2007 APWH Regional & Thematic Outlines by fL3DlI

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									2012 APWH Regional &
  Thematic Outlines

      Table of Contents
                                   Table of Contents

Regional Outlines

     Asia (East & South Asia)
     Europe (Eastern & Western)
     Latin America
     Mediterranean
     Middle East
     United States 1 & 2

Thematic Outlines

     Demographic
     Gender Relations
     Global Trade
     Religion
                                                             Regional Outline for: Sub-Saharan Africa
                           8000 – 600 CE                   600 – 1450 CE                        1450-1750 CE                    1750 – 1914 CE                      1914 - Present
      Politics        Pharaoh/queen (living          Kingship legitimized by Islam,        leaders cooperated with          Re-colonization of Africa;        Decolonization of Africa;
                      incarnation of sun god),       ‘People of The Book’, Bantu           slave traders; monarchy          Sierra Leone, Liberia ;           attempt at representative
                      internal disorder, invasions   (stateless societies)                                                  coastal kingdoms ruled by         government; involved in
                      (900 BCE), irrigation                                                                                 warlords/merchants;               WWII; renewed independence
                                                                                                                                                              efforts civil war, government
                                                                                                                            intertribal war; Revolutions;     corruption; socialism
                                                                                                                            White Man’s Burden
     Economy          Trade with Kush and            Trade, with Islam as unifying         Triangular Trade/ Trans-         End of Atlantic Slave             Globalized economies;
                      Mesopotamia, agricultural      factor, trans-Saharan trade           Atlantic Slave Trade; guns       Trade Islamic states of          mercantilism in former
                      villages engaged in trade.     routes; Ghana (gold), Mali;           traded for slaves; slave trade   West Africa still trade           colonies; poverty stricken
                                                     gold, salt, honey, slaves, ivory,     with Mediterranean world         slaves; rely on slave trade       countries; international debt
                                                     imports, trade with Byzantine
                                                     Empire, agriculture
                                                                                                                            more; economic slump

     Social           Patriarchal, but women         Merchants valued; patriarchal         Demographic shifts; more         Rapid population growth           Spanish Flu (global
                      manage household, own          society, rich women more              males in the slave trade than                                      epidemic); clear black
  Class/Gender                                       restricted; Islamic law, ‘People
                      property, regents of rulers,                                         females (females traded                                            majority making
                      priestesses, scribes, can      of the Book’, religious               more in the East coast);                                           decolonization easier
                                                     tolerance, class centered around
                      divorce, high priest class     age group
                                                                                           depopulated                                                        (apartheid in South Africa)

Science/Inventions Hieroglyphics, bronze tools,      Hellenistic thought,                  manioc, maize, sweet             Industrialization; guns,          Slow technological
                      papyrus, 365 day calendar,     science/math                          potatoes (from America);         textiles, alcohol (importance     development due to
                      medicine, math, astronomy,                                           technology suffered due to       of foreign imports);              colonization, mercantilism,
                      iron                                                                 slave trade                      Enlightenment                     internal instability; miners; no
                                                                                                                                                              money for industrial goods
                                                                                                                                                              after WWI; oil (Nigeria)

Art/Architecture      Pyramids, temples,             Linguistic, architectural, artistic   Islamic art/architecture,        Christian/ Islamic arts ;         Western artistic forms,
                      hieroglyphics                  version of Christianity;              paper making; arts suffered      literary/ artistic forms of the   religious art, native art
                                                     calligraphy, Mosques, minarets        due to slave trade               west                              (export)

      Empire          Geography—protected,           Islamic urban center, Bantu           Part of Triangular Trade         Open to foreign takeover          Decolonization new
                      unique civilization, not as    Migrations, trade centers,            (with Europe and America);       due to economic slump;            sovereign nations
                      urban as Mesopotamia, Nile     Trans-Saharan trade route             beginnings of European           colonized by Europe
                      river                                                                exploration ; Kongo, Benin,
                                                                                           Mali, Songhay

     Religion         Polytheism , afterlife         Islam , Christianity in Ethiopia      Islam, Christianity,             Islam, Christianity,              Islam, Christianity,
                      (mummification), Book of       and Egypt, animistic,                 animism, ancestor                animism, ancestor                 animism, atheists
                      the Dead                       syncretism,                           worshipsyncretism               worshipsyncretism
                                                Regional Outline for East Asia (China, Japan, Koreas, Vietnam)

                                                                                        South Asia
                          8000 – 600 CE                     600 – 1450 CE                       1450-1750 CE                     1750 – 1914 CE                     1914 - Present
     Politics        Dynasties with emperors-          Japan borrowed from China           Fall of Ming from                Abdication of Qing,               Decolonization from Europe
                     mandate of heaven                 Increased bureaucracy               internal/external - Manchu       unification of China              Nominally democratic
                     Start of                          Tributary system                    Japan: Warring States            Fight for control with Mao        Tensions- China and West
                     bureaucracy/meritocracy           Constant threat from North          Period to Tokogawa               Japan: abolishes feudalism,       USSR/China split
                                                       Prince Shotoku then                 Shogunate                        Civil code, regional govs         Birth of Chinese Republic
                                                       daimyos                             Centralized rule                 Nationalism = huge force          Japan: parliamentary
    Economy          Lots of money flowing in          Paper money                         China: trade with                Provide labor for                 Modernization of Japan,
                     from Silk Roads                   Credit or “flying money”            Europeans in Qing                plantations/mines                 Taiwan, South Korea
                     Otherwise agricultural            High taxes cause peasant            Japan: manufacturing,            Meiji Restoration- quickly        Post- industrial/high-tech
                                                       revolts                             merchant class get wealth        industrialized in Japan           Less affected by global
                                                       Serfs bound to land                 and power , urbanization,                                          depression
                                                                                           population growth                                                  Need natural resources
     Social          Patriarchal                       Code of Bushido- chivalry           Foreigners allowed in China      Rigid Tokogawa hierarchy          Slow to embrace/tolerate
                     Confucian principles              Women lost freedom in Japan         Manchus higher than Chinese      ended                             diversity and individualism
  Class/Gender       Women only power in court                                             Japan: hierarchy becomes         Middle class grows power          High degree/variety social
                     Scholars/officials  military                                         unbreakable, samurai at top      Lower classes- horrible           services
                      artisans                                                            lower class women more free –    conditions, taxed a lot           Rise of feminism- suffrage
                     Few live in cities                                                    upper obey or die                                                  Women went worked WWII
                                                                                                                                                              Foot binding outlawed
Science/Inventions   Iron Age                          Gunpowder for military              Gunpowder more prevalent         British introduced opium to       Atomic bombs
                     Modernized army                   Boasts = junks                      Globalization of trade           China                             Nuclear weaponry
                     Paper, accurate                   Navigation/block printing                                            Westernization of Japan           Militarism in Japan
                     sundials/calendars, agriculture   Iron production                                                      - steamships/railroads            Computer, internet,
                     improvements (plow)               Agriculture technique                                               Communication revolution          biotechnology and genetic
                                                       population  cities                                                                                    science

 Art/Architecture    Brush painting                    Infrastructure (roads, inns,        Japan: kabuki theatre replaces   Artistic styles change more       Theme for lit- resisting US
                     Palaces                           postal stations)                    restrained drama,                rapidly and radically than ever   New style= cubism
                                                       Japan: haiku, pencil sketches,      Woodblock prints = art form,     before                            Movie industry
                                                       ink sketches, Noh drama, tea        borrowed Korean ceramics and                                       Use of concrete and glass
                                                       ceremony                            western oil painting                                               New skepticism
     Empire          Collapse of empires in            Mongol empires – conquer            Japan empire centralized         The fall of China – opium         Japan- WWII- invades
                     China from internal               China, but fail in Japan           Fall of the Manchu empire        wars, internal rebellions,        Manchuria, China, Siberia –
                     problems – economic               replaced by Ottoman Turks           Interaction with west =          external lasses, Boxer            taking over Southeast Asia,
                     depression, natural               and Ju Yuanzahng of Ming            China – relatively isolated,     Rebellion                         Bomb Pearl Harbor – brings
                     catastrophe, social unrest        dynasty                             Japan- periods of isolation      Japanese imperialism-             US into war  atomic
                                                                                           and acceptance                   Taiwan, Korea, Russia             bomb  US occupies Japan
    Religion         Polytheism, animism ancestor      Buddhist missionaries               New sects of Buddhism from       Scientific/secular world          Religious fundamentalism
                     worship                           Shinto religion                     China to Japan                   becomes dominant                  Western appreciation for
                     Confucianism, Legalism            Influenced by monotheistic          Neo- Confucianism increase                                         science spread
                     Daoism, also spread of            religions                           (ethnocentric, historicism,
                     Buddhism from India               Neo- Confucian thought              rationalism)
                                              South Asia                            South Asia

