Ch. 9 Smooth Sailing? by OL5u327d


									               Ch. 10
            Smooth Sailing?
• By the time the constitution was ratified,
KY, TN, and Ohio were growing.
• Most of the population still lived East of
• New territories were loyal to the gov’t,
but most states were skeptical.
• Finances were a mess both for the
states and the new government.
       The Washington Years
• Washington is only President unanimously
  elected to office.
• He didn’t seek the position, but felt
  compelled to take it.
• 1st Capitol was in New York City.
• Named his first Cabinet: Sec. of State –
  Jefferson, Sec. of Treas. – Alex. Hamilton,
  Sec. of War – Henry Knox
      The Washington Years
• As promised, the gov’t needed to deliver a
  Bill of Rights.
• James Madison drafted 10 amendments
  and got Congress to approve (2/3 vote)
• All were ratified because they (9 & 10)
  protected the rights of states.
• The Judiciary Act also set up the Supreme
  Court – John Jay as first Chief Justice.
      Hamilton and the Debt
• As Sec. of Treasury, Hamilton
  had the task of reducing debt
  and getting revenue.
• He supported the wealthy and
  believed in a trickle-down
• He also wanted the debt of the
  gov’t and states to be paid by
  federal gov’t.
• He said the states went in debt
  during the war and the new
  gov’t should pay.
           Hamilton’s Plan

• Hamilton knew states w/ heavy debts
  would love the plan.
• Other states, like VA, did not want to hand
  their debtors over to the federal gov’t.
• Deal was made with VA to go along if the
  Federal District would locate on Potomac.
• Deal went through and so did his plan.
           The Lovely Debt
• Hamilton saw the $75 million debt as a
  necessary tool. How?
• If you have debtors, they have a stake in
  making sure the gov’t is strong.
• They also needed revenue like a small
  import tariff and an excise tax on whiskey.
• Later, the whiskey tax would prove
             National Bank

• Hamilton wanted a national bank, but
  Jefferson thought the fed. gov’t too strong
• They both sent arguments in writing to
  Washington, and Hamilton won.
• Hamilton used argument that the step was
  necessary and proper to aid the gov’t.
• It was a huge success.
          Whiskey Rebellion

• Took place in W. Pennsylvania in 1794
• Small-time distillers were angry over the
  excise tax and threatened revolt.
• Washington sent out the military to put
  down the “revolt”.
• Easily dispersed and strengthened the
  federal government.
           Political Parties

• Hamilton and Jefferson differed on the
  amount of power the feds should have.
• They even had clashes of power.
• Political parties grew out of this.
• Hamiltonians became the Federalists
• Jeffersonians the Democratic-Republicans.
• Thus began the two-party system.
        Le French Revolution
•In 1789, the French Revolution had just begun.
 The people wanted a constitution
•In time, they wanted the king’s head.
•They got it as well as his wife’s.
•American’s were torn as to which side they
 were on.
•Washington issued the Neutrality
 Proclamation in 1793.
          The Proclamation
• Both Hamilton and Jefferson agreed.
• Though France had helped America, we
  were too weak to get involved.
• Americans did not all feel the same way.
• Bitter debates and divisions ensued.
• In the end, it served both France and
  America’s best interest to remain neutral.
     American Foreign Policy

• America hoped to remain neutral, but
  Britain tried to draw them in.
• American ships were seized in the West
• John Jay went to England to broker a
  deal, but didn’t fare very well.
• Americans blamed him and our gov’t.
    Washington as Precedent

• Washington decided not to seek the
  Presidency in 1796.
• He believed that 2 terms was enough.
• He advised the gov’t to not make any
  long-term alliances.
• Washington led a young, fractured nation
  through her infant years.
• Britain did not give America a pass for
staying out of the war.
• They continued to block westward
expansion by arming Indians.
• Treaty of Greenville – 1795 – Indians
ceded land to Americans.
• British began seizing American ships in
the Indies.
• Americans are ticked!!
          Election of 1796

• John Adams, Washington’s Vice-President,
  ran for the Federalists.
• Hamilton was too unpopular w/ masses.
• Thomas Jefferson ran for the Democratic-
• Adams narrowly won and Jefferson
  became his VP.
                XYZ Affair
• France saw Jay’s Treaty with England as
  violation of their own treaty.
• Adams sent an envoy to France.
• Tallyrand sent cronies to elicit bribes to
  meet with him.
• Americans were angered and returned.
• Undeclared war was fought on seas.
• France surrendered. (surprise)
      Alien and Sedition Acts
• Federalists passed laws in Congress to
  allow President to kick foreigners out.
• Designed to protect Federalist votes.
• Also passed Sedition Act which
  criminalized articles or speech that was
• Jefferson Republicans argued these laws
  violated the 1st amendment.
           Federalist Views

• Mainly represented business and the
  wealthy aristocrats.
• Loose interpretation of Constitution.
• Pro-British in foreign affairs for economic
• Strong central government trumps weaker
  state governments.
       Jefferson Republicans

• Represented the middle class and the
• Believed that the free press was one of
  the most important freedoms.
• Pro-French in their foreign affairs.
• Believed that all free men (who are
  educated) should have the right to vote.

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