Elements of a Short Story - Download Now DOC

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					                                 Elements   of a Short Story

Short Story: A short story is a brief and imaginative narrative containing few
             characters, a simple plot, conflict and suspense leading to a climax
             and a swift (quick) conclusion.

Title:         Important for three reasons:
                     1. It names the story.
                     2. It attracts and invites the reader to the story.
                     3. It often reflects or gives a clue to the theme.

Setting:       The TIME and PLACE a story occurs (where and when).

Protagonist: The main character of the story. He or she is the centre of
                  attention and the focus of the conflict.

Antagonist: The main opponent to the protagonist.

Character Traits: Adjectives (describing words) that describe how a character usually
                  acts or reacts.

Mood/Tone:                   A story has an atmosphere which creates a mood in the
                             reader. An easy way to figure out the mood of a short story
                             is to simply look at how the story made you, the reader, feel.
                             EX: anger, sadness, terror, confusion, etc.

Conflict: the protagonist’s main problem. There are six main types:

         Character vs. Character                   Character vs. Nature
         Character vs. Supernatural                Character vs. Self
         Character vs. Society                     Character vs. Technology

Theme:         The author's message to the reader, or a moral about how one should live
               life. The lesson the reader can learn from the story.

Foreshadowing: Hinting at future events in order to create suspense.

Flashback:      A jump back into the past to provide an explanation of something the
               reader needs to know to better understand the story.
Suspense:      a feeling of anxiety or uncertainty aroused in the reader about the
              outcome of events.

Allusion:     a reference to a well-known person, place, event, or to another literary
              work or passage.

Irony: The use of an idea, word, or phrase to elicit the opposite of its usual meaning.
             There are two main types:
                1. Dramatic Irony: Occurs when the audience knows something that
                    the character does not
                2. Situational Irony: Occurs when circumstances turn out differently
                    from what the reader expects or anticipates

Point of View: 3 Types:

First Person
- the story is told through firsthand experience
- “I”
- ex: “I walked to the store.”
- ex: “When Daniel walked towards me, I felt scared.”
-useful for: expressing the protagonist’s innermost feelings

Second Person
- The story is told as though you (the reader) are the protagonist
-ex: “You walked to the store.”
-ex: “When Daniel walked towards you, you felt scared.”
-useful for: making the reader feel engaged by/drawn into the story

Third Person
- the story is told by an “onlooker” who may or may not be in the story
- “he, she, they, him, her”
- ex: “He walked to the store.”
- ex: “When Daniel walked towards her, she felt scared.”
-useful for: telling the story from the perspective of more than one character
        Third Person Omniscient
        -narrator knows the feelings & thoughts of all characters, “godlike”
        Third Person Limited
        -narrator only knows what other characters tell him/her

Tips for finding POV
-look for the pronoun clue (“I”, “you,” “she”)
-DO NOT look in speech to determine POV

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