           Politics                         Economy                         Social Class/ Gender

8000-600   Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro         Active trade and                Warrior aristocracy/ enslaved
CE         Aryans (1500 BCE)                communication with Sumer        Dravidians
           16 states                        Ashoka (Maurya) promote         Arayans stratify class – Varna –
           Then Maurya (321-185             trade with rest areas for       four classes
           BCE)                             travelers and Buddhist          Patriarchal
           Central, powerful military       missionaries                    Customs devalued women
           Then Gupta Empire (320 –         Trade with Mesopotamia –        More isolated – purdh
           550 CE)                          Silk, cotton, elephants
           Central control w/ village       Silk Road
600-1450   Collapse of Delhi sultanate      Indian Ocean trade and          Caste system
CE         in 1300’s                        Trade with Islamic World,
                                            China, East Africa and
                                            Traded: cotton, silk,
                                            elephants, gems, cinnamon,
                                            and salt
1450-      Centralized under Mughal         Thrived due to cotton trade     Patriarchal
1750 CE                                                                     Treatment of women better
                                                                            under Akbar (initially) – allowed
                                                                            widows to remarry and
                                                                            intermarry between Hindus and
                                                                            Muslims, portray talents openly
1750-      Mughal empire, Buhudar           European traders                More racial based
1914 CE    Shahill sent into exile          British East India Company      Abolish inhumane cultural
           Indian National congress                                         traditions (Sati)
           European influence
1914-      Nationalism                      Globalization facilitate and    Still patriarchal w/ caste system
Present    Indian National Congress         create greater trade across
           Push for independence            the globe
           (finally get after WWII)

                      Science/              Art/ Architecture      Empire                Religion
8000-600 CE           Pi, Zero, numerical   Paintings, temples,    Indus                 Hinduism…Buddhism
                      system, medicine,     sculptures,
                astronomy, plastic   courtyard
600-1450                                                                      Islam,
CE                                                                            Hinduism, Buddhism
1450-1750 CE    Gunpowder            Blended w/          Mughal               Islam, Buddhism…
                technology           Muslim              Gunpowder empire     though mostly Hindu
                                     Arches, domes       Decline: due to
                                     Taj Mahal           opening to foreign
1750-1914 CE    European             Roads, railroads,   British colony       Hindu, Islam,
                education            canals                                   Buddhism,
                promotes science/                                             Christianity (though
                invention                                                     not very popular)
1914- Present                                            After civil war:     Muslim minority
                                                         India, Pakistan,
                                                                            Regional Outline for Eastern Europe
                  8000 – 600 CE               600 – 1450 CE                     1450-1750 CE               1750 – 1914 CE                                                 1914 - Present
    Politics         Religion based       Mongol invasion 1237-1241                   Ivan III/IV -                    Russia – tsar continued to be all                Tsarist regime falls apart
                   Hierarchal system      - Russia divided into small         Free from Mongols – 1480                              powerful                              Army in full retreat
                      Delegation of                 kingdoms                  Empire expanded eastward               Prussia – remained militaristic and     USSR formed – collapses following cold war
                      responsibility              Tartars control          Russia – centralization of authority                   authoritarian               Soviet troops occupy all of eastern Europe
                      Bureaucratic         - left day to day control to    Peter the Great – St. Petersburg as         Duma created, but no real power                 Gorbachev tries to reform
                       codification                    locals                            capital                      Local rulers – zemstvoes regulate                frees E. European nations
                  6th century Justinian                                        Parliamentary government                          roads, schools                updated authoritarian structure in reality
                  rule – restore Rome                                                 Secret police                       Military officers based on
                                                                                   First Russian navy                             meritocracy
   Economy          Byzantine empire       Trade lapsed under Tartars      Key economy bound to agriculture               Backward position in trade                          COMECON
                     Most important       North-south commerce never            Devalued merchant class              Exported some grain to W. Europe                   Economies nationalized
                   western terminal of              returned                 Limited commercial exchange             Trade deficit lessened by increasing     Collectivization under state planned control
                     the Silk Road          Moscow – trade, tribute              Systemized tax system               serf output, not improving industry                 Soviet welfare system
                     Constantinople                 collector                    Metallurgy and mining                - realizes the need to industrialize              Focus on heavy industry
                  located on important        Most part, remained             Economics funded military                   But sill doesn’t want to be               Lenin’s New economic policy
                       trade routs                agricultural                                                                    materialistic                          Russia-five year plan
                                          Trades with nomadic people
   Social          Serfdom began in              Influx of jews                        Feudalism                         Emancipating serfs 1861                     Muslim population growth
Class/Gender          Middle Age              Monogamy replaced            Peter the Great encourages serfdom         -but most indebted, life doesn’t       Lenin’s New Economic Policy gave freedom
                  Original sin devalues            polygamy                Women and nobles forced to dress                       improve                     to small businesses, peasant landowners –
                        women                  Fairly free farmers                 in western fashions                       Increased literacy                              more power
                                             Boyars-aristocrats-less         Men shaved beards – denial of            Some upper class women have                Education started to spread – literacy
                                                political power                      Mongol tradition                      access to new careers
                                                                              Power to upper class women                   Pogroms against Jews
   Science                                                                  Focus on Serfs-cheap labor force           Western machinery imported            Cold War – Arms race, space race Scientists
  Inventions                                                                  impeded invention or new                Outdated agricultural methods –                       highly respected
                                                                                   scientific ideas                           hard to compete                           Research heavily funded
                                                                            John Desarguliers builds first           Mendel and some peas, Pavlov            Direction/research determined by government
                                                                            steam engine outside England                     and his dog                                 – want applied science
Art/Architectre      Hagia Sophia                Ornate churches               Not part of Renaissance due to          Beginning of some arts flourish                  Art-attacked western style
                        Mosaic                  Icons, illuminated                    illiterate Mongols             -Tolstoy, Dostoyevsky, Tchaikivsky                         Classical arts
                     Religion based                manuscripts               Architecture of city done by serfs         Nationalist pride through            Literature walked line of angering government
                                          Religious art vs. local music,               Romanov Policy                dictionaries, histories, folktales,           – still discussed patriotism/Russian
                                           street performers & theater     - Italian artists/architects to work on                 music
   Empire          Byzantine Empire                 Kievan Rus               Connection to Byzantine Empire
                                          could not replicate Byzantine          - married niece of emperor
                                             Kievan decline – rival        Expansion – fought Ottoman Empire
                                             princes set up regional         Fall of Byzantine Empire (1453)
                                           Rapid decline of Byzantium
   Religion        Animist – gods of          Vladimir I convert to          Orthodox Christianity moved to          Russification – all Russians had to      Soviet schools taught religion as myth under
                   sun, thunder, wind              Christianity                        Moscow                              convert to Orthodoxy                                  Stalin
                         and fire               forced conversion          Romanov family – state control over                                                       No church service to under 18
                                             Splendor of Orthodox              Russian Orthodox Church
                                              religious ceremonies
                                            Religion allowed to have
                                              vernacular languages
                                                                     Western Europe

                       8000 – 600 CE             600 – 1450 CE           1450-1750 CE             1750 – 1914 CE                  1914 - Present
     Politics        democracy (Greece),     Small feudal kingdoms     Monarchies              Emerging constitutional     Experiments with socialism,
                     republic (Rome),        Decentralization          Emerging nationalism    monarchies                  communism
                                             Holy Roman Empire,                                rivalries between nations   Swing between right and left
                                             Franks, English                                   strong                      wings

