      options                      for localisation etc.




2
                Choice of transportation
Rail
Rail transport is generally highly energy-efficient and
almost always the best environmental choice for land-
based transportation. Electric engines are kinder to
the environment than diesel engines. The impact of
the electric engine on the environment depends on
how the electricity it uses is produced.
Road
New trucks are usually more environmentally-friendly      0,6

than older ones. Their impact on the environment          0,5

depends on the fuel they use, they way they are           0,4
driven (EcoDriving reduces emissions), post-cleaning      0,3
equipment and type of tyres.                              0,2


Sea                                                       0,1

Transport by sea is often an energy-efficient              0
                                                                 Lastbil   Eltåg   Fartyg   Flyg
alternative. The amount of emissions depends on the             Examples of emissions of
fuel quality and speed and considerable improvements
can be made by choosing better quality fuel and ships
                                                                carbon dioxide in
                                                                kilograms when carrying 1
                                                                                                   !
that travel at slower speeds.                                   tonne of goods a distance
                                                                of 1 kilometre.
Air
Air transport is highly energy consuming, especially at
takeoff. Its advantages are obviously its speed. Good
planning can make emergency flights for low-value
goods unnecessary.
                           To find out more…


CPM                                     www.cpm.chalmers.se

Environmental measures for goods        Blinge and Svensson, CPM report, 2006:
transport                               5

Network for Transport and Environment   www.ntm.a.se

Good examples from the National Road    www.vv.se
Administration                          (click on Transport & Journeys –
                                        Commercial traffic – Good examples)

EcoDriving                              www.ecodriving.se

Swedish Environmental Protection        www.naturvardsverket.se
Agency
Sweden's environmental objectives       www.miljomal.nu

								
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