Ch. 10 Smooth Sailing? • By the time the constitution was ratified, KY, TN, and Ohio were growing. • Most of the population still lived East of Appalachia. • New territories were loyal to the gov’t, but most states were skeptical. • Finances were a mess both for the states and the new government. The Washington Years • Washington is only President unanimously elected to office. • He didn’t seek the position, but felt compelled to take it. • 1st Capitol was in New York City. • Named his first Cabinet: Sec. of State – Jefferson, Sec. of Treas. – Alex. Hamilton, Sec. of War – Henry Knox The Washington Years • As promised, the gov’t needed to deliver a Bill of Rights. • James Madison drafted 10 amendments and got Congress to approve (2/3 vote) • All were ratified because they (9 & 10) protected the rights of states. • The Judiciary Act also set up the Supreme Court – John Jay as first Chief Justice. Hamilton and the Debt • As Sec. of Treasury, Hamilton had the task of reducing debt and getting revenue. • He supported the wealthy and believed in a trickle-down effect. • He also wanted the debt of the gov’t and states to be paid by federal gov’t. • He said the states went in debt during the war and the new gov’t should pay. Hamilton’s Plan • Hamilton knew states w/ heavy debts would love the plan. • Other states, like VA, did not want to hand their debtors over to the federal gov’t. • Deal was made with VA to go along if the Federal District would locate on Potomac. • Deal went through and so did his plan. The Lovely Debt • Hamilton saw the $75 million debt as a necessary tool. How? • If you have debtors, they have a stake in making sure the gov’t is strong. • They also needed revenue like a small import tariff and an excise tax on whiskey. • Later, the whiskey tax would prove violent. National Bank • Hamilton wanted a national bank, but Jefferson thought the fed. gov’t too strong • They both sent arguments in writing to Washington, and Hamilton won. • Hamilton used argument that the step was necessary and proper to aid the gov’t. • It was a huge success. Whiskey Rebellion • Took place in W. Pennsylvania in 1794 • Small-time distillers were angry over the excise tax and threatened revolt. • Washington sent out the military to put down the “revolt”. • Easily dispersed and strengthened the federal government. Political Parties • Hamilton and Jefferson differed on the amount of power the feds should have. • They even had clashes of power. • Political parties grew out of this. • Hamiltonians became the Federalists • Jeffersonians the Democratic-Republicans. • Thus began the two-party system. Le French Revolution •In 1789, the French Revolution had just begun. The people wanted a constitution •In time, they wanted the king’s head. •They got it as well as his wife’s. •American’s were torn as to which side they were on. •Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation in 1793. The Proclamation • Both Hamilton and Jefferson agreed. • Though France had helped America, we were too weak to get involved. • Americans did not all feel the same way. • Bitter debates and divisions ensued. • In the end, it served both France and America’s best interest to remain neutral. American Foreign Policy • America hoped to remain neutral, but Britain tried to draw them in. • American ships were seized in the West Indies. • John Jay went to England to broker a deal, but didn’t fare very well. • Americans blamed him and our gov’t. Washington as Precedent • Washington decided not to seek the Presidency in 1796. • He believed that 2 terms was enough. • He advised the gov’t to not make any long-term alliances. • Washington led a young, fractured nation through her infant years. Allies?? • Britain did not give America a pass for staying out of the war. • They continued to block westward expansion by arming Indians. • Treaty of Greenville – 1795 – Indians ceded land to Americans. • British began seizing American ships in the Indies. • Americans are ticked!! Election of 1796 • John Adams, Washington’s Vice-President, ran for the Federalists. • Hamilton was too unpopular w/ masses. • Thomas Jefferson ran for the Democratic- Republicans. • Adams narrowly won and Jefferson became his VP. XYZ Affair • France saw Jay’s Treaty with England as violation of their own treaty. • Adams sent an envoy to France. • Tallyrand sent cronies to elicit bribes to meet with him. • Americans were angered and returned. • Undeclared war was fought on seas. • France surrendered. (surprise) Alien and Sedition Acts • Federalists passed laws in Congress to allow President to kick foreigners out. • Designed to protect Federalist votes. • Also passed Sedition Act which criminalized articles or speech that was anti-gov’t. • Jefferson Republicans argued these laws violated the 1st amendment. Federalist Views • Mainly represented business and the wealthy aristocrats. • Loose interpretation of Constitution. • Pro-British in foreign affairs for economic reasons. • Strong central government trumps weaker state governments. Jefferson Republicans • Represented the middle class and the poor. • Believed that the free press was one of the most important freedoms. • Pro-French in their foreign affairs. • Believed that all free men (who are educated) should have the right to vote.
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