    Economy          Trade within regions,   Manorialism               European exploration:   mercantilism really took    Globally interconnected
                     sometimes trade         Self-sufficient           start of mercantilism   off                         Capitalism
                     through silk road       Some Trade                colonialism             mass production of goods    Industrialized nations better
                                                                       Columbian Exch.         global trade

     Social          Germanic tribes         Feudalism/ Chivalry       Hierarchical system     Enlightment ideas gave      Feminism
  Class/Gender       Serfdom                 Power by land owners      based on race and       women rise                  Attempts to end racism
                     Slaves, citizen, free   Peasants tied to land     ethnocentrism           end of slave trade          persecution jews, minorities
                     women inferior                                    women devalued          racism still exists         meritocracy

Science/Inventions Pythagoras, created       Gutenberg – Printing      Lateen Sails            Industrial Revolution       nuclear power,
                     field of medicine       Press                     Scientific Revolution   Assembly line, mass         Internet,
                                                                       Navigation technology   production, technology in

Art/Architecture     Domed, ideal human      Gothic style              Renaissance             beginning of modern         New uses of concrete and glass,
                     form, literary works,   Polyphonic music          Humanism                art—abstract art, cubism,   Movies, Cubism
                     such as Epic by Homer                                                     impressionism

     Empire          Greece, Rome            Holy Roman Empire         England, Iberia…        Imperialism                 Empires broken up colonies
                                                                       nation states emerge    always expanding and        independent, self determination

     Religion        polytheism, animism     Roman Catholic            Protestant              Protestant religions        Better religious tolerance
                                                                       Calvinism, Anglican
                                                      Regional Outline for Latin America

                    8000 – 600           600 – 1450              1450-1750 CE                        1750 – 1914 CE                            1914 - Present
                       CE                   CE
     Politics        -   The leaders are related to    - Arrival of Cortes (1518)             - Colonization                          - Decolonization
                         divinity (priests)            - Annihilates existing political       - Implement own government              - Majority rules
                     -   Hierarchal system               system                                 (Europeans immigrate)                 - Series of juntas/dictatorships
                                                       - Codified laws                        - Religion (Catholic) plays a
                                                                                                strong influence in gov’t

    Economy          -   Little trade                  - Cortes – trading                     - improved technology               -       Europe cannot maintain
                     -   Internally based              - Encomiendas                          - dependent                         -       Monoculture
                     -   Mostly agriculture            - Haciendas                            - Europe sucks natural              -       Difficulty industrializing
                     -   Large marketplaces            - Trade of crops                         resources/profits                 -       Heavily dependent on natural
                                                       - Brought beasts of burden            - monoculture                               resources (Venezuela)
                                                         improved agriculture
     Social          -   priests rules                 - more hierarchal (by race)            - Continued hierarchy                   -   Society opens up
  Class/Gender       -   hierarchal                    - depreciation of women (European      - New castes created (creoles,          -   More egalitarian
                     -   patriarchal (though women       influence)                             mestizos )                            -   Some meritocracy
                         appreciated)                                                                                                 -   Existing racism

Science/Invention    -   Calendar                      - medical advances (longer life        - primitive anesthesia                  -   innovation continued
        s            -   No wheels                       span)                                - tools for probing, incision,          -   beginning industrialization
                     -   Road system                   - Wheel brought in (levers, pulleys)     organ extraction                      -   extracting natural resources
                     -   Chinampas                     - Brought in writing system (for       - blood letting                         -   science/inventions gotten
                                                         Incan empire)                        - transfer of European                      through trade

Art/Architecture     -   Ziggurats                     - Western/religion (Christian based) art                                   - Combination of European,
                     -   Religion-based                - Mix of original Spanish and Western art                                  indigenous, and Christian arts.

    Empire           -   Aztecs                        - decimated (guns, germs, steel)       - Spanish/Portuguese empire             - split into many countries
                     -   Incas                         - Iberian rule                         - Treaty of Tordesillas (1949)          - General Boliva: legacy of anti
                     -   Mayans                                                               - Portuguese King moves to                American, influenced many
                     -   Toltecs, etc.                                                          Brazil                                  countries
                                                                                              - Some French influence                 - No strong institutions due to
    Religion         -   Animism                       -   West considered Gods               - Christianity heavily encouraged       - Atheism agnostics increased
                     -   Polytheism                    -   Lose belief in previous Gods                                               - Legacy of Catholicism
                     -   Worship of nature, etc.       -   West brought Christianity                                                  - Society more free to choose
                                                       -   Influenced (little syncretism:                                               religion
                                                           superstitions created)
                                                                 Regional Outline for Mediterranean
                           8000 – 600 CE                       600 – 1450 CE                      1450-1750 CE                         1750 – 1914 CE                        1914 - Present
     Politics        - Persian Empire: governors          Byzantine: absolute authority     Spain: Ferdinand + Isabella           - Unification of Italy – Victor      WWI - Conflict in Balkans
                          and law code                     Secular rulers                      (Christian North + Muslim            Emmanuel (1870) (helped by         Italy changes sides for alliances
                     - Greece: city states (Athenian       Justianian Code                     South) = nation state                Revolution of 1848) - Italy         – want N territories controlled
                          democracy)                                                                                                before (mid 1800s): foreign            by Austria (later got some,
                     - Roman Republic (510 - 23                                                                                     controlled small kingdoms              but not all they wanted)
                          BCE): Senate/Assembly                                                                                        – power of nationalism          Interwar – Fascist Italy,
                     -Roman Empire (23 BCE – 576                                                                                  - Iberian colonies freeing selves        Mussolini – aggression
                          CE): bureaucrats                                                                                        - Italy: Triple Alliance             * no absolutes!
    Economy          Trade – among Med (1st               East Byzantine: trade             - Byzantines not dominant             - N. Italy industrializes            Interwar period – global econ
                       controlled by Phoenicians/             - at crossroads               - Iberian wave of exploration         - Portuguese coastal settlements         crisis
                       Greeks), and also with Africa          - commercial, cultural          -start off strong, later replaced        (esp. India), and quite harsh   Fascists want to protect
                       (Trans-Saharan) and Silk                  connections                     by more W. Europe                     w/ African colonies                 enterprise
                       Roads (connected to China)                                           - Got lots of wealth, but spent       - Italy – not really colonizing      Economic Globalization – Italy
                     -necessary b/c large scale                                                  just as quickly                    (humiliating loss to Ethiopia)         in G-8
                          agriculture impossible                                            - N. Italian city-states rich
     Social          Classes:                             Serfdom                           - Women: Overall Europe some          Women: some movement to              Fascists (unlike Communists)
                          - citizens (adult males)        Women: domestic participate in      awareness of injustices             equality (esp. industrialization)       don’t want to eliminate
  Class/Gender            - free people (no pol rights)       trade/craft                        - limited opportunities          - also w/ indus.: changes in            private property, class
                          - noncitizens, slaves                                                                                   classes (rise of middle)                distinctions
                       or patricians, plebians, slaves                                                                                                                 Women: roles changed during
                     Women: inferior (marry in                                                                                                                            war - suffrage
                          teens) but role in religion
Science/Inventions   Medicine                             Printing press – Gutenberg        - (Muslims) Preserved past –          Many associated w/ Industrial        Mussolini – attempts to
                     Astronomy (Ptolemy)                      (1436): increased impact of   added to math and science             Revolution                             modernize Italy (brought
                     Engineering (Roman roads,                new ideas                     - Navigational tech                                                          medicine/tech to backward
                          aqueducts)                      1252: Gunpowder to Europe         - Scientific Revolution                                                      parts)
                     Philosophy                           -Muslims in Spain maintained
                     *slavery – applied sci behind            Greek/Roman learning
  Art/Architecture   Classical – pillars, arches          -Greek Orthodox Church:           - Exploration/colonization            Artists experimented with new        Media used for propaganda
                     - realistic human statues                Blend of Greek & Roman            ensured spread of culture             styles                           (e.g. for war) – Advertisements
                     - literature (Homer)                       elements                    - Renaissance (esp. Italy) -          New literary trends                  More new styles (cubism)
                     Rome borrowed from G                    Domes                          Humanism                               (Romanticism, realism)
                                                          Cathedrals – Romanesque,

     Empire          Alexander the Great                  - Byzantine                       - Greece/Rome essentially             Splitting into different             Spanish Civil War (training
                     Collapse of Roman                    - 800 CE Holy Roman Empire            forgotten                             countries (e.g. new nation          ground for new weapons) –
                          -split into east and west       starts in West                    - Weakening of Byzantine                  of Italy)                           not so directly involved in
                          - internal/external factors                                                                             Greece, Egypt launch                    WW
                     East Roman  Byzantine                                                                                           independence movements           No longer a unifying empire,
                       (Justianian reconquest of N.                                                                               Eastern Question – decline of           but separate countries
                       Africa, Italy, Spain coast)                                                                                    Ottoman                           – hard to make generalizations
    Religion         Originally polytheistic              Byzantine = Greek Orthodox        Spain –ties w/ Catholic church        Mostly continuities – e.g.           Now most of the area = Roman
                     - Constantine: Edict of Milan            Church                        Spanish Inquisition for heretics      Scientific Rev. challenged           Catholic, but some Eastern
                          (313 CE) legal status to        West = Roman Catholic Church      Protestant Reformation/               aspects of Roman Catholicism,        Churches (Orthodox, etc), some
                          Christianity                    (1054 Great Schism)               Catholic Reformation                  but people learned to be both        Sunni Muslim
                                                                 Regional Outline for Middle East

                           8000 – 600 CE                 600 – 1450 CE                   1450-1750 CE                     1750 – 1914 CE                        1914 - Present
     Politics        -city-state                    Caliphs                         Sultan                           -Ottoman decline                     -Turkish state
                      - controlled city and         -political unrest               -Provincial gov’t                 -centralized, but                   -Sultan kicked out
                     surrounding area               -succession                     -centralized power                 -not around economy                Ataturk- father of the Turks
                                                    Islam-Theocratic Rulers-
                                                    codified Islamic law

    Economy          Trade                          Participated in trade           -Initially dominated trade       -Trade still go on                   WWI- join central power (lost)
                     -great traders                 -Trans Sahara Trade             (beginning)                       -no longer dominant                 -“Attempted” Industrialization
                     -agricultural                  -Silk Road/Route                -Indian Ocean, African Coast     traders/master traders               -Iran, Iraq- Oil supply (econ
                                                    -Indian Ocean Trade                                                                                   based)

     Social          -Men work (more freedom)       Education- more opportunities   Harems established               Women                                Women
                     -Women confined to home        Women- married at puberty       -female slaves, women had        -stayed same, had some               -Even with pressure from West.
  Class/Gender       -Slavery (owned slaves)        - equal before Allah            some rights                      property rights                      Stayed same
                      -from E.Africa                                                Social Class: 1)Sultan 2)Gov’t   -not really property of men          -negative effect, treatments
                                                                                    Officials 3)Reg Officials        -hardly any rights                   -still had to wear the clothes to
                                                                                    4)General people (peasants,       -devalued                           cover the whole body
Science/Inventions   -Independent innovations       Mathematics                     Military Tech                    -Affected by western science         -Fall of USSR
                      -4000BCE Bronze, Copper       -Algebra, Geometry…etc          -canons, guns                     -overtaken (no longer                -start accepting west influence
                      -Wheel, irrigation canals     Science -Objective experiment   -advanced medically              dominant
                      -number system (from India,    -classification                 -Medicines                      -stayed isolated
                     improved)                       -navigation: astrolabe         -Science- navigation tools,
                     -Navigation tools               improved                       atstronomy
Art/Architecture     Architecture                   -Calligraphy, designs           -Mosques                         Arts                                 Arts
                     -Ziggurats                     -Minarets                       -Minarets                        -still had Mosques                   -still have, but not much
                      -glory of civilization        -Mosques                        -Mosaics                         -Minarets                            developments
                                                    -Literature                                                      -Mosaics                             improvements
                                                      -Poetic works: Arabian                                         -styles still there, but
                                                    Nights”                                                            -due to decline of empire,
                                                                                                                     corruption, little time for art
     Empire          Regional Kingdom               -Islamic                        Ottoman Empire                   “Sick man of Europe”                 Young Turks
                     -Babylonians                    -regular civil wars            -“Gunpowder Empire”              -decline of Ottoman Empire           -Secularization, sceiences
                     -Acadians…etc                   -1258 Mongols overran          -Safavid Persia                  -Balkans                             technology
                                                    Islamic empire                                                    -seeking independence               -Iran vs Iraq
                                                                                                                                                          -Turkey formed
    Religion         -Polytheistic                  Islam                           Islam                            Islam                                Islam
                      -Animistic                    -Suffi’s                        -divided                         -still the unifying force            -more focused on religion
                      -Many gods                    -respect for Jews/Christians     -Sunni vs. Shi’a                -tensions between Sunni vs.          -tried to become like before
                                                      -People of the book                                            Shi’a still occur
                                                                                                                     -still tolerant of other religions
                                                                                                                     to some extent
                                                          Regional Outline for ___United States___________
                                              8000 -1450 CE                                        1450-1750 CE                      1750 – 1914 CE                      1914 - Present
     Politics                                                                              -democrats imposed on citizens    1776- Declaration of                remained democracy
                                  -depending on regions (tribal societies)                 -men- allowed to vote, no         Independence                            -    1965- all women can
                      -different region had different way of controlling their people      suffrage rule yet                 -1787- Constitution (three                   vote
                                           -no central authority                           -John Locke- social contract      branches or checks and                  -    -richest nation with
                                                                                           inspired                          balance)                                     huge power
                                                                                           -“self-determination”             -democracy- unbalanced among            -    sphere of influences
                                                                                                                             genders for suffrage

    Economy                                                                                Columbian Exchange- new           -involved in trades                 WW2- rose to dominate world
                                   -pastoral/hunter gather societies- tribes               food source, animals, resources   -WW1- war creditors                 due to other countries were
                     - agriculture- have lots of great farmers, producing their regional   transferred between Europe and    -one of the top 5 trading empire    destroyed in the war
                                                    crops                                  Americas                          -benefit through colonization,      -highly industrialized
                                                                                           African Slave Trade- benefits     exploited natural resources         -earned a lot of profit with
                                                                                           US for its cheap labor                                                imports/exports

     Social                                                                                Women- inferior to men            Women’s reform- 1830s for           -patriarchal societies
                                                                                           -Enlightenment ideas-push for     family, divorce law                 -women have more job
  Class/Gender        -class determined by age (the oldest receive more respect and
                                                                                           freedoms/rights of women          Women’s sphere                      opportunity in the modern
                                                                                           -peasants, wealthy, nobility      Moving toward suffrage              period
                      -people who owed a lot of horses, equipments, crops, families
                                                                                                                             Class determined by races           -suffrage- given 1965
                                          -matrilineal societies
                                                                                                                             Huge middle class groups            -class determined by wealth

Science/Inventions                                                                         borrowed a lot from the           1800s- textile factory system       -more advance navy, militarily
                                                                                           Chinese, Arabs and Islamic        brought from Europe                 equipments, creators and
                                                                                           world                             Technological innovation-           producers of luxury products
                                                                                                                             spurred industrialization
                                    -develop own farming equipments

Art/Architecture                                                                           Borrowed ideas from various       influenced by European/ Asian       still borrowed ideas from
                                                                                           empires/countries such as         architecture-                       Europe artists/architects
                                                                                           Indian, Europeans, China etc…     Renaissance/Indian building
                                          - depending on regions
                                  - teepee, thatch roof house, huts etc…

     Empire                                                                                fragmented regions, no central    Monroe Doctrine 1823                Still a big empire
                                                                                           authority to rule and combine     -used British navy                        -    distributed products
                                                                                           all areas together yet            Spanish American Empire                        to earn
                                    No empire- series of tribe societies                                                     -controlled Philippine, Guar,             -    influenced on other
                                                                                                                             Puerto Rico                                    nations to invest in
                                                                                                                                                                       -    powerful
    Religion                                                                               Christianity                      Christianity dominated,             Christianity remained strong,
                                          -most were animist                                                                 some still polytheists, animists,   some minority – remained their
                                    -some don’t believe in god at all                                                        or secular                          own traditional religions
                                                           Regional Outline for the United States of America

                           8000 – 600 CE                   600 – 1450 CE                1450-1750 CE                 1750 – 1914 CE                    1914 - Present
     Politics        Decentralized tribes and        Decentralized tribes and     Exploration/Colonization by   Emergence of England as          Cold War (world =
                     villages led of chiefs          villages led of chiefs       mostly northern European      preeminent colonial              ideological battlefield b/w
                                                                                  nations (France, England,     powerAmerican                   USSR and US) ‘Police
                                                                                  Dutch)                        Revolution = 1776                officer/Peace negotiator of
                                                                                  -English colonial politics    (Confederation more             the world’
                                                                                  based on strong local         centralized presidential
                                                                                  government                    democracy) Civil War
    Economy          Highly localized agriculture    Even though less so          Incorporation into global     1800s = Initial                  Interwar Period = Great
                                                     economy is still rather      trading network Beginning     industrialization of textile    Depression
                                                     localized agriculture        of Columbian Exchange         full fledged industrialization   (protectionism)Rebuilding
                                                                                  (African slaves to southern   -Tech spurred improvement        after WWIIEconomic
                                                                                  plantation, etc)              of infra                         globalization
     Social          (Most likely) Patriarchal       Patriarchal                  Now, based on European        Racism among peoples,            Acceleration of women’s
  Class/Gender                                                                    social system: patriarchal    particularly toward African      rights (suffrage, divorce,
                                                                                                                Americans                        economic rights,
                                                                                                                -Industrialization =             Feminism) Greater civil
                                                                                                                women’s rights slowly ^          liberties (Civil Rights Movt)
Science/Inventions   For the most part, behind the   Still behind for the same    Huge one-way technological    Tech spurred improvement         Various tech that improved
                     rest of the world (Cause:       reasons (Some astrological   diffusion to Native           in infrastructure (rail)         econ; Military weaponry
                     geographical location =         technology diffused from     Americans from Europeans      -Industrialization = new         Physics (A-bomb)
                     independent invention)          Mesoamerica)                                               technology                       (Einstein), Rocketry (Space
                                                                                                                                                 race), Computer (Internet
Art/Architecture     Architecture: Crude, natural    Moundbuilders of North       European based art            American regionalism,            Architecture = steel 
                     materials for basic shelter     America (current day         (paintings, engravings) and   expressionalism (Hopper,         larger building
                     Art: If any, probably based     Mississippi area)            architecture                  Rockwell), and                   Art New, independent
                     on nature                                                                                  abstractionism (O’Keefe,         form of American writing,
                                                                                                                Dove, Burchefield)               movies, art, etc
     Empire          N/A                             N/A                          European colonial empires     Expansionist domestic            WWIWWII (expansion
                                                                                  (biggest = New England)       policy (expansion into           b/c of conflict w/
                                                                                                                West);Isolationist foreign       Axis)Cold War (world =
                                                                                                                policy(Hesitant to enter        ideological battlefield b/w
                                                                                                                WWI)Spanish Am.                 USSR and US) ‘Police
                                                                                                                War=the US Empire                officer/Peace negotiator of
                                                                                                                (Monroe Doctrine)                the world’
    Religion         Most likely, animism            Animism                      New religion/ religious       Christianity = prominent         Christianity still dominant
                                                                                  fervor (Pilgrims) /           religion Introduction of        Spread of other religions by
                                                                                  conversion (missionaries)     new religions/beliefs by         immigrants
                                                                                                                immigrants (Judaism)
Thematic Outlines
                                                                                  Demographic Shifts
Consider the Following: Disease, immigration – push/pull factors, attractive regions, infant mortality rates, life expectancy, diet, colonization, scientific advancements, war, forced
                                                                               servitude, urbanization

                             8000 – 600 CE                      600 – 1450 CE                      1450-1750 CE                      1750 – 1914 CE                      1914 - Present
    East Asia          1. Shang dynasty = Hwang He        1. Trade spread disease, black     1. Asia to Euro = yellow fever,    1. China = sweet potato.           1. Korea = highest population
                       – infanticide.                     plague.                            malaria, small pox.                2. Japan = improve in nutrition,   density.
                       2. Zhou Dynasty = feudal           2. Mongols facilitated trade.      2. Malaysia + Indo + Sing =        medical care, strain in natural    2. Jap = address pop increase
                       system.                            3. Vietnam = Champa Rice.          colonized.                         resources, industrialize, fewer    through birth control &
                       3. Qin: iron weapons               4. Japan = isolated, 4 main        3. Ming = brief exploration, but   people working in agriculture,     abortion.
                       4. Han = paper, sundials, ox-      islands.                           pull back = isolated.              national infrastructure.           3. Asia industrializes &
                       plow.                              5. Mongol tech: siege weapons      4. Qing/Manchu Dynasty             3. China = opium trade.            mechanizes.
                       5. Han Collapse: internal          = catapults, exploding balls.      5. Tokugawa Japan = united                                            4. Nagasaki & Hiroshima =
                                                          6. Ming = extensive agriculture.   Japan, pop growth, rain grain                                         bombed.
                                                          7. Tang/Song: junks,               production increase, urbanized,                                       5. Firebombings of Japanese
                                                          gunpowder, flying $, magnetic      quality weapons.                                                      cities.
                                                          compass, sternpost rudders.        6. Pop growth in China                                                6. Comfort women in Korea &
                                                                                                                                                                   7. Mao = kill many people.
                                                                                                                                                                   8. Great Leap Forward =
Western Europe         1. Mediterranean                   1. Growth of cities = pop          1. Syphilis                        1. Industrialization.              1. Spanish Flu = Global
                       2. Greece = city-states, have      increases.                         2. Growth of urban pop.            2. Famine = Ireland.               epidemic.
                       slaves, Persian War,               2. Specialization of labor.        3. China + Japan colonized.        3. Push = poverty.                 2. Guest workers = labor
                       Peloponnesian War.                 3. Dark Ages.                      4. Exploration, colonization,      4. Urbanization.                   shortages, seek workers from
                       3. Roman Republic: geography:      4. Feudalism – serfs = similar     imperialism.                       5. Live expectancy rose –          outside = low wages &
                       protected from northern            to slaves.                         5. Port: colonize Goa, Malacca,    improve medicine, Louis            discrimination.
                       invasion by land (Alps),           5. Few tech advances.              Sri Lanka.                         Pastuer Germ theory.               3. WWII = total war, civilians
                       conflict: Punic Wars – defeat in   6. Vikings = raided Europe.        6. Spain = Columbus.               6. Diet improve.                   as targets.
                       3rd one open Medit to Rome.                                           7. English fight wars with         7. Cholera + TB.                   4. Blitzkrieg.
                                                                                             Spain for territory.               8. Tenements = bad living          5. Poverty, shortage of food,
                                                                                             8. France = colonized India.       conditions.                        clothing.
                                                                                             9. Dutch = Indonesia, Africa       9. Major pollution.                6. Holocaust.
                                                                                             Cape Colony.                       10. Increase in pop = more         7. Welfare systems, econ
                                                                                             10. Extract natural resources.     food.                              prosperity, scientific +tech =
                                                                                             11. Colonize Americas.             11. Enclosure movement =           advance.
                                                                                             12. Spanish + Port = bring in      common area gone.                  8. Emphasize consumerism.
                                                                                             African Slaves to Americas.        12. New sources of energy =
                                                                                             13. Renaissance, Protestant        steam, petroleum.
                                                                                             Reformation, Scientific Rev,       13. New materials = steel.
                                                                                             enlightenment.                     14. Interchangeable parts.
                                                                                                                                15. Steam locomotive.
                                                                                                                                16. Birth of middle class.
Eastern Europe         4. Roman Empire: initially         1. Byzantine                       1.Trade with nomads of Central     1. Emancipation of serfs = but     1. Refugees = displaced during
                       empire expands, large              2. Coined $.                       Asia.                              still have to work on land to      WWII.
                       landowners use slaves, cities      3. Between medit and Black         2. Cossacks: recruited peasants.   pay off, so not really free.       2. Pull: Economy + politics =
                       overcrowded = displaced small      Seas.                              3. Russia = isolated from West,    2. Not industrializing.            repressive.
                       farms.                             4. Rise of towns, enclosure of     pushed eastward.                   3. Not borrowing from West         3. WWI = destruction of
                       5. Reliance on slavery = tech      open fields.                       4. Not part of Renaissance.        Euro = fairly isolated.            eastern Euro empires.
                       fall behind.                                                          5. Catherine the Great =                                              4. Communism.
                       6. Science: Pythagoras,                                               enforced serfdom.                                                     5. Political instability.
                       Hippocrates: Father of                                                                                                                      6. Russia lost Latvia, Lithuania,
                medicine.                                                                                                                                      Estonia, Poland.
                7. Movement of
                Huns+Germans – Great Age of
                8. Huns to Mongolia.
                9. Germans = along Roman
                10. Germanic peoples = defeat
                11. Rome Collapse = internal +

 South Asia     1. India: millet & barley.                                             1. Mughal India = Gunpowder        1. India = learn western value.      1. India & Pakistan = split =
                2. Indus Civ.                                                          Empire = use weapons to            2. Colonized.                        1000’s pep displaced.
                3. India tech: pi, zero, Arabic #                                      maintain regional power.           3. India: Brits = build roads &      2. Arab-Israeli War = hundreds
                system.                                                                2. Conflict between Hindus &       canals, urbanization increased.      of thousands of Palestinians.
                4. Aryan Invaders = base class                                         Muslims.                           4. Paving path toward                3. India Green Movement.
                on race.                                                               3. Decline of power =              independence = Indian National       4. Migration from South Asia
                5. Hinduism = caste system.                                            vulnerable to outside influence.   Congress.                            to Arab oil-producing nations.
                6. Indus Collapse: external.                                           4. Brit East India Company.

Latin America   1. Maize, beans, squash.            1. Aztecs = tribute empire =       1. Measles.                        1. Colonized = used as slaves.       1. Massive Urbanization.
                2. Mesoamerica + Andean             sacrifice people.                  2. Monoculture.                    2. Monoculture = destroy land.       2. Bad living + working
                South America = slavery.            2. Maya, Aztecs, Incas =           3. Domestication of animals.       3. Boundary = total disregard        conditions.
                                                    agricultural societies, peasants   4. Exploitation of natural         for societies that existed before.   3. Import Substitution.
                                                    + slaves.                          resources.                                                              4. Immigration w/in and to US
                                                    3. Maya: Pyramids, cotton +        5. Columbian exchange.                                                  – legal & illegal.
                                                    maize, ridged field system.        6. Pop increase.                                                        5. Pep live in shantytowns.
                                                    4. Aztec: Pyramids,                7. Horses = new method of                                               6. Settlements incorporated into
                                                    Chinampas, maize & beans,          labor.                                                                  city.
                                                    large urban capital.               8. Encomienda system = Am                                               7. Migration for employment.
                                                    5. Inca: communication through     Feudalism.                                                              8. Urbanized peasants = no
                                                    roads, terrace farming, animal     9. Food: squash, beans, corn,                                           access to industry.
                                                    husbandry.                         potatoes, cacao = population
                                                                                       10. Euro disease kill Ams.
                                                                                       11. Huge Estates = Haciendas.
Middle East     1. Mesopotamia                      1. Arabs = captured slaves &       1. Abbasid Caliphate = lose        1. Ottoman Empire = Middle           1. Forced migration due to
                                                    force into bondage.                power.                             Eastern Question.                    Peace of Paris – Turks to
                                                    2. Trade with Africa – Swahili     2. Gunpowder empires:              2. Want to keep stable or else       Turkey.
                                                    Coast.                             ottoman, safavid.                  will be chaos.                       2. Pop increase.
                                                                                       3. Influence Ren in Euro = go      3. Balkan Crisis.                    3. Ethnic divisions.
                                                                                       back to ideas of Greek and         4. Egypt + North Africa taken        4. Military coups.
                                                                                       Romans.                            from Ottoman Empire.                 5. Pop explosion.
                                                                                                                                                               6. Poverty.
                                                                                                                                                               7. Lack of fresh water.
 Africa         1. East Africa = 1st to migrate =   1. Bantu Migration – change        1. Atlantic slave trade = slaves   1. Islamic states of West Africa     1. Legacies of colonization.
                search for food. 2. Green           pop from hunter-gatherer to        taken from Africa = deplete        = keeps slaves.                      2. Civil wars between ethnic
                Sahara = dries up, seeds to         agricultural based.                population.                        2. End of Atlantic Slave Trade,      groups.
                forests.                            2. Farming + pastoralism,          2. Triangular Slave Trade –        but 2 mill still traded.             3. Population explosion.
                3. Plantains, beans, squash.        follow Congo river, spread         slaves from Af in Middle           3. Loss of pop from trade.           4. Low per capita income.
                4. Egypt = Nile River.              knowledge of iron-working.         Passage = many died, Euro give     4. Intro of guns = increase          5. Lack on capital for
                                                                                       guns to Af.                        likelihood of inter-tribal war.      infrastructure.
                                                                                     3. Euro & Africa in Columbian        5. Sierra Leone + Liberia = safe   6. Urbanization.
                                                                                     exchange= horses, pigs, goats,       haven for slaves.                  7. Huge debtloads.
                                                                                     chili peppers, sugar cane.           6. Cotton gin = need more
                                                                                     4. Africans = separated from         slaves to work.
                                                                                     families.                            7. Scramble for Africa.

                                                      1. Atlantic Slave Trade.       1. Rise of nation states = rivalry   1. Industrialization.              1. Immigration.
Major            Applies to all:                      2. Crusades = huge migration   between nations for territory.       2. End of Atlantic Slave trade.    2. Threat to environment =
Themes/Turning   1. Ice Age = big game gone &         of people.                     2. World Trade.                      3. Colonization.                   deforestation.
Points           usable land.                         3. Urban growth.               3. Columbian exchange –              4. Asians + Africans = provide     3. Global warming.
                 2. Alter skin color & Race type                                     disease = unintended part =          labor.                             4. Warfare: WWI WWII –
                 3. Environ = more suitable for                                      bubonic plague.                      5. New Birth rate patterns in      people=homeless, chemical
                 growing crops so settle down.                                       4. Growth of urban population        Western Euro.                      warfare.
                 4. Diet better                                                      == famine, enclosure                 6. Raw materials = depleting.      5. Terrorism.
                 5. 3 classical emps: pep live                                       movements.                           7. Increased pollution.            6. NGOs – Green Peace &
                 closely now & settle next to                                                                                                                WWF.
                 rivers.                                                                                                                                     7. Communication revolution =
                 6. Milder conditions, warmer                                                                                                                world closer together.
                 temps, higher ocean levels.                                                                                                                 8. Dictatorial regimes = killed
                 7. Foraging vs. Pastoral                                                                                                                    many people.
                 societies                                                                                                                                   9. Separation of ethnic groups.
                 8. Foraging = disease, famine,                                                                                                              10. Cold War: World = divided
                 natural disasters, no permanent                                                                                                             between US & USSR.
                 shelters, limit on how much                                                                                                                 11. Globalization: relocation to
                 land can feed                                                                                                                               new cities/countries, find
                 9. Pastoral: domesticate                                                                                                                    cheapest labor, lower wages,
                 animals, mountain regions,                                                                                                                  sudden unemployment.
                 insufficient rainfall, small scale                                                                                                          12. Xenaphobia.
                 10. Migratory vs. slash
                  and burn.
                 11. Irrigation
                 12. Fermentation of alcoholic
                 13. Create cities
                 14. Land = reconfigured to fit
                 needs of humans – divert water,
                 clear land for farming, roads
                 built, build monuments.
                 15. Religious diffusion.
                                                                  Thematic Outline for Gender Relations
Consider the Following: Inheritance, Infanticide, Rituals, Divorce, Marriage (Age), Suffrage, Leadership, Profession, Education, Religion (missionaries, deities, authority), Sexuality

                              8000 – 600 CE                   600 – 1450 CE                   1450-1750 CE                   1750 – 1914 CE                    1914 - Present
    East Asia           China- patriarchal society,      China- Had growing number       Japan- women live with          Women have little freedom,       Women able to gain
                        emperor can have more than       of infanticide if child was     increased restrictions on       society corrupted because of     prestigious jobs, although
                        1 wife.                          female. Males regarded as       daily lives, obey husband or    Opium Trade leads to war         remain inferior to men. Can
                        Matrilineal before Shang         lucky-Primo Geniture.           face death.                     with British Empire in           Divorce and marry again.
                        Dynasty.                         Wives and young girls had       Women educated at home.         Canton, Macau                    Expected to provide sons.
                                                         foot binding.                   Known as Warring Period
Western Europe          Rome-Pater Familias-             Patriarchal society but         Queen mothers ran royal         Industrial Revolution- Poor      Men and Women seem
                        Centered around eldest           women could get power if        house, kept relations with      women who had taken care         almost equal-voting rights,
                        Male. Women have                 were upper class aristocrats    foreign nations and             of home/worked in fields         job interviews, and day-to-
                        influence on family:             or monarchs/member of           controlled marriage alliance.   shifted to                       day rights. Can choose when
                        supervising family business      royal family.                   Exploration & colonization      factories/sweatshops. More       to get married and not
                        Greece-Patricians,                                               ensures spread of               and more children working        dependable on family to
                        Plebeians, Slaves-had say in                                     Spanish/Portuguese              now, people moving to            make choices. Well
                        religious rituals, married                                       language, culture,              cities, immigrants o US,         Educated- most prominent
                        early and virgin till marriage                                   Catholicism                     Australia                        place for women
Eastern Europe          NO INFORMATION                   Women treated as inferior to    Russia- nobles adopt            Emancipation of Serfs in         Women still subordinate to
                                                         men, but could have say in      Western European culture        1861 brings massive              men; however, both are
                                                         family life. Both men and       thru language (some spoke       changes; Russia modernizes,      required to work. Orthodox
                                                         women work, mostly              French) and dressing style,     but changed precedent of         Church doesn’t encourage
                                                         agricultural style. Serfdom=    but ordinary peoples remain     tsars because of unrest          divorce. Both males and
                                                         work for protection             the same.                       among lower class.               females educated.
   South Asia           Women gained little rights       Women remain subordinate        Mughal outlaw Sati,             British try to outlaw both       Still extremely patriarchal
                        as “needed supervision”          to men. Caste system            encourage widows to             Sati and Caste System, still     but women can work + have
                        from males                       decides each person’s place     remarry, Hindu-Muslim try       both illegally continued.        good jobs, expected to
                        Patriarchal- Sati                in society. Males educated if   for better relations.           Violence between Hindu           provide sons. Not as
                        Couldn’t own property            Brahmin, women not              Women=Aristocrats, able to      and Muslims also persist.        auspicious as male babies
                                                         educated, worked at home.       supply income (all castes)      Boys + few girls educated
 Latin America          No clear-cut indications;        Aztec/Inca ruled. Women         Changes brought by              Social inequalities persist in   Rise of Feminism, more
                        however, most likely             could become priestess or       Europeans, Coloumbian           spite of laws against it,        than just legal equality and
                        patriarchal society based on     work under the royal family.    Exchange, slavery               People of mixed race,            right to vote (cultural and
                        Latin American history.          Human Sacrifice common          encouraged, European            Indians, blacks victims of       economical), Cuban
                                                         for gods.                       disease diminish Aztec and      informal prejudice, slavery      government limits rights of
                                                                                         Incan culture and peoples.      continued into 19th Century      women: Communism
  Middle East           Men were hunters, women          Women initially able to         Harems-complex social           Merchants contribute to          Laws still very religious
                        were food gatherers. Ruled       conduct businesses and hold     network, originally non-        expanding economy based          (Shari a) but some women
                        by elite, rulers, priests, and   certain jobs (Mohammad’s        Islamic slaves/prisoners,       on trade with Europeans,         can have businesses, males
                        patriarchal society. Women       Wife), Women don’t need to      mothers had influence if son    South Asians and East            can have up to 4 wives if
                        can gain power in courts,        veil themselves, divorce is     represented in court-became     Asians                           they can provide substantial
                        priestesses, scribes, small      not tolerated                   members of sultan’s                                              lifestyle for each
                        business                                                         extended family
                                                                                   Global Trade/Interactions
Consider the Following: Major players, dominant vs. dominated regions, how goods traded, technological innovations, what was traded (disease, ideology, religion, materials), role of
                                                                 merchants, currency, routes, cultural exchange
                              8000 – 600 CE                   600 – 1450 CE                   1450-1750 CE                   1750 – 1914 CE                    1914 – Present
    East Asia           China: silk cloth; roads         China controlled east trading   China: many navigational        Opium Trade;1 China              Japanese silk exports
                        constructed; Han-Silk Road       zone; traded: silk,             inventions[sternpost rudder,    greatly benefits from trade;     reduce; rubber exports
                        trading increased; Iron Age;     porcelain,& paper, military     lanteen sails, astrolabe,       China opens up to Europe;        damaged; China prospered
                        modernized army (iron            tech, Buddhism, Islam,          magnetic compass]; relied       Japan industrializes;            during Global trade;
                        weapons, etc.); paper,           Christianity; Japan traded:     on regional trade; Japan:       Japanese ports open up           Vietnam: leading rice
                        accurate sun                     silver; China refocused on      prohibited foreign trade        (1854) b/c second Perry          exporter; Japan supplied
                        dials/calendars, use of          Indian Ocean trade in 15                                        expedition. Industrialization    food &raw materials, cars,
                        metals, ox-drawn plow.           century; expeditions by                                                                          electronics, etc; Korea:
                                                         Zheng He; junks; Mongols;                                                                        cheap textiles;, steel, cars;
                                                         Port of Canton;                                                                                  Taiwan: textiles; Singapore:
                                                                                                                                                          4 largest port.
Western Europe          Internal trade mostly; trade     Crusades; Hanseatic             Trade no longer land based      European dominance of the        Surrenders export
                        &cultural diffusion by boat;     League: trade monopoly          only; Hanseatic League;         world; seized trading            dominance to US/Japan
                        wine and olive products for      established; begins to trade    European exploration and        networks from local/regional     (WWI); Common Market;
                        grain in Greece; barter          with Islamic world;             colonization; new               control.                         US: huge exports; creditor
                        system replaced w/ money                                         navigational technology                                          nation; food, wheat, corn,
                        system;Hellenism; roman                                          utilized for voyages; British                                    fast food; NAFTA;
                        culture spread; rds.                                             East India Company; stole                                        advertising= diffusion of
                        connected to silk rd.                                            info. From                                                       products and culture;
                                                                                         Spanish/portuguese                                               development of economic
Eastern Europe          not much contact with the        Hanseatic League: trade         Russia: forced to establish     Exported grain to Europe for     Still agricultural & exports to
                        outside world; traded very       monopoly established;           agencies in Moscow/St.          western machinery; # 4 in        W. Europe; COMECON;
                        little                           Mongol Empires; crossroads      Pete; traded primarily with     steel production;                industrialization; cut off from
                                                         of Europe and Asia; didn’t      nomads of central asia;                                          world trade because refusal
                                                         have much interest in           Ottoman Empire: European                                         to join “Bretton Woods
                                                         Western goods;                  traders formed colonies with                                     System”;
                                                                                         Constantinople; dismissed
                                                                                         western tech and trade.
   South Asia           Indian Ocean Trade;              Indian kingdoms controlled      India encouraged to trade       Exclusive trade over India       SW Asia joins in int’l drug
                        Mauryans: promoted trade;        Middle trading zone; ports in   with West but was more          with British East India          trade; cheap textiles; exports
                        rds. connected w/ Silk Rd.;      India; trades: gems,            preoccupied with imperial       Company; increase of             clothing; became world’s
                        Buddhist missionaries sent       elephants, salt, cotton cloth   expansion.                      urbanization due to British      largest democracy
                        out; Guptas: “Arabic” #          & cinnamon                                                      colonialism; roads and
                        system, inoculation of                                                                           canals built in; raw materials
                        smallpox, sterilization during                                                                   exported to Britain, finished
                        surgery, astronomy.                                                                              materials imported back to
 Latin America          Didn’t trade much yet.           Lots of roads; didn’t really    Exploration of Portugal;        LA trade increased               Great Depression kills export
                                                         trade.                          Spain headed West-              significantly; sugar, cotton,    economy; US=Cuba’s
                                                                                         Columbus’s voyage;              cacao plantations, beef          leading trade partner ‘til
                                                                                         Reconquista delayed             exports-refrigerated boxcars;    1959; Columbia: int’l drug
                                                                                         Spanish exploration; Vasco      used for natural resources.      exchange; Brazil: exotic
                                                                                         de Gama, Dias, Ferdinand                                         woods; Mexico: oil;
                                                                                         Magellan; haciendas formed;                                      Venezuela: member of
 Middle East     Great traders in               Arabs dominated trade;         Colonies formed here by         Trade with Islamic world         Oil; westernization; ASEAN
                 Mesopotamia; traded with       controlled western trading     western Europe. Traded with     decreased; dependent on         ; joins int’l drug trade;
                 Egypt some; Silk Road          zone; traded: textiles,        West but more interested in     European imports; discovery     migration;
                 Trade; trans-Saharan trade;    carpets, glass & Arabian       expanding empire;               of oil gains lots of money.
                 adopted Sumerian beliefs;      horses; Crusades; Trans-
                                                Saharan trade routes; Islam
                                                spread; Mongols;
    Africa       East Africa linked to          Trans-Saharan trade routes;    Internal Africa not explored,   Trans-Atlantic slave trade      After WWI no money to
                 Southern China through         salt, gold, honey, slaves,     Europeans too scared.           ended but slavery still         purchase industrial goods,
                 Indian Ocean Trade; Trans-     ivory (exports); copper,                                       continued illegally; coastal    S. African miners prosper
                 Saharan Trade: use of          horses, textiles, figs, iron                                   regions important for limited   from gold mines; after WWII
                 camel/camel saddle;            (imports);                                                     trade: stopping points for      rely on sales of cash
                 exchange of salt and palm                                                                     merchant ships; center for      crops/minerals; Niger: oil
                 oil; N. Africa supplied Rome                                                                  slave trade; established        producer, member of OPEC;
                 with olives, wheat, and wild                                                                  outposts, naval bases and       exports native arts
                 animals; Egyptian culture                                                                     small colonies; diamond
                 spread.                                                                                       deposits; exported cotton to

    Major        Silk Road; Iron Age            Silk Road connected            Silk Road connected             End of trans-Atlantic slave     WWI & WWII; Great
                                                everyone; east to west         everyone; east to west          trade; industrial revolution;   Depression; globalization;
Themes/Turning                                  (1200-1600); Crusades;         (1200-1600); Renaissance;       European dominance of
    Points                                      Mongols; Indian Ocean          gunpowder; European             world; communication and
                                                trade; Trans-Saharan trade;    colonization and exploration;   transportation revolution.
                                                Marco Polo; Global Trade       Commercial Revolution;
                                                Network; Rise of Islam         Atlantic Slave Trade; ships
                                                                               used for trade; Crusades
 Consider the Following: Polytheism (pantheon) vs. monotheism, enumerated laws, relation to state (theocracy), gender roles, missionaries, major ideologies, schisms, syncretism,
                                                            economic interests, persecution of minority religions

                            8000 – 600 CE                   600 – 1450 CE                      1450-1750 CE                      1750 – 1914 CE                     1914 - Present
   East Asia           Ancestor worship (China,       Neo-Confucianism                   Influence of Buddhism-             Christianity Japan                Both open up
                       Japan)                         Daoism, Confucianism,              Samurais detachment from           Agnostics- believe in god but     Atheism- no god in China
                       Spirits of nature (China)      Legalism= philosophies/semi        pain.                             no religion.                      Shintoism, sects of Buddhism,
                       Confucianism, Daoism,          religion                           Neo Confucianism                   Global                            and some belief of
                       Legalism.                      Ancestor worship                  Religion through trade.            State sponsored religion-         Confucianism (a combination
                       women treated as subservient   Leaders- Mandate of Heaven         Women increased restrictions,      Shintoism                        of all)
                       (food binding)                 Foot binding less due to silk      lower class better
Western Europe         Polytheism- many gods          Christianity spread- Crusades      Reformation- split in church       Persecute Judaism- (later Nazi)   Christianity
                       Animism- believe in animals    Theocratic                         Protestant, Catholic                                                Influx of Muslim
                       Monotheism- single god         Church powerful economic           Enlightenment                      Increasing beliefs in deism and   Freedom of religion
                       Christianity, Judaism          entity(no tax)                     Scientific revolution- less        Atheism – due to
                                                                                         religious, secular                 Enlightenment and affects of
                                                                                         Inquisition-kill heretics          Bubonic Plague
                                                                                                                            Protestant (counter-
                                                                                                                            Strong revival in Roman
                                                                                                                            Catholicism (counter-
Eastern Europe         Animism                        Some influence of Islam – due      Orthodox Christianity Tsar         Continued strong belief in        1917-1991- Atheism
                       Christianity- monotheism       to Mongol influence                supported by Church                Orthodox Christianity             Christian revival
                       Judaism- monotheism            Christianity (Tsar)                Ortho- right correct dox-          Persecute Jews- pogroms           More freedom in religions
                                                      Orthodox Christianity              thinking, Third Rome                                                 Still strong belief in Orthodox
                                                                                         Women- dressed like Western                                          Christianity
                                                                                                                                                             Existing influence of Islam
  South Asia           Animism                        Ashoka-Buddhism, classical-        Gupta-caste system, Hinduism       Islam continues to grow           Second largest Muslim nation
                       Spirits of nature              religion flourished                Classical-religion flourished      British colonization affects      Hinduism main
                       Caste system- through          Subverted caste system-            Islam-major force                  religion, Christianity            India split, Pakistan and India
                       Hinduism                       Brahmans angry                     Out law sati, female aristocrats
                       Codified laws

Latin America          Animism                        Native American religious          Missionary dominant force to       Christianity dominant             Christianity- limited role
                       Polytheism                     Sun god- sacrifice                 conversion                         Less of traditional gods.         (however, strong legacy of
                                                      Losers of the battle sacrificed    African belief systems (due to     Restricted religion               Christianity behind)
                                                      to the Gods.                       slave trade) Christianity-
 Middle East           Polytheistic                   Greater women’s right              Conservative movements             Ottoman Empire                    Persecution of Jews
                                                      (Muhammad’s wife higher)           Gunpowder nations - Ottoman        Islam                             Majority Islam – Sunnis vs.
                                                      Islam- submission                  Empire- tolerant of non-           Secularized- scientific           Shiites
                                                      Acceptance of people of the        Muslims.                           knowledge instead of clergy
                                                      book                               Govern variety – Orthodox,         complaints
                                                      (Christianity, Judaism)            Nestorian, Coptic, Catholic,       Tanzimat reforms- religious
                                                      Allow converts (Malawi)            Protestant , Sunnis, Shiites       tolerance, schools for women
                                                      Ulama- fundamentalist              Harems
                                                      Sharia- Islamic laws, veiling
    Major        Nation-states- need for         Spanish-Christianity            Schism- great split Orthodox   Colonization        Globalization
                 organized religion              Mohammed                        and Catholic                   Missionaries        Flat world
Themes/Turning   Something to hold them          Spread of trade                 Reformation-protestant and     Secular             Technology- internet
    Points       together.                       Persian Ulama- conservative     Catholic                       Industrialization
                 Islam- Arabs held by religion   back lash                       Against catholic abuse-        More trade
                                                 Spread of trade (Mongol, silk   intellectual movements
                                                 road)                           Atlantic trade